Philosophy in the Ancient World: An Introduction

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Rowman & Littlefield, 2005 - 386 páginas
Philosophy in the Ancient World: An Introduction_an intellectual history of the ancient world from the eighth century B.C.E. to the fifth century C.E., from Homer to Boethius_describes and evaluates ancient thought in its cultural setting, showing how it affected and was affected by that setting. The greatest philosophers (Parmenides, Plato, Aristotle, Augustine) and cultural figures (Homer, Euripides, Thucydides, Archimedes) and a number of lesser ones (Hesiod, Posidonius, Basil) receive careful description and evaluation. Philosophy in the Ancient World is ideally suited as a supplement for undergraduate courses in Ancient Philosophy and the History of Philosophy in the West.
 

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Contenido

A World Ready for Philosophy
xxii
I Why Ancient Philosophy
xxiii
II Qualities of the Greek Mind Conducive to Philosophy
xxvii
Homer and Hesiod
xxxiii
B HESIOD
xxxvi
IV Why Homer and Hesiod Are Not Philosophy
xxxvii
V Other Conditions Affecting the Birth of Philosophy
xl
B ARCHITECTURE AND ART
xliv
IV Aristotles Four Causes
126
V Aristotles Response to Parmenides
128
VI The Prime Mover as Aristotles Deity
129
VII Aristotles Philosophy of Science
132
B WHERE KNOWLEDGE COMES FROM
133
C MISTAKES PEOPLE MAKE ABOUT KNOWLEDGE
134
D UNQUALIFIED KNOWLEDGE
135
VIII Aristotles Ethics
137

VI How and Where Philosophy Began
l
VII The Branches of Philosophy
2
Discussion Questions
4
Notes
5
Select Bibliography
7
Philosophy Begins
10
I By What Name Shall We Call the Milesian Thinkers?
11
II How Do We Know about the Early Thinkers?
11
Thales Anaximander Anaximenes
11
B ANAXIMANDER 610546
11
C ANAXIMENES 585528
11
IV General Remarks on the Milesians
11
Discussion Questions
11
Notes
11
Select Bibliography
11
Philosophy Moves to Italy
11
I Italy
11
III Xenophanes
11
Discussion Questions
11
Notes
11
Select Bibliography
11
The Turn of the Fifth Century Heraclitus and Parmenides
11
I The Turn of the Century
11
II Heraclitus
11
A PARMENIDES
11
B ZENO AND MELISSUS
11
Discussion Questions
11
Notes
11
Select Bibliography
11
The Persian Wars and Their Aftermath Sophistry and Rhetoric
11
I The Persian Wars
11
II Rhetoric and Sophistry
12
Discussion Questions
18
Notes
19
Select Bibliography
21
Medicine Tragedy History
22
I Medicine
23
II Tragedy Marcus Aurelius writing of the origin and use of tragedy says
27
III History
34
Discussion Questions
37
Notes
38
Select Bibliography
39
Empedocles Anaxagoras and Democritus
40
I Empedocles
41
II Anaxagoras
43
III Democritus
47
IV Summing Up the Early Philosophers
50
Discussion Questions
52
Notes
53
Select Bibliography
54
The Peloponnesian War Socrates Thucydides Euripides
56
I Socrates
57
II Thucydides
63
III Euripides
70
Discussion Questions
74
Notes
75
Select Bibliography
77
Rhetoric and the Philosophers
78
I Rhetoric
79
II Extemporaneous and Prepared Speeches
80
III Isocrates 436338
84
IV Rhetoric and Philosophy
86
Discussion Questions
87
Notes
88
Select Bibliography
89
Plato
92
I Plato 428348 BCE
93
II Reading Platonic Dialogues
95
III A Compendium of Views Associated with Plato
99
A METAPHYSICS
100
B ETHICS
102
C POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY
104
D EROS
106
E TELEOLOGY
107
F OTHER VIEWS
108
IV Platos Academy
109
V After Plato
111
Notes
113
Select Bibliography
114
Aristotle
116
I Introduction
117
II Logic
119
III Aristotles Ten Categories
121
B MATTER AND FORM
122
C ACTUALITY AND POTENTIALITY
124
K ADDITIONAL THOUGHTS ON ACTUALITY AND POTENTIALITY
125
B THE DOCTRINE OF THE MEAN AND THE VIRTUES
138
C FRIENDSHIP
141
D PLEASURE
142
IX Aristotles Psychology
143
X Aristotles Legacy
145
Discussion Questions
146
Notes
148
Select Bibliography
150
The World of the Third Century
152
I Alexander and His Aftermath
153
H Intellectual Developments
154
A MATHEMATICS AND ASTRONOMY
155
B BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
159
C CITY PLANNING
160
Discussion Questions
161
Notes
163
Epicureanism
166
I Introduction
167
B PYRRHO OF ELIS C 360275
169
III Epicureanism
171
B EPICURUSS SYSTEM
174
Discussion Questions
179
Notes
180
Select Bibliography
182
Stoicism
184
I Introduction
185
II Cynics
186
III The Early Stoa
188
B ZENOS SUCCESSORS
189
C THE MIDDLE STOA
190
IV Tenets of Stoicism
191
B LOGIC
192
C STOIC PHYSICS AND ITS RELATION TO ETHICS
193
D ETHICS
195
E ASSORTED STOIC VIEWS
196
V Roman Stoicism
198
B EPICTETUS 55135
199
C MARCUS AURELIUS 121180
200
VI Concluding Remarks on Stoicism
201
Notes
203
Select Bibliography
205
Rome and Cicero
206
I Rome
207
II Cicero the Man
209
Ill Cicero the Thinker
210
IV Ciceros Legacy
216
Discussion Questions
217
Notes
218
Select Bibliography
219
Greek Philosophy Finds the Bible and the Bible Finds Greek Philosophy
220
1 The World at the Turn of the Millennium
221
II Philo of Alexandria
224
Discussion Questions
232
Notes
233
Select Bibliography
235
The War for the Ancient Soul
236
I The War of Politics and Philosophy
237
II Cultural Decline and Its Explanations
239
III The City on a Hill
242
IV Christianity and Philosophy
245
Minucius Felix and Basil of Caesarea
246
B BASIL OF CAESAREA 330379
Discussion Questions
Notes
Select Bibliography
Philosophy at the End of Antiquity
I Neoplatonism
II Plotinus 205270
III Christian Philosophy
IV Augustine 354430
A AUGUSTINES CONVERSION TO PHILOSOPHY
B AUGUSTINES MANICHAEAN PERIOD
C AUGUSTINES NEOPLATONIST PERIOD
D AUGUSTINES CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHY
E CONCLUSIONS ABOUT AUGUSTINE
VI Heresy and the End of Ancient Philosophy
VII Concluding Remarks
Discussion Questions
Notes
Select Bibliography
GLOSSARY
INDEX
About the Author
About the Illustrator
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Acerca del autor (2005)

James A. Arieti is Graves H. Thompson Professor of Classics and chair of the department at Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia.

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