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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION, APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

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THE SHIPWRECK OF THE ALCESTE. -'■■ The circumstances attendant on the loss of his Majesty's ship Alceste, to which we recently* alluded, in concluding our account of the fearful shipwreck of the French frigate Medusa, afford one of the most beautiful and instructive examples, not only of the good effects resulting from a well-regulated system of discipline, but of the manly character of British seamen, which has been recorded in naval history.

Early in the year 1816, in consequence of the difficulties thrown in the way of our commerce with China, by the authorities at Canton, it was resolved by the British Government to send out an extraordinary embassy to the Court of Pekin. On the 9th of February, Lord Amherst, w ho was appointed to conduct what has well been termed this difficult and delicate mission, embarked at Portsmouth, with a numerous suite, on board the Alceste, a frigate of forty-six guns, commanded by Captain, afterwards Sir Murray, Maxwell. This vessel was accompanied by the brig Ijyra, commanded by Captain Basil Hall, and the General Hewitt, Indiaman, which carried out many very valuable presents for the Chinese Emperor and his ministers.

Nothing of moment occurred during the outward voyage; on the 9th of August, the ambassador and his suite landed in great state at the entrance of the White River, on the north-eastern coast of China; and the ships then proceeded to examine the coasts of Chinese Tartary, Corea, and the extensive group called the Loo Choo Islands, after which, they shaped their course for Canton, where they re-embarked Lord Amherst and the embassy*, and sailed for Manilla, the capital of the Phillipine Islands, on the 29th of January.

On the 9th of February, exactly twelve months after the expedition left the shores of Great Britain, the Alceste proceeded from Manilla on her voyage homeward; here parting company with the Lyra, which was ordered to India with despatches.

At daybreak on the 18th, after carefully avoiding the rocks and shoals which beset the Chinese sea to the westward of the Phillipine Islands, our voyagers entered the straits of Gaspar, through which they intended to sail. They continued to follow the track laid down in the charts, and every precaution was used, which skill and seamanship could dictate; but about half-past seven in the morning, the ship struck with great violence on a reef of sunken rocks, which rose almost perpendicularly in nearly seventeen fathoms water. It was a providential circumstance that the ship remained fast on the reef, as had she been dislodged from her first position by the force of the shock, she must have almost immediately gone down with most of her hands. The event, however, was extremely fearful; but we are told by one of the officers, that, notwithstanding the peril of their situation, not the slightest confusion or irregularity prevailed amongst the crew, every necessary order being as coolly given, and as steadily obeyed, as if nothing unusual had happened.

The ship lay about three miles and a half from the uninhabited and desolate island of Pulo Leat, on which, after considerable difficulty, Lord Amherst and his suite, with a part of the crew, safely landed by means of the boats. Captain Maxwell, and the rest of the officers remained by the ship, and, after great exertion, succeeded in saving a small quantity of provisions and stores, which occasionally floated up, all but the upper works being under water.

The island was found to be a perfect wilderness, so completely overgrown with wood and jungle, that it was necessary to clear away a small space, under the shade of the loftier trees at the foot of a hill, which rose in the midst of the narrow point where the landing was effected, in order to obtain shelter for the night. The party, when assembled,

Eresented a wild and motley appearance; few, including ,ord Amherst himself, were clothed with more than a shirt, or a pair of trowsers; "whilst parliamentary robes,

• See Saturday Magazine, Vol. IV., p. 140.

t The embassy had not been received at the Chinese Court, in consequence of the refusal of Lord Amherst to submit to a humiliating ceremonial, which he considered would have utterly frustrated the purpose of the mission. The object of the embassy was, however, fully, though indirectly effected, by the conduct and sound judgment of Captain Maswell, who, in despite of the threats and opposition of the lines of batteries on the Canton River, and of a large fleet of war-junks which had been stationed to defend it, persisted in sailing with the Alceste up to Canton, after promptly silencing the fire of the whole of the Chines* warriors, afloat and ashore.

court-dresses, and mandarin shirts, intermixed with check shirts and tarry jackets, were hung around in strange confusion on every tree." On this wild spot, several days' sail from the nearest friendly port, exposed, in all probability, to the endurance of the extremes of hunger and thirst, under the fierce rays of a tropical sun, were nearly 250 of our countrymen thus thrown; yet no one seemed to be cast down or despairing; and the manly feelings which prevailed, were strengthened by the conduct of Lord Amherst, who, on the morning succeeding the wreck, desired every one to be called around him, when he took his share of the water which had been saved from the ship, consisting of a single gill for each individual, with the most perfect good humour, thus affording on example of calm fortitude, and cheerful readiness, to share every privation without any distinction of rank, which in such cases is certain to be attended with the finest moral effect.

An increasing anxiety for water, however, naturally possessed every mind; but every exertion to obtain it proved fruitless, whilst the accidental discovery of a human skeleton led to the frightful belief, that an individual had perished with thirst. Under these circumstances, and considering likewise that the boats were insufficient for the conveyance of even one-half of the ship's crew, the ambassador and Captain Maxwell wisely determined, that his lordship and suite, accompanied by a guard to protect them, in the event of their falling in with any of the ferocious Malay pirates who swarm in those seas, should at once proceed with the barge and cutter, to the island of Java; which, in consequence of a favourable wind, and strong current, it was anticipated they would reach in three or four days. This party, which consisted of forty-seven persons, having been furnished with all the provisions that could be spared, embarked at five o'clock in the evening, amidst the hearty prayers and good wishes of all. It was well, as will be seen, that Lord Amherst carried his resolution into effect with such promptitude, as the delay of a single day, would, almost to a certainty, have placed him in the power of a horde of ruthless savages.

The prospect before the party left in the island, whicn consisted of 200 men and boys, and one woman, was not the most cheering: for, in consequence of the adverse wind and current, no help was to be looked for, under the most favourable circumstances, for ten or twelve days at the least. Captain Maxwell, after again despatching a party in search of water, removed the bivouac, or encampment, to the summit of an adjacent hill, on which the underwood, abounding with snakes, scorpions, centipedes, and other reptiles, had been previously burnt and cleared away. To this spot, which was better calculated for the preservation of the health, as well as for the defence of the people, the whole of the small stock of provisions now remaining, was removed, under a strict guard; whilst a few persons were left on the wreck, in order to save any further stores Which might be floated up. During the rest of the day, much misery was experienced from continued thirst, but about midnight, to the great joy of all, a spring was struck upon, which, during the next twenty-four hours, afforded a pint of water to each individual. On the morning of the 20th, the Captain ordered all hands to be mustered, and after explaining that, by the Regulations of the Navy, every man was equally liable to answer for his conduct as if he had been afloat, declared that whilst he lived, the most rigorous discipline, which was so important to the welfare of all, should continue to be enforced.

At daybreak on the following morning, the party stationed on the wreck, discovered that they were surrounded by a small fleet of Malay proas, or boats, filled with armed men. These pirates, many of whom are cannibals, belong to a race generally considered to bo the most merciless and inhuman savages existing in any part of the globe. Our countrymen, who were quite defenceless, instantly jumped into the boat and made for the beach, after a smart chase from the pirate3, who then took possession of the ship; but not long after, an alarm was given, that they had effected a landing on a point of the island, about two miles distant. The most active exertions were immediately made to give them a warm reception; but only about a dozen cutlasses had been preserved, and, although the marines had nearly thirty muskets and bayonets, they had only seventy-five ball-cartridges amongst them. Orders were, however, given for every individual to arm himself in the best way he could: and small swords, dirks, knives, chisels, and even sharpened poles, soon supplied the place of regular weapons. Trees were also felled under the direction of the captain, and a circular breastwork was constructed around the station, by interweaving loose branches with stakes, driven into the ground amongst the fallen timber. The day having passed off quietly, in the evening the whole party was classed into separate divisions, to one of which the charge of the boats at the landing-place was assigned; the noblest spirit animated all, and but little apprehension prevailed of an attack from the savages during the night, as they appeared too busily engaged in plundering the wreck, to think of anything else.

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Observing that the pirates had diminished in number, it was resolved, next day, to regain possession of the wreck; but the enemy, on perceiving the approach of the boats, instantly pushed off, and set fire to the ship, which became, in a few minutes, one burning mass from stem to stern. She continued in flames throughout the day and night, during which some alarm was occasioned by the sentries mistaking for enemies, some of the large baboons met with on the island.

Early on Sunday, the boats again proceeded to the wreck, and found that several barrels of flour, with some casks of wine and beer, had floated up. This cheering intelligence reached the shore just at the close of divine service, which was performed in the principal tent. In the course of the two succeeding days, further supplies of flour, beer, and wine were recovered by the boats, together with what was almost equally important in the situation in which the party were placed, about fifty boarding pikes, eighteen muskets, and a small quantity of ammunition. In the meanwhile, those left on shore were fully occupied in throwing up a glacis, or sloping bank, and in otherwise strengthening the fortifications of the station; whilst the discovery of a second well at the foot of the hill, at last enabled every one to have water in abundance.

Early on the 26th, two armed proas, each towing a canoe, again made their appearance, from behind a rock a few miles distant, whither the pirates had retreated, as was supposed, in expectation of receiving reinforcements. They prowled for some time unperceived about the entrance of the cove, but Lieutenant Hay, who commanded the guard during the night, no sooner discovered them, than be dashed out at once with the three boats under his command. The pirates instantly cut adrift their canoes and made all sail. Only one of our boats was enabled to near them; "on closing,' says Mr. McLeod in his interesting narrative of the expedition, "the Malays evinced every sign of defiance, placing themselves in the most threatening attitudes, and firing their swivels at the boat. This was returned by Mr. Hay with the onlv musket he had with him; and as they closed nearer, the Malays commenced throwing their javelins and darts, several falling into the barge, but without wounding any of the men. Soon after they were grappled by our fellows, when three or four of them having been shot, and a fourth knocked down with the butt-end of the musket, five more jumped overboard and drowned themselves, (evidently disdaining quarter), and two were taken prisoners, one of whom was severely wounded. The Malays had taken some measure to sink their proa, for she went down almost immediately. Nothing could exceed the desperate ferocity of these people. One of those who had been shot through the body, but was not quite dead, on being removed into the boat, with a view of saving him, (as his own vessel was sinking,) furiously grasped a cutlass which came within his reach, and it was not without a struggle wrenched from his hand: he died in a few minutes. The consort of this proa, firing a parting shot, bore up round the north end of the island, and escaped." The two prisoners were then brought ashore, and placed under a guard at the well, when their wounds were dressed, and ferocious as had been their conduct, the most humane attention was paid to them.

Soon afterwards, fourteen proas, and other small vessels came in sight, and anchored under shelter of a distant point, on which many persons were seen to land. It was at first supposed, that they had been sent from Batavia by Lord Amherst for the relief of the party, and several officers therefore set out towards them; but an interview speedily dissipated the illusion, it being ascertained, chiefly by signs, that they were a wandering community employed in collecting a sort of sea-weed found in those islands, which is in request in China. Their amicable and submissive deportment disappeared, however, on the following morning, when the real situation of our countrymen was unmasked by the discovery of the wreck, which the strangers immediately proceeded to plunder. But it was

not deemed advisable to interfere with them, as there wag now little of any value to be procured there.

The boats were removed in the course of the day to an adjoining cove, where they were placed in a safer position, under cover of two little posts strongly situated on the rocks, which were manned by a party armed with musketry. The Malays, who had been fully engaged on the wreck, during the preceding day, on Saturday morning received a powerful accession of force by the arrival of fourteen more proas. The prospects of our countrymen were in the meanwhile daily becoming more gloomy; their stock of provisions, although the utmost economy was used in the distribution*, was diminishing with fearful rapidity; nothing but a few oysters could be obtained on the island; and the time had now passed away, when according to calculation, relief ought to have arrived from Java. The boats were therefore put into a good state of repair, and a strong raft was constructed, in order to give every facility for escape, in the event of the worst taking place. But notwithstanding these depressing circumstances, a feeling of cheerfulness and content seemed to pervade every mind, and the utmost order continued to prevail.

The encampment on the hill, now termed "Fort Maxwell," (of the singular and romantic nature of which our Engraving will convey some idea,) had progressively boon strengthened, so as to afford an excellent defence against an attack of the savages. When seen at night by firelight, its appearance was singularly picturesque; "the wigwams, or dens as they were called, of some, neatly formed by branches, and thatched with the palm-leaf, scattered about at the feet of the majestic trees which shaded the circle; the rude tents of others, the wrecked, unshaven, ragged appearance of the men, with pikes and cutlasses in their hands, gave a wild and strange effect to the spot, beyond'any robber-scene the imagination can portray."

Having been joined by a large reinforcement during the night of Saturday, the pirates at last began to assume a threatening aspect. At day-break on Sunday they advanced with the most hideous yells, with about twenty of their largest vessels, close to the entrance of the landingplace, where they proceeded to anchor, amidst the dm of gongs, after firing one of their swivels at our party ashore. A smaller division was seen about the same time to proceed up a creek at the back of the British position, which rendered our countrymen apprehensive of a surprise in that quarter. This bold movement of the savages was, however, only a demonstration; and the two parties remained looking at each other for some time in a state of preparation, when, finding that the Malays held off from their attack, Captain Maxwell despatched an officer in a boat, a little beyond the mouth of the cove, who waved his hat in an amicable way, to endeavour to ascertain their disposition. An armed canoe, after a considerable pause, advanced to meet him, but nothing could be made out from the demeanour of the savages, who wished to possess themselves of the shirt and trowsers belonging to one of the midshipmen in the boat. Another fruitless attempt was afterwards made, in order to try their spirit, and when evening approached, the hostile force which had greatly increased in strength during the day, and now amounted to more than fifty vessels of various sizes, drew closer into the cove, with a fierce and menacing aspect. Everything, indeed, indicated an approaching attack; the wreck was almost deserted; and the thoughts of the savages seemed fixed on gaining possession of the property which they imagined had been rescued from it. Near sunset, several of the Malays, who had a few days before been mistaken for friends, advanced towards the landing-place, and gave our countrymen to understand, that the whole of the blockading force, except their party, were exceedingly hostile; and that a general attack was resolved upon when it became dark: they then intimated their wish that a portion of their number, should proceed up the hill, for the purpose of protecting and aiding its defenders. On this treacherous offer being declined, they pulled back to

• " The mode adopted by Captain Maxwell, to make things go as far m possible, was to chop up the allowance for the day into HtiaJl pieces, whether fowls, salt beef, pork, and flour, mixing the whole hotch-potch, boiling them together, and serving out a measure of this to every man, publicly and openly, and without anv disiinciion." A small allowance of wine and rum was also daily distributed amongst the men and officers. "A few wt^eks schooling on a desert isle would be a great blessing to many thousands, who are capriciously unhappy in the midst of superfluity, and wretched only because they have never known distress."

124—2

their vessels, from which a wild war-whoop immediately proceeded.

When night set in, the whole of the force being assembled under arms, Captain Maxwell addressed the officers and men in an animating speech, which was received by three deafening cheers, from every Briton in the island:— it was, indeed, the anxious wish of every heart that the threatened attack should be made; sixteen hundred ballcartridges, which had been progressively accumulated, were distributed amongst the various watches; and an alarm which was purposely given during the night," showed the good effect of preparation, for all were like lightning at their posts, and every one returned growling and disappointed, because the alarm was false." The cheering had its due effect on the enemy.

When the day dawned, it was found that the pirate force had received a further accession of ten vessels; their numbers now exceeded six hundred men; and they continued during the morning, closely to invest the position as before. The general anxiety at the non-arrival of the looked-for relief, increased in strength each successive hour. "Awful as our situation was," says the historian of the voyage, "and every instant becoming more so: starvation staring us in the face, on one hand, and without a hope of mercy from the savages on the other; yet were there no symptoms of depression, or gloomy despair; every mind seemed buoyant; and if any estimate of the general feeling could be collected from countenances, from the manner and expressions of all, there appeared to be formed in every breast, a calm determination to dash at them, and be successful, or to fall as became men, in the attempt to become free."

About mid-day, whilst various plans for effecting n decisive night-attack on the pirates were' in agitation, a powerful sensation was produced, by the report of the officer on the look-out, that a ship was in sight at a great distance to the southward; a dark cloud for some time hid the object of anxiety from the sight, but when it cleared away, every doubt was dispelled, by the announcement that the vessel was standing towards the island, under all sail. The British colours was therefore run up at the top of the loftiest tree on the hill; and it was not long before a sudden movement among the savages denoted that they also had discovered the distant ship. On perceiving this, Captain Maxwell resolved not to hesitate, and instantly gave orders for a simultaneous attack to be made on the blockading force; the pirates were, however, on the alert, for as soon as the marines emerged from beneath the shade of the mangrove-trees which fringed the harbour, the whole of their vessels made sail, the nearest firing her swivel, (fortunately without effect,) amongst a party of officers that had dashed after them into the sea; a smart fire was kept up without effect, till they were out of gunshot, and they soon afterwards disappeared from sight altogether.

The vessel proved to be the Ternate, one of the East India Company's cruisers. It turned out a providential circumstance, that the attack had been made on the pirates, for in consequence of the opposition of the wind and current, the ship was unable to approach nearer than twelve miles of the British position, so that the pirates would have been enabled to have completely cut off-all communication with her, had they remained. The island was finally abandoned by our countrymen, early on the 7th of March, after a stay of nineteen days, during which, although they were alternately exposed to the influence of a burning sun, and torrents of rain, not a single individual was taken ill. The Ternate reached Batavia on the 9th, where an interesting meeting took place between Lord Amherst and the party that had accompanied him, with their countrymen, so mercifully and wonderfully preserved by the hand of Almighty Providence.

The events which we have now brought before the mind of the reader, form so striking a contrast to those which succeeded the loss of the Medusa, as perhaps, to afford in themselves the best commentary on the conduct of our countrymen, on this trying occasion. On the fearful fate which would have awaited them, had disorder and anarchy prevailed, had the rein of discipline been loosened, it is unnecessary to dwell. There can be little doubt, however, that the presence of mind, calm decision, and judicious exertions of the gallant and now lamented officer who commanded, contributed in an eminent degree, to the accomplishment of a result, so gratifying, in a national point of view, to all.

THE GLOW-WORM.

That pretty sparkler of our summer evenings, so often made the ploughboy's prize, the only brilliant that glitters in the rustic's hat, the glow-worm (lampyris noctiluca), is not found in such numbers with us, as in many other places, where these signal-tapers glimmer upon every grassy bank: yet, in some seasons, we have a reasonable sprinkling of them. Every body, probably, knows, that the male glow-worm is a winged, erratic animal, yet may not have seen him. He has ever been a scarce creature to me, meeting, perhaps, with one or two in a year; and, when found, always a subject of admiration. Most creatures have their eyes so placed as to be enabled to see about them; or, as Hook says of the house-fly, to be "circumspect animals;" but this male glow-worm has a contrivance, by which any upward or side vision is prevented.

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THE MALE AMD FEMALE OLOW-WORM.

Viewed when at rest, no portion of. his eyes is visible, but the head is margined with a horny band, or plate, being a character of one of the genera of the order coleoptera, under which the eyes are 'situate. This prevents all upward vision; and blinds, or winkers, are so fixed at the sides of his eyes, as greatly to impede the view of all lateral objects. The chief end of this creature, in his nightly peregrinations, is to seek his mate, always beneath him on the earth; and hence this apparatus appears designed to facilitate his search, confining his view entirely to what is before or below him. The first serves to direct his flight, the other presents the object of his pursuit; and as we commonly, and with advantage, place our hand over the brow, to obstruct the rays of light falling from above, which enables us to see clearer an object on the ground, so must the projecting hood of this creature converge the visual rays to a point beneath. This is a very curious provision for the purposes of the insect, if my conception of its design be reasonable. Possibly the same ideas may have been brought forward by others; but, as I have not seen them, I am not guilty of any undue appropriation, and no injury can be done to the cause I wish to promote, by detailing again such beautiful and admirable contrivances. Journal of a Naturalist.

SIR THOMAS MORE

AND HIS RESIDENCES.

The chief interest which belongs to the house represented in" the Engraving, is derived from its having occupied the site of what was once the residence of the great Sir Thomas More. About the year 1520, he purchased an estate at Chelsea, and built himself a house, as Erasmus describes it, "neither mean nor subject to envy, yet magnificent and commodious enough *." The following memoir

• The mansion which appears in the cut, is deserving of notice on its own account; having been at different periods inhabited by persons distinguished in English history; Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, son of the great Lord Burleigh; the two George Villiers', Dukes of Buckingham ; the Duke of Beaufort (from whom it was called Beaufort House); Sir Bulstrode Whitlock, and others. It was purchased at a public sale by Sir Hans Sloane, in 1736, for £2500, and pulled down in 1740.

of that remarkable person may be acceptable to our readers.

Sir Thomas More was born in Milk Street, Cheapside, London, in 1480. His father was afterwards Chief Justice of the King's Bench. Lloyd, in his State Worthies, gives a delightful anecdote of More's childhood. "His nurse riding with him over a water, and being in some danger, threw him over a hedge, where she found him not hurt, but sweetly smiling tipon her." He received the first rudiments of his education at a free-school in Londonj and was afterwards placed in the house of Cardinal Morton, Archbishop of Canterbury and Lord Chancellor, who used to say to the nobility that dined with him, "Whoever shall live to see it, this child here, who waits at table, will prove a surprising man."

In 1497 he went to Oxford; and after remaining there two years, removed to New Inn, and soon afterwards to Lincoln's Inn, to pursue his studies for the bar. As soon as he was of age, he was elected a member of parliament, and in 1503 offended King Henry the Seventh, by successfully opposing a subsidy to that monarch; a circumstance which cost his father his liberty for some time; Henry, out of revenge, imprisoning Sir John More in the Tower.

On the accession of Henry the Eighth, More's prospects brightened, and a fair field opened itself for the exertion of his amazing talents and industry. As he was himself very learned and liberal, he was a friend and patron of learned men, among whom may be mentioned, Erasmus, Dean Colet, Linacre, Lilly, and Grocinus. At this time he had just married. The partner whom he selected, was chosen on a principle of rare self-denial and generosity; "When he fell to marrying," says his biographer, " he took to wife the daughter of one Mr. Colt, a gentleman of Essex, who had three daughters very virtuous and well-liking. And, albeit, his mind served him most to settle his affection on the second sister, for that he conceived her fairest and best-favoured; yet when he considered it would be a grief to the eldest, to see her young sister preferred before her, he then, of a certain pity, framed his fancy to the eldest."

In 1520, he was made Chancellor of the Exchequer, Chelsea family.

Among the illustrious foreigners entertained and patronized by Sir Thomas, may be mentioned the painter, Hans Holbein, a native of Augsburg, who lived three years in his house. He was employed in drawing portraits of his patron and his family, and was afterwards introduced to Henry the Eighth. But the excellent gift of charity was the truest ornament of More's character. For we learn that he hired a house for aged people in Chelsea, whom he daily relieved; and it was his daughter Margaret's charge to see that they wanted nothing; and when he was a private lawyer, he would take no fees of poor folks, widows, or pupils.

It is in seeing eminent characters at home, that we can best judge of their worth: and certainly the description given by his particular friend Erasmus,

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a^feot long afterwards, purchased a house at ;ca7|p the river-side, where he settled with his

BEAUFORT HOUSE, CHELSEA.

of Sir Thomas More's manner of living with his wife and family at Chelsea is very pleasing, and offers many points worthy of imitation. "There he converseth with his wife*," says he, "his son, "his daughter-in-law, his three daughters, and their husbands, with eleven grand-children. There is not a man living so affectionate to his children as he: he loveth his old wife as well as if she was a young maid." This behaviour to his wife was more praiseworthy, as she is said to have been somewhat harsh, and of a near and worldly disposition. "He persuaded her to play on the lute; and so with the like gentleness he ordered his family. Such is the excellence of his temper, that whatsoever happeneth that could not be helped, he loveth it as if nothing could have happened more happily. His house might be compared for learning to Plato's academy; yet it is rather a school or university of the Christian religion: for though there is none therein but studieth the liberal sciences, their special care is piety and virtue: there is no quarrelling: no intemperate words heard; none are seen idle. That worthy gentleman doth not carry himself with proud and lofty words, but with well-timed and courteous benevolence. Everybody performeth his duty; yet there is always alacrity; neither is sober mirth anything wanting." As we are too apt to speak freely of persons, rather than things, at meal-time, it was a good practice of Sir Thomas to have a reader at table during dinner; after which he would ask some of those about him, how they understood such and such a part of the book, and then delight them with friendly communications, or a harmless jest. His daughter Margaret, when writing to her father during his imprisonment in the Tower says, "What do you think, dearest father, doth comfort us at Chelsea in your absence? Surely the remembrance of your manner of life passed among us; your holy conversation; your wholesome counsels; your examples of virtue, of which there is hope that they do not only persevere with you, but that they are by God's grace much more increased."

Henry the Eighth, to whom More owed his rise and fall, frequently came to Chelsea and spent whole days with him in a most familiar manner; and it is supposed that the king's answer to Luther was prepared and arranged for the public eye, with the assistance of his learned friend during these visits. Notwithstanding, however, all this familiarity, Sir Thomas seems to have understood the capricious temper of * This was his second wile, the former having died.

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