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society; for, in the account of the cure performed by our Saviour upon a maniac in the country of the Gadarenes, these tombs are particularly alluded toj and their existence to this day, offers strong- internal evidence of the accuracy of the Evangelist who has recorded the transaction. In all the descent towards Tiberias, the soil is black, and seems to have resulted from the decomposition of rocks which have a volcanic appearance.

Having entered the town, and made as rapid a disposition as possible of our baggage, we hastened towards the lake; every individual of our party being eager to bathe his feverish limbs in its cool and consecrated waters. Proceeding towards the shore, we were shown a very ancient church, of an oblong square form, to which we descended by steps. There is reason to believe this the first place of Christian worship erected in Tiberias, and that it was constructed as long ago as the fourth century. The roof is of stone, and it is vaulted. We could discover no inscription, nor any other clue to the history of its origin.

Among the pebbles of the shore were pieces of a porous rock, resembling the substance called toadstone in England: its cavities were filled with zeolite. Native gold was found here formerly. We noticed an appearance of this kind, but, on account of its trivial nature, neglected to pay proper attention to it, notwithstanding the hints given by more than one writer upon this subject. Neither boat, nor vessel of any kind, appeared vipon the lake. The water was as clear as the purest crystal; sweet, cool, and most refreshing to the taste. Swimming to a considerable distance from the shore, we found it so limpid, that we could discern the bottom, covered with shining pebbles. Among these stones was a beautiful but very diminutive kind of shell, being a non-descript species of Buccinum. We amused ourselves by diving for specimens; and the very circumstance of discerning such small objects beneath the surface, may prove the high transparency of the water. The river Jordan maintains its course through the middle of the lake, by which a strong current is caused; and when this is opposed by contrary winds, which blow here with the force of a hurricane from the southeast, sweeping from the mountains into the lake, it may be conceived that a boisterous sea is instantly raised: this the small vessels of the country are ill qualified to resist.

We could obtain no information from the inhabitants concerning the dimensions of their lake; the vague method of reckoning according to the time one of their boats can sail round or across it, was the only measure they could furnish. According to Sandys, its length is twelve miles and a half, and its breadth six. This is evidently derived from Josephus. Of its length we could not form any accurate opinion, because its southern extremity, winding behind distant mountains, was concealed from our view; but we inclined rather to the statement of Hegesippus, which makes it seventeen miles and a half. Josephus speaks of the sweetness of its waters, of its pebbly bottom, and, above all, of the salubrity of the surrounding atmosphere. He says, the water is so cold, that its temperature is not affected by its being exposed to the sun during the hottest season of the year. A most curious circumstance concerning this lake is mentioned by Hasselquist: "I thought it remarkable," observes this celebrated naturalist, "that the same kind of fish should here be met with as in the Nile." This explains the observations of certain travellers, who speak of the lake as possessing fishes peculiar to itself; not being, perhaps, acquainted with the produce of the Nile. Josephus considers the Lake of Gennesareth as having fishes of a peculiar nature; and yet it is very worthy of notice, that in speaking of the fountain of Capernaum, his remarks tend to confirm the observation made by Hasselquist. "Some consider it," says he, " as a vein of the Nile, because it brings forth fishes resembling the Coracinus of the Alexandrian lake."

After reluctantly retiring from the crystal flood, we returned to the castle. Here, within the spacious and airy apartment prepared for our reception, we mutually expressed our hopes of passing at least one night free from the attacks of vermin; but, to our dismay, the Sheik, being informed of our conversation, burst into laughter, and said, that, according to a saying current in Galilee, "TnE King Of The


well aware what we had to expect, we resolved to devote as many hours as possible, before day-break, to conversation with the people of the country, to our supper, and to the business of writing ■mr journals. They brought us a plentiful repast, consisting of three sorts of fried fishes from the lake: one of these, a species of mullet, was, according to their tradition, the favourite food of Jesus Christ.

The next morning we arose as soon as light appeared, in order to bathe once more, and take a last survey of the town. Dr. E. D. Clarke.

How simply and beautifully is the benefit of good society depicted in the following apologue.

"One day as I was in the bath, a friend of mine put into my hand a piece of scented clay. I took it, and said to it, 'Art thou musk or ambergris, for I am charmed with thy perfume?' It answered, 'I was a despicable piece of clay, but I was some time in the company of the rose; the sweet quality of my companion was communicated to me, otherwise I should bo only a bit of clay, as I appear to be.*"

Sketches of Persia.

Among the institutions in Madrid, called charitable, many of which ars of a very questionable tendency, calculated, as it is said, more to promote, than to check or alleviate vice and misery, there is one establishment, which strongly recommends itself to our best wishes. It is called Montede-Piedad. Its object is, to alleviate the necessities of the poor, by lending them money upon pledges. These pledges are preserved a year, and then, if they remain unclaimed, are publicly sold. The loan being liquidated, the balance is returned to the borrower, who, though he may have saved but little from the wreck, has escaped the usurious

and greedy clutches of the common pawnbroker. Year

in Spain.

A Friend called on Michael Atigelo, who was finishing a statue; some time afterwards, he called again; the sculptor was still at his work: his friend, looking at the figure, exclaimed, "You have been idle since 1 saw yon last." "By no means," replied the sculptor, " 1 have retouched this part, and polished that; I have softened this feature, and brought out this muscle; I have given more expression to this lip, and more energy to this limb." "Well, well," said his friend, "but all these are trifles.'' "It may be so," replied Angelo," "but recollect that trifles make perfection, ana that perfection is no trifle." Colto.v.

In the desert which they call Azaoad, there are as yet extant two monuments, built of marble; upon which marble is an epitaph engraven, signifying that one of the said monuments represented a most rich merchant, and the other a carrier or transporter of wares: which wealthful merchant bought of the carrier a cup of water for ten thousand ducats, and yet this precious water could suffice

neither of thorn, for both were consumed of thirst.


A Vine called the bush-rope by the wood-cutters, on account of its use in hauling out the heaviest timber, has a singular appearance in the forests of Demerara in South America. Sometimes you see it nearly as thick as a man's body, twisted like a corkscrew round the tallest trees, and rearing its head high above their tops. At other times, three or four of them, like strands in a cable, join tree to tree, and branch to branch, together. Others descending from on high, take root as soon as their extremity touches the ground, and appear like shrouds and stays supporting the mainmast of a ship; 'while others sending out shoots in all directions, remind you of what travellers call a matted forest. Oftentimes a tree, above a hundred feet high, uprooted by the whirlwind, is stopped in its fall by these amazing cables of nature; hence you see trees with their trunks inclined very far from the perpendicular, not only vegetating, but sending forth vigorous shoots, their heads remain firmly supported by the bushrope; many of their roots soon reflx themselves in the earth, and frequently a strong shoot will sprout out perpendicularly from near the root of the reclining trunk, and in time become a fine tree. Waterton

After all the good instruction that can be given, example must go hand in hand with precept.

If children receive solemn injunctions against a vice which they see their parents practise, or exhortation to the performance of a duty they see them neglect, the precept will be more likely to excite ridicule in the youthful mind than observance.—Mrs. Kins.


The productions of the vegetable kingdom are among the first objects that forcibly attract the attention of young children; becoming to them the source of gratifications, which are among the purest of which our nature is capable; and of which, even the indistinct recollection imparts often a fleeting pleasure to the most cheerless moments of after-life.

Who does not look back with feelings, which he would in vaiu attempt to describe, to the delightful rambles which his native fields and meadows afforded to his earliest years? Who does not remember, or at least fancy that he remembers, the eager activity with which he was used to strip nature's carpet of its embroidery, nor ceased to cull the scattered blossoms till his infant hands were incapable of retaining the accumulated heap? Who, on even seeing trie first violet of returning spring, much more on inhaling its sweetness, or in catching the breeze that has passed over the blossom of the bean or of the woodbine, does not again enjoy the very delights of his early childhood r .

The pleasure of such recollections is for the most part of a moral and intellectual nature; but the pleasure of the original enjoyment appears to be principally of a physical character; and is no doubt intended to produce, at the moment, a highly beneficial, though merely physical effect: for while the eye of the child is attracted by the unexpected forms and colours of the plants and flowers presented to his view, and his mind is instigated to gratify the eager desire of possessing them, he necessarily subjects his limbs to that degree of exercise and fatigue, which contributes to the general health of his body. Nor let such pleasures be undervalued in their consequence: they give that moderate stimulus to the whole system, which even the early age of infancy requires; and, by shutting out the listlessness that would arise from inactivity, they become eventually the source of moral and intellectual improvement.

With reference to the primary wants of mankind at large, the vegetable kingdom is of the highest importance. Let the earth cease to produce its accustomed fruits, and every form of animal life must be soon annihilated: for all animals either derive their nourishment directly from vegetable food, or feed on those animals which have themselves fed on vegetables. And without the aid of the same productions, we should be deprived of various substances which are now employed for clothing, and fuel, and the construction of our habitations. Innumerable indeed, are the instances, in which the adaptation of the vegetable kingdom to the arts and conveniences of life is visible.

[pkofessoh Kidd'« Bridgwater Treatise, p. 202.J

We are born with faculties and powers capable almost of any thing, such at least as would carry us further than ean easily be imagined; but it is only the exercise of those powers, which gives us ability and skill in any thing, and leads us towards perfection. Locke.

To a fond parent, who would not have his child corrected for a perverse trick, but excused it, saying, it was a small matter, Solon very well replied, "Ay, but custom is a great one."—Locke.

When you are disposed to be vain of your mental acquirements, "look up to those who are more accomplished than yourself, that you may be fired with emulation. But when you feel dissatisfied with your circumstances, look down on

those beneath you, that you may learn contentment.



The following anecdote of Bishop Heber, is related by Archdeacon Robinson, in his Memoir of the Bishop's last days.

In the month of February, 1826, during the bishop's voyage from Calcutta to Madras, on his first and last visit to the southern part of his extensive diocese, among the passengers on board the Bussorah Merchant, was a lady in very weak health, who was going to England with a sickly infant of two months old, and leaving her husband in Calcutta. The child was suddenly seized with convulsions, and after lingering through the day, in the evening breathed its last sigh. The bishop spent much time in the cabin of the poor bereaved mother, comforting and praying with her: and while she was bitterly lamenting her loss, instead of checking her expressions of impatience, and prescribing to her the duty of submission, he told her the following beautiful apologue, as one with which he had himself been affected.

"A shepherd was mourning over the death of his favourite child, and in the passionate and rebellious feeling of his heart, was bitterly complaining, that what he loved most tenderly, and was in itself most lovely, had been taken from him. Suddenly a stranger of grave and venerable appearance stood before him, and beckoned him forth into the field. It was night, and not a word was spoken till they arrived at the fold, when the stranger thus addressed him: 'When you select one of these lambs from the flock, you choose the best and most beautiful among them: why should you murmur, because I, the good Shepherd of the sheep, have selected from those which you have nourished for me, the one which was most fitted for my eternal fold?' The mysterious stranger was seen no more, and the father's heart was comforted."

How very prone are men of all ages to do evil that good may come, to invent or propagate what is not true, with a view of securing some desirable end! How much are Christians, of every age, in need of being warned against attempting to spread or uphold the truth by unhallowed means! Pious frauds, though often sanctioned on earth, offer a direct insult to the majesty of the God of truth and justice. We may be sure he abominates a falsehood, even when the man who has forged it thinks he utters it in the service of God; and we may be equally sure, that if we cannot compass an end in any department of religion, or morality, or civil government, without relinquishing the very truth, that circumstance is of itself an intimation, Us plain as if it were spoken by the tongue of an inspired prophet, that the specific object, however desirable, is not intended by Providence to be brought about by such means of ours, and that it is presumption and sin in us to attempt it. Tyler on Oaths.

Let not the blessings we receive daily from God, make us not to value, or not praise him, because they be common: let not us forget to praise him for the innocent mirth and pleasure we have met with since we met together. What would a blind man give to see the pleasant rivers, and meadows, and (lowers, and fountains, that we have met with since we met together? I have been told, that if a man that was born blind, could obtain to have his sight for but only one hour, during his whole life, and should, at the first opening of his eyes, fix his sight upon the sun when it was in his full glory, either at the rising or setting of it, he would be so transported and amazed, and so admire the glory of it, that he would not willingly turn his eyes from that first ravishing object, to behold all the other various beauties this world could present to him. And this, and many other like blessings, we enjoy daily; and for most of them, because they be so common, most men forget to pay their praises; but let not us, because it is a sacrifice so pleasing to him that made the sun, and us, and still protects us, and gives us flowers, and showers, and meat, and content. Izaak Walton.

Thk fruits of the earth are consumed and reproduced; seeds rise not again with increase, unless they are corrupted and die: all things are preserved by dissolution, all things are renewed by perishing. Shalt thou O man, a being of so noble a nature, thyself die merely to perish? He, who is Lord of all, can control even annihilation itself.



No. V. The Lines Of Torres Vedras.

The accompanying engraving is a representation of the fourth compartment of the border of the Wellington Shield, in which the subject of illustration is the advance of the allied British and Portuguese armies, on the 6th of March, 1811, from the lines of Torres Vedras, which had effectually sheltered them against all attack since the 10th of October in the preceding year. This movement was consequent upon the famous retreat of the French Marshal Massena, from the position which he had taken up in Portugal.

Soon after Sir Arthur Wellcsley, or as he must now be called, Lord Wellington (for he had been raised to the peerage after the battle of Talavera), had retired from Spain, the English minister, Lord Castlereagh, demanded his opinion on the important subject of the defence of Portugal; and upon mature consideration, he replied, that the French might be prevented from obtaining possession of that kingdom, if the English force were increased to 30,000 effective men, and if a subsidy were granted, so as to render the Portuguese military service fully effective. The Government at home assented to his views, and he at once began to prepare for their execution. He required of the Portuguese regency, that they should enforce the old laws of the realm, by which all men were to be enrolled and bear arms; and that they should command the destruction of mills, the removal of boats, the breaking down of bridges, the wasting of fields, the abandonment of their dwellings on the part of the inhabitants, and the withdrawal of their property; all this to be carried into effect, on whatever line the invaders should advance. Until it could be done, he proposed to place himself at the head of the British and Portuguese armies, to keep continually fronting the enemy, without hazarding a battle, but retreating as they advanced, to draw them gradually into the desert country, which he had prepared for them, and where, without the means of subsistence, they would be menaced by a strong army before, and harrassed on their rear and flanks, by a whole population converted into soldiers, who, closing in upon them, would become more numerous and more formidable to them the further they moved. But it became necessary to find some secure position covering Lisbon, where the British might establish themselves, without being liable to be reduced by famine, or to lose their communications with the irregular troops, who were acting on the rear and flanks of the enemy. Such a spot had been already marked by the British commander.

The general course of the Tagus from its source in the interior of Spain, is towards the west; flowing in this direction, it traverses a great part of that kingdom, and entering Portugal, approaches to within forty miles of the sea-coast, without altering the main line of its course. But then it bends round to the south, and runs nearly parallel to the coast for about eighty miles; when it resumes its original direction, and soon falls into the sea. An oblong patch of land is thus in a measure cut "off from the rest of the Peninsula, being washed on three sides by the waters of the Tagus or of the sea. The upper, or northern portion of this slip, is open, and easily approached from the main country; the lower part is filled entirely with lofty mountains, which rising one after the other, in nearly parallel ranges, present a succession of strong ramparts, admirably adapted for a defensive position.

Within the innermost of these ridges, stands the city of Lisbon occupying the eastern of the twosouthern corners of the slip, and placed just at the point where the Tagus makes its second bend, to enter the sea. "Lord Wellington," says Colonel Napier, " conceived the design of turning those vast mountains into one stupendous and impregnable citadel, wherein to deposit the whole independence of the Peninsula." The works were continued and perfected, without exciting the slightest attention during their progress. So secretly and securely had the English General carried his great schemes into execution, that, not until their full benefit was felt, did they attract the least notice; they burst as suddenly upon his own army, as upon his enemy's—each was equally surprised. But we must not anticipate. We have said, that early in 1809, Napoleon was called from the pursuit of Sir John Moore, by the rumour of intended hostilities on the part of Austria. An open war between the two powers soon followed; Napoleon was victorious, and he had again full leisure to turn his attention to the completion of his schemes for the subjugation of the Peninsula. Fresh troops were poured into Spain, and preparations were made for a new invasion of Portugal, which was to make " the frightened leopard fly to the ocean, to avoid shame, defeat, and death." But Buonaparte had been taught an useful lesson; the British had already defeated his finest troops, and baffled the utmost skill of two of his renowned aptains, Junot and Soult. On this third attempt, therefore, he resolved to employ an army, far exceeding in number those engaged on the preceding occasions, and to place at the head of it, his favourite General, Marshal Massena, whom, in allusion to his constant successes, he had been wont to style the "spoilt child of victory," and whom he had lately created Prince of Esling, in token of his recent services in the Austrian war.

During the spring of 1810, Massena was occupied in assembling his army, and completing his preparations. His first effort was directed against the fortress of Ciudad Rodrigo, which was regularly invested on the -1th of June, and gallantly defended by the Spaniards for more than a month. On its capture, the French advanced into Portugal, and the allies, in conformity with Lord Wellington's plan, drew back. Almeida was besieged, and the British general confidently expected that it would hold out, and detain the enemy for some time; but an accidental explosion of the principal powder-magazine led to its capitulation on the 27th of August. Massena was then free to move forward, and his forces were concentrated about the middle of September. The whole of the country, from Almeida to Coimbra, had been laid waste by Lord Wellington's orders; and as the French advanced, they found a desert. But the same attention to his wishes had not been shown by the authorities where he had not been personally present to enforce them; between Coimbra and Lisbon, not a step had been taken towards the execution of his designs. To gain time in which this might yet be done, he found himself under the painful necessity of giving battle to Massena, whom he hoped by that means to check for a while. With this view he posted the allies along the ridge of Busaco; his proud antagonist soon came on, but could scarce believe that Lord Wellington really meant to fight, and risk (as he fondly thought,) the loss of his reputation. "But if he does," added the exulting marshal, "I have him! To-morrow we shall effect the conquest of Portugal; and in a few days I shall drown the leopard!" The boast was premature, for the French were completely repulsed with severe loss.

The allies again resumed their retrograde movement, retreating as the French advanced. Their movements were conducted with perfect ease, and without the slightest alarm or confusion. Not a straggler had been taken by the French, not a gun abandoned, not an article of baggage lost; the infantry marched in quiet security, without ever being seen by the enemy, and the cavalry covered the retreat without loss. The troops, to their great surprise, on the 10th of October, entered the lines of Torres Vedras, and found themselves in a position which might safely be deemed impregnable.

These celebrated lines consisted of three distinct ranges of defence, which presented three strong ramparts in succession. The outermost extended in length, twenty-nine miles across the tongue of land already mentioned, as lying between the Tagus and the sea; its average distance from Lisbon, was about thirty-five miles. From six to ten miles in the rear of this line, and nearly parallel to it, arose a second fortified position, stretching similarly across the above tongue of land, from Quintella on the Tagus to the mouth of the S. Lorenzo, and twenty-four miles long. And lest, contrary to all probabilities, both of these ranges of defence should be found untenable, a third was established at the mouth of the Tagus, which was designed to protect a forced embarkation, and which consisted of a strong outer line, enclosing an intrenched camp, within which arose the high ramparts of Fort St. Julian,—themselves alone sufficiently strong, to enable a rearguard to protect itself and an embarking army.

The second of these lines was originally regarded as the principal in strength and importance, the first being designed, merely to receive the shock of the enemy's violence, and the third, as a place of final refuge, in the case of the others being forced.

It would be irrelevant to our purpose, to enter into a military detail of these celebrated works, and of the various modes in which the skill of the engineer had been employed, to'improve their natural strength, and supply their deficienices; a general statement will suffice. The country to be secured exceeded 500 square miles, and the magnitude of the operations necessary for that purpose, may easily be conceived. All roads leading over the mountains, and which could have afforded any advantage to the enemy, were blocked up and rendered useless; the sides of hills naturally steep, were artificially scarped, or cut nearly perpendicular; around their bases were formed ravines, deep, and in many parts impracticable. Where the ground was accessible, it was inundated; intrenchments were thrown up on all favourable spots; all projecting posts were secured, and forts which flanked and commanded the few points that could be approached, were erected, and furnished in plenty with stores and ammunition, so as to be capable of resisting, even if the enemy should establish themselves in their rear. And that the allies might not be exposed to injury for want of a rapid and safe connexion between themselves, communications were cut by the engineers, to all important parts of the lines, and a system of signals was established, by which orders could be transmitted from the centre to the extremities in a few minutes. Such was the stupendous fortress which the genius of the British general had raised up for the protection of his army, and the defence of Portugal.

The bitter disappointment which the French Marshal experienced, when he found his advance suddenly stopped by an obstacle, the existence of which had only become known to him five daj'3 before he came upon it, was hi oo wise abated, when upon a careful examination, he felt convinced, that it was utterly insurmountable to him, at least, with the force he then had. Yet he placed his troops in bivouac before it, and erecting a redoubt opposite to a British one, determined to attack that part of his enemy's position. But not only were his troops repulsed; their own redoubt was attacked in turn, carried and maintained. Upon this he contented himself with sending to Buonaparte for reinforcements, and about the middle of November, withdrawing from before the lines, took up a strong bosition at Santarem. Lord Wellington followed to watch him, but kept himself in readiness to fall back upon the lines at a moment's warning. In this position each party spent the winter. The allies were secure from attack, and with the sea open behind them., obtained copious supplies of provisions and stores.



But Massena was constantly harassed by the armed peasantry which his active opponent had brought into play; his losses were severe, and although, through the negligence of the authorities in executing Lord Wellington's orders, he had been able to secure plentiful means of subsistence, yet these at last began to fail, and were wholly exhausted by the end of February, 1811. Soon afterwards, he learned that English reinforcements had landed on the 2nd of March at Lisbon; and on the 6th of that month, he abandoned Santarem and began his celebrated retreat towards Spain, in the conduct of which, while he displayed, most conspicuously, his great talents and military skill, he was guilty of the most wanton and systematic cruelty, or, in the words of Lord Wellington, of a "barbarity seldom equalled, and never surpassed." The very places in which they had been residing for four months, and in which the inhabitants had been induced by promises to remain, were plundered and partially destroyed by the French, on the night they departed; and as they retired, every town and village through which they passed was burnt, by Massena's directions. The -.hurch and convent at Alcobaca, "the value of

which," says Mr. Southey, " may be expressed to an English reader, by saying, that they were to the Portuguese, what Westminster Abbey and the Bodleian are to the history and literature of England," were burnt by orders from the French head-quarters. Batalha,—" a structure equally sacred, and more beautiful," which excelled every other Gothic building in Europe, and became the admiration of all who beheld it, was defaced with unrelenting barbarism. The royal tombs were broken open; the body of Joam the First, the royal founder of the venerable edifice, which his grateful piety had erected upon the scene of his triumph—even -the body of this renowned monarch could not escape pollution; the head was kicked about as a foot-ball, and the trunk was placed in the pulpit, being fixed in the attitude of one preaching.

The conduct of the retreating army will, indeed, long be remembered and abhorred; and it must always remain as a lasting monument of the horrible character of that government and its system, which could thus degrade and barbarize men who naturally "were inclined to be, and would have been good and useful members of society, if the service in which they were compulsorily engaged, had not made them children of perdition." "No equitable reader," adds Mr. Southey, "will, suppose that any national reproach is intended in thus dwelling upon the crimes which were committed throughout the Peninsula, by the French and their allies: Englishmen, under like circumstances, would have been equally depraved: the reproach is not upon a brave and noble nation; it rests upon those alone on whom the guilt abides; and as we tender the welfare and improvement of the human race, let us hope that it may be perpetual!"



Bold by aU }>0o>;Kllet* *ni1 Newirenden In the Kingdom.

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