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his royal guest. One day the king came unexpectedly to Chelsea, and dined with him, and after dinner walked in the garden for an hour, holding his arm about his neck. As soon as his majesty was gone, Sir Thomas's son-in-law observed to him, how happy he must be, as the king had treated him with a familiarity he had never used to any person before, except Cardinal Wolsey, with whom he once saw King Henry walk arm in arm. "Yes," answered Sir Thomas, " I find his grace, my very good lord indeed; and I believe he doth as singularly love me, as any subject within, his realm: however, Son Roper, I may tell thee, I have no cause to be proud thereof, for if my head would win him a castle in France, it would not fail to go off."
Though the measure of Henry's divorce from Catherine of Arragon, so hotly urged by the haughty aud overbearing monarch, did not meet with More's approval, he was intrusted with the office of Chancellor in 1530, a situation on which he entered with a full apprehension of its danger, as he could not be won over to sanction the coronation of Anne Boleyn. Sir Thomas resigned the great seal in 1533, and resolved never again to engage in public business. He passed his time at Chelsea, in study and devotion, not without some presentiments of the storm which was fast gathering over his head. He had by an honest objection, effectually awakened the serpent in the bosom of his tyrant master, and nothing but his blood would satisfy that vindictive spirit. Other charges of treason which were brought against him having failed, the Act of Supremacy was the net in which he was at last caught. Having refused to take the oath of the king's supremacy, he was put into custody, and on a second refusal, four days afterwards, was committed a prisoner to the Tower of London. It was now that More had an opportunity of proving to his enemies, how little power they had over him, and how much at ease he could sport even with the actual execution of their vengeance. He entered the solitary prison, as if retiring to his home, and conversed with the same tone of pleasantry which he used to maintain among his domestic circle. The lieutenant of the Tower, who had formerly received kindnesses from him, began to apologize for the wretched accommodation with which the dread of the king's displeasure obliged him to receive his old benefactor. '• Mr. Lieutenant," said he, interrupting him, "whenever I find fault with the entertainment you provide for me, do you turn me out of doors'"
After lying fifteen months in prison, he was arraigned, tried, and found guilty, for denying the king's supremacy; and, accordingly, condemned to be hung, drawn and quartered, and his head to be stuck on a pole on London bridge. But this ignominious sentence was changed into that of mere beheading, which was executed July 6th, 1535, on Tower Hill. As he passed along to the place of execution, the feelings of the spectators were expressed by silence and tears. That gaiety of spirit, and innonocent cheerfulness, which were so conspicuous in his life, did not forsake him in his last moments. If it be said, that he displayed too much lightness for the occasion, we must remember, that what was a mournful solemnity to the spectators, was to him a matter of joy. And Addison says, " What was philosophy in this extraordinary man, would be frenzy in one, who does not resemble him as well in the cheerfulness of his temper, as in the sanctity of his life and manners." His body was buried in Chelsea church; his head, owing to the dutiful care of his bereaved daughter, Margaret, was placed in a vault in St. Dunstan's church, Canterbury.
We are indebted for the principal materials of this paper, to Mr. Faulkner's History of Chelsea: but we cannot quit the subject, (particularly as our memoir of Sir Thomas More has been introduced by a reference to his mansion at Chelsea,) without noticing, as a fact, we believe, not generally known, that his great name is curiously connected with Crosby Hall.. Mr. E. L. Blackburn, architect, in his recent wellwritten Account of Crosby Place, Bishopsgate, London, has shown that this antique mansion was once occupied by Sir Thomas More. "Between 1507, and 1523," says Mr. Blackburn, "Crosby Place had devolved to John Best, Alderman of London, and from him by purchase, to Sir Thomas More, Under Treasurer of England, and afterwards, Lord High Chancellor, who, on the 20th of January in that year, sold all his remaining term, or interest in the lease, to one Antonio Bonvisi, merchant of Lucca*. Thi« connexion with the memory of one of the greatest men our country has produced, gives a fresh degree of interest to Crosby Hall; and it may induce some persons to assist in preserving that venerable and beautiful structure, the palace of Richard the Third, and the residence of the learned and amiable Sir Thomas More. There is reason to believe that in a few years every vestige of Crosby Hall would have been swept away, and the ground occupied by modern houses, had it toot been for the zealous exertions of a few neighbouring families. Aud though the admirers of "these ancient ruins" have now the pleasure of observing the gradual restoration of the fabric, they find it necessary to excite others, by subscriptions, to help them in the work.
THE MODE BY WHICH LONDON IS
The supplying of a large city with some, of even trivial luxuries, is often a curious operation, and of great importance to a number of persons, to whom it affords employment and subsistence. There are not many of the inhabitants of London, who do not every summer partake of the delicious Strawberries, with which it is so abundantly and so cheaply supplied. Yet few of them, when they have before them a small portion of that fruit, are aware that some hundreds of persons derive their livelihood, during the time they are in season, from the various operations which the supplying London with theiu occasions. It may not, therefore, be uninteresting, to take a view of the mode in, which that city is supplied with Strawberries.
Most of the Strawberries consumed in the metropolis are grown within ten miles of it, and by far the greatest number of Strawberry-gardens are on, its western side. The chief places at which they are situated are Isleworth, Brentford, Ealing, Hammersmith, Fulham, Deptford, Mortlake, Hackney, and Camberwell. The extent of land cultivated for; Strawberries has been much increased within a few years, and has been estimated at more than a thousand acres for the supply of London alone. The greatest number of persons who derive employment in producing Strawberries for the markets are females, with the exception of those who dress the ground on which they grow. In the season in which Strawberries are ripe, which is usually the end of May, the women who gather the fruit, assemble in. the Strawberry-garden, in the morning, as soon as it is light, which at that time of year is between three and four o'clock, and commence plucking the fruit. The best fruit, which is gathered earliest in the
* In one of the plates in the book, is a fac-simile of Sin 1 uuii.\» -Mor.ii'i signature, from the deed of purchase.
morning, is taken to the packing-room and carefully put in pottle-baskets; fifty or sixty of these are placed iu a large basket, and before seven o'clock in the morning, a number of women are despatched to the metropolis, each with one of these larger baskets, which she carries on the top of her head, with only a small cushion to make the pressure of the weight equal over the upper surface of the head. The weight of the baskets and fruit is from thirty to forty pounds, and sometimes even more.
A party of these carriers then set off with their burdens, walking at a quick pace, and occasionally running, so that they generally accomplish five miles in an hour during their journey. And it is pleasing to observe with what skill and address, from habit, they manage their head-loads, (as they are called,) seldom having occasion to hold them with their hands. The burden being placed at the top of the head, makes it necessary for the carriers to keep a very upright posture in walking, so much so, that young persons, in higher ranks of life, have been corrected of a bad habit of stooping, by being made to walk with a small weight on their heads, without being allowed to touch it with their hands, in imitation of these poor women. When men occasionally carry the fruit, they have a shoulder-knot, similar to those used by porters, so that part of the weight rests on the shoulder, and part on the head, but by this mode of conveyance the fruit is generally more injured than when carried by women.
The carriers arrive at the principal fruiterers' in London, _ early enough for their customers . to be supplied with fruit gathered the same morning. The same women, sometimes, proceed with a second load to London, even when the strawberry-ground is situated seven or eight miles from the fruiterers'. The employment of females as carriers of fruit, is, within the last three or four years greatly diminished, by some of the largest strawberry-growers having established light kinds of cars, hung on very pliable springs, like those used for coaches, and drawn by a quick-paced horse • one of these cars carries about twenty baskets, each of which would be a load for a woman. Though this mode is a considerable saving of expense, yet it does not convey the fruit in such perfection as when carried on the head. The fruit not sent by these two methods, is conveyed in carts with springs, during the night, to London, for the early markets, which commence at day-break, and is sold wholesale by the gardeners, to the various retailers of fruit.
Connected with the supplying of strawberries to the metropolis, is a very ingenious manufacture, that of pottle-baskets, these are made by women and children. The women prepare the wood by steeping it in water, and splitting it, according to the parts of the basket it is designed to form. Then the most skilful arrange the slips of wood, which form the upright supports of the basket, and fix them in their place by weaving the bottom part; the sides are woven by children with pliable strips of wood, and the top is bound over by the more accustomed workwomen. If any of our readers will take the pains to examine one of these baskets, they will feel surprised, that it has passed through several hands in making, and the wood been purchased and prepared, and yet that it is still supplied to the gardener, at the rate of about six-pence the dozen. The baskets are formed of the wood of the fir or willow tree, the latter is the best. The manufacture of them is carried on by the poor at their own homes, in the towns near the strawberry-gardens, particularly at Brentford.
The women employed in gathering and conveying strawberries to London, cannot be estimated at less, during the time they are in season, than two thousand persons. Part of these are the inhabitants of the adjacent towns, but a great number of them, are young women, who migrate annually from Worcestershire, Shropshire, and Wales, and after the strawberries, raspberries, currants, and gooseberries are passed, return to the country in time to assist at the harvest, having usually, during their migration, saved enough to buy a good stock of clothes, and to lay by some money towards their support during the following winter. They are, in general, very industrious, neat, and well-conducted in their behaviour.
WITH SOME ACCOUNT OP THE SALT LAKE AT LOONAR, IN THE EAST INDIES.
It was natural to suppose, that a substance so necessary to the comfort of mankind as Salt, would be found liberally provided, and widely distributed over the surface of the earth; and in reality, nothing with which we are acquainted, if we except the air we breathe, is more easily placed within our reach. The ocean, with which nearly four-fifths of the surface of the Globe is covered, is an exhaustless storehouse of this valuable condiment; but in addition to this, those inhabitants of the earth, who are placed at a distance from the sea, find their country studded with magazines of salt, either in solid masses, or dissolved in water in inland lakes, or gushing from the solid rocks in springs of brine.
The means employed for extracting the salt from the water vary according to circumstances. In hot countries, such as Spain, &c, the sea-water is merely exposed to the action of the sun, until the water has evaporated, and the salt procured by this means is considered far superior to every other kind, for the purpose of preserving animal food: it is called baysalt. In climates such as England, where the rays of the sun are not sufficiently powerful, the sea-water, which has been partially evaporated in large shallow reservoirs formed in the earth, called salt-pans, ia poured into enormous coppers, and boiled for the space of four or five hours: during the process of boiling, a large quantity of bullocks' blood is stirred into the liquid; this, as it rises to the surface, brings with it all the impurities: it is then scummed off, and the remaining liquid is found to be beautifully clear and transparent. The process of boiling has, of course, reduced the contents of the copper to at least one half, and the liquid begins to crystallize; the vessel is again filled up, and the brine again boiled and clarified: this is repeated three or four times. After this the fire is damped, and kept very low for twelve or fourteen hours; by this time, nearly the whole of the moisture has evaporated, and the salt is removed, and after the superfluous brine has drained, is placed in the store-houses.
Several of the uses to which salt is applied, are well known to all; particularly its power of preserving meat from putrefaction, and its rendering palatable many otherwise insipid kinds of food; but other purposes to which it is applied, are not, perhaps, so well known.
The ancient inhabitants of several parts of Africa and Arabia, employed large slabs of the rock-salt, with which their country abounds, instead of stones, iu the building of their dwellings, and these pieces were easily cemented together, by merely sprinkling the joints with water, which dissolving part of the two surfaces that opposed each other, formed the whole, when dry, into one solid block.
Chemistry has, by its wonderful powers, employed salt in the production of a great variety of useful, and apparently, dissimilar substances: among these, we may notice, Glass, Bleaching- powder, Sal-ammoniac, Muriatic Acid, Epsom and Glauber's Salts, Barilla, and patent Yellow Glazing for earthenware, which are all composed in a greater or less degree of this useful mineral; it is also used in some places
we approached a low and lengthened mound, the summit of which having been attained, a most romantic and interesting spectacle was presented to us. Beneath our feet, and at the bottom of a mighty chasm, lay a deep, still lake, the waters of which were slightly ruffled by the breeze, and beautifully tinted by the rays of the setting sun; it was of a circular form, and hemmed in by an amphitheatre of cliffs, which rose in precipitous ridges to an elevation of 500 feet from its shores, environing it on every side, and preventing completely the egress of its waters. The rocks which surround this interesting piece of water, cannot come under the denomination of hills, for they do not, in any part, tower above the level of the surrounding country; they merely form the sides of an immense caldron, the circumference of which is about five miles. A solitary spring, of some magnitude, dashes in a small cascade from the eastern face of the rocks, and pours its waters into an artificial stone-tank, surrounded by temples and pagodas, dedicated to the god Siva, issuing from which it forms another cataract, of about fifty feet in height, before it rushes on its turbid course to join the waters of the lake.
"The whole landscape, though confused,is extremely pleasing. The dark-green surface of these sunken waters, strongly reflects the graceful forms of the princely fan-leaved palms, which fringe the margin, and advance their lofty stems over the waters of the lake. The sloping enclosure of rocks is covered halfway up with mango and tamarind trees, interspersed with the laurel-leaved rhododendron, which here attains a height of ten feet. A little picturesque temple, on the opposite side of the lake from the fountain, advances its white walls to the brink. It is seldom or never visited by the inhabitants of the neighbouring village, from the dread of tigers which inhabit the jungle around it, which also forms a shelter for numerous herds of sambers, or neel-gaes. The audacity of our small party in tasting the waters of the lake, was looked upon by the villagers as the grossest presumption and fool-hardiness. The weather-worn appearance of the buildings around the spring, sufficiently indicates that it has long been the seat of Hindoo worship. At this time, however, the small stone-tank exhibited a lively and interesting
as a manure, and in the feeding of cattle and horses.
Annexed is an engraving of a famous Salt-Lake in the interior of Hindostan, which is copied from the eleventh volume of the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal; the drawing and description of which were communicated by I. E. Alexander, Esq., an officer in the East IndiaCom pany's service. After describing the commencement of his journey, he says, "Upon emerging from the shaded and gently-ascending path, along which our road lay,
sight; crowds of Mahratta women were employed in washing their clothes, lightening their labour with singing, whilst a solitary and aged Brahmin poured his evening libation on the uncouth statue of the god. "About six years ago, before the commencement of the late Mahratta war, the annual revenue which arose from the collection of the saline crust on the margin of the lake, amounted to three lacs of rupees; since then, however, owing to neglect, the water from the mountains has so nearly filled the lake, as to leave but a small portion of the margin dry, even in the summer time, and the inhabitants have never resorted to any artificial means of extracting the salt from the water."
I Was lately exceedingly pleased in witnessing the maternal care and intelligence of a bird of the parus tribe; for the poor thing had its young ones in the hole of a wall, and the nest had been nearly all drawn out of the crevice by the paw of a cat, and part of its brood devoured. In revisiting its family, the bird discovered a portion of it remaining, though wrapped up and hidden in the tangled moss and feathers of their bed, and it then drew the whole of the nest back into the place from whence it had been taken, unrolled and resettled the remaining little ones, fed them with the usual attentions, and finally succeeded in rearing them. The parents of even this reduced family, laboured with great perseverance to supply its wants, one or the other of them bringing a grub, caterpillar, or some insect, at intervals of less than a minute through the day, and probably in the earlier part of the morning more frequently; but if we allow that they brought food to the hole every minute for fourteen hours, and provided for their own wants also; it will admit of perhaps a thousand grubs a day for the requirements of one, and that a diminished brood; and give us some comprehension of the infinite number requisite for the summer nutriment of our soft-billed birds, and the great distances gone over by such as have young ones, in their numerous trips from hedge to tree, in the hours specified, when they have full broods to support. A climate of moisture and temperature like ours is peculiarly favourable for the production of insect food, which would in some seasons be particularly injurious were we not visited by such numbers of active little friends to consume it. Journal of a Naturalist.
PlTRLUHXD IN VFKKLY NtTMBKRl, PRICE Oni PENNY, AND IK MONTHLY 1'aktr.
Price Sixpence, And
UNDER THE DIRECTION OK THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION, APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.
THE ANCHOVY FISHERY.
.in a former paper* on the Pilchard, and the Fisheries of Cornwall, we described the mode of taking the.Pilchards, and of preparing them for the home and foreign markets. The present paper is devoted to a similar account of the Anchovy, and of the trade in Anchovies as carried Oh in Sicily, and some other parts of Europe.
The Anchovy is one of that valuable tribe of fishes resembling the Herring. Herrings and Pilchards are more numerous; but Anchovies, though smaller, are, weight for weight, more valuable in commerce than either of them, on account of the great quantities that are consumed in the preparation of "Anchovy Sauce."
The Anchovy, (Engraulii encraticholus.)
In the Mediterranean the Anchovy is chiefly taken at night; a large fire is lighted on a raft, which attracts the fish, who are then surrounded with a net, and captured in considerable numbers. The greatest portion are salted on the spot. The head is first cut off and the entrails removed; they are then washed and laid in rows in barrels, with salt between each' row. In Provence they think it essential to the preservation of the fish, that the salt should be of a red colour, and oh that account they add Armenian bole, or some other ochreous earth. They never change the brine which is formed in the barrels, but merely supply the waste that has taken place from evaporation. In the north of France the salt is Hot coloured, and the brine is changed several times; the fish treated in this manner remain good for a greater length of time, but they are not considered so finely flavoured as the others. The head also is not removed.
It is commonly supposed that the bones of the Anchovy Will dissolve in boiling water; but the fact is, that the bones are only separated, and, being very small, are not readily detected.
The Ahchovy is caught in the months of May, June, and July, on the coasts of Catalonia, Provence, &c, but the great fishery is at Gorgona, a small island west of Leghorn, at which season these fish constantly repair up the straits of Gibraltar into the Mediterranean, where they are taken in large quantities. Near a Century ago this fish was found at the mouth of the river Dee, by Mr. Ray, but since that time it has been very rarely met with on our coasts.
The following account of the mode of preparing the Anchovy, and the Engraving illustrating it, are extracted from the splendid French work entitled the Voyage Pittoresque dans les lies de Sicilie.
"On the return of the fishers With the Anchovies, the fish are first thrown into large vessels of brine, to preserve them until there is leisure to salt them. When withdrawn from this brine, two men, seated on barrels, nip off the head of each fish with the thumb-nail, and place the fish in a heap by their side; a third man, seated by the side of an enormous heap of salt, amid numerous barrels, first places a layer of salt at the bottom of the barrel; he then, with both hands, takes up a quantity of the headless fish, throws them into the barrel, and arranges them with his fingers with great quickness and dexterity. In this maimer they are rapidly ranged side by side, without the loss
• See Saturday Magaim, Vol. III., p. 217,
of the smallest space; and the workman continues first placing a layer of salt, and then one of fish, till the barrel is full. The board intended for the head of the barrel is then laid on the top and loaded with stone. In a few days the fish are sufficiently salted, and, the barrel being fastened down, are fit for the market."
The sauce prepared from the Anchovy is well known to all the lovers of fish; but a great portion of that brought into the market, and sold under the name of Essence of Anchovies, is made from other species of the same tribe of fish. That which most nearly resembles the real Essence, is prepared from the little fish called Whitebait, (Chtpea latulus of Cuvier,) which is taken in the River Thames in great quantities, during the summer months. The brine in which the White, or Dutch-Herrings are preserved, is also used in these spurious imitations of the genuine article. The mode of preparing the Essence of Anchovies, of course, diners according to the skill or whim of the manufacturer; we here give the recipe of the late Dr. Kitchener, famous in matters of this kind, for preparing what he,calls Quintessence of Anchovy.
"The goodness of this preparation depends almost entirely on having fine mellow fish, that have been in pickle long enough, that is twelve months, to dissolve easily, yet are not at all rusty. Choose those that are in the state they come over in, not such as have been put into fresh pickle mixed with red paint, which some add to improve the complexion of the fish. Put ten or twelve Anchovies into a mortar, and pound them to a pulp; put these into a very clean iron, or silver, or very well tinned saucepan, then put a large table-spoonful of cold spring-water (we prefer good vinegar), into the mortar, shake it round, and pour it to the pounded anchovies, jet them by the side of a slow fire, very frequently stirring "them together till they are melted, which they will be in the course of five minutes; now stir in a quarter of a drachm of good Cayenne pepper, and let it remain by the side of the fire for a few minutes longer; then, while it is warm, rub it through a hair sieve with the back of a wooden spoon.— This description is concluded with the observation.—" Mem. —You cannot make Essence of Anchovy half so cheap as you can buy it."
Although the Anchovy is not consumed in England as an article of food, but merely as a sauce, the quantity imported is sufficiently large to produce, in Custom Duties, a revenue of nearly £1500 a year.
ON WILLS. No. II.
Wills Of Personal Property.
§ 1. Who may make Wills of Personal Property.
There are four classes of persons who are unable to make Wills: first, convicted Traitors or Felons; secondly, Lunatics or Idiots; thirdly, Children; and fourthly, Married Women. Except these, all persons whatever, whether natives or foreigners, may dispose of their property by Will.
I. A convicted Traitor or Felon, is a person who has been found guilty of treason; or of murder, robbery, or some other of the crimes which the law calls felonies. Such a person can make no Will, because he has nothing to bequeath; all his propertyhaving become forfeit to the king. Suicide, when committed by a man in his senses, is a felony, and the individual is called a. felo-de-se: such a man's Will, therefore, is void, and his property forfeited; which is one reason why a coroner's inquest is anxious, if possible, to bring in a verdict of insanity, lest the family of the unhappy man should be left destitute.
II. Lunatics and Idiots are of course unable to make a Will, because they are unable to do any act for which sane reason is required. But, for the