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An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Volumen2
Vista completa - 1809
An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Volumen3
Vista completa - 1819
An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Volumen1
Vista completa - 1812
able according afford altogether amount ancient annual army attention authority become body branch Britain called capital carried cent church civil clergy common consequence considerable considered consumer continue court cultivation customs debt duties employed England equal established Europe exercises expense exportation fall farmer foreign fortune four France frequently fund give greater houses hundred importation imposed improvement increase industry interest kind labour land landlord least less levied live maintain manner manufactures means merchants millions naturally necessarily necessary never obliged occasion officers ordinary paid particular payment peace perhaps person pounds present principal probably produce profit proper proportion provinces quantity raise ranks reduced regulated render rent require respect revenue seems shillings society sometimes sort sovereign sufficient supposed thing tion trade universities whole
Página 67 - ... the duty of erecting and maintaining certain public works and certain public institutions which it can never be for the interest of any individual, or small number of individuals, to erect and maintain, because the profit could never repay the expense to any individual, or small number of individuals, though it may frequently do much more than repay it to a great society.
Página 190 - In the progress of the division of labour, the employment of the far greater part of those who live by labour, that is of the great body of the people, comes to be confined to a few very simple operations, frequently to one or two. But the understandings of the greater part of men are necessarily formed by their ordinary employments.
Página 256 - The subjects of every state ought to contribute towards the support of the government, as nearly as possible, in proportion to their respective abilities ; that is, in proportion to the revenue which they respectively enjoy under the protection of the state.
Página 139 - The directors of such companies, however, being the managers rather of other people's money than of their own, it cannot well be expected, that they should watch over it with the same anxious vigilance with which the partners in a private copartnery frequently watch over their own. Like the stewards of a rich man, they are apt to consider attention to small matters as not for their master's honour, and very easily give themselves a dispensation from having it. Negligence and profusion, therefore,...
Página 257 - The tax which each individual is bound to pay ought to be certain, and not arbitrary. The time of payment, the manner of payment, the quantity to be paid, ought all to be clear and plain to the contributor and every other person. (3) Every tax ought to be levied at the time or in the manner in which it is most likely to be convenient for the contributor to pay it.
Página 111 - ... those public institutions and those public works, which, though they may be in the highest degree advantageous to a great society, are, however, of such a nature that the profit could never repay the expense to any individual or small number of individuals, and which it therefore cannot be expected that any individual or small number of individuals should erect or maintain.
Página 258 - Thirdly, by the forfeitures and other penalties which those unfortunate individuals incur, who attempt unsuccessfully to evade the tax, it may frequently ruin them, and thereby put an end to the benefit which the community might have received from the employment of their capitals.
Página 102 - Civil government, so far as it is instituted for the security of property, is in reality instituted for the defence of the rich against the poor, or of those who have some property against those who have none at all.
Página 18 - To hurt in any degree the interest of any one order of citizens, for no other purpose but to promote that of some other, is evidently contrary to that justice and equality of treatment which the sovereign owes to all the different orders of his subjects.
Página 69 - According to the system of natural liberty, the sovereign has only three duties to attend to — three duties of great importance, indeed, but plain and intelligible to common understandings: first, the duty of protecting the society from the violence and invasion of other independent societies; secondly, the duty of protecting, as far as possible, every member of the society from the injustice or oppression of every other member of it or the duty of establishing an exact administration of justice;...