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ELEMENTS OF ELOCUTION.

'vii

Memory—is the purveyor of reason.
Man—is the merriest species in the creation.
Virtue—is of intrinsic value.

The great pursuit of man—is after happiness. The good reader will perceive the propriety of pausing after the first word, as the subject of the sentence. By this pause the mind is fixed upon the principal object of attention, and prepared to proceed with clearness and deliberation to the reception of what follows.

PITCH OF VOICE. By Pitch of Voice is meant those high and low tones which prevail in speaking. Every person has three pitches of voice, which are easily distinguished; viz.—the natural or middle pitch,--the high pitch,—and the low pitch. The natural or middle pitch is that which is heard in common conversation. The high pitch is used in calling to one at a distance. The low pitch is employed when we speak to one quite near, and who, though surrounded by many, is the only one supposed to hear.

The learner must be informed here, that high and loud, and low and soft, have not the least affinity. To render the different pitches of the voice clear and intelligible to the learner, the following diagram is ins hibiting to the eye a scale of speaking tones, similar to that used in music.

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Let the learner commence in as low a bass-key as possible, and count up the diagram, rising a tone* each number, the same as sounding the eight notes in music, and he will easily discover that the degrees of pitch in speaking, are the same as those in singing: This scale of speaking tones, may seem difficult at first, but a very little practice will render it easy. Let the learner speak one in as low a bass-key as possible—then two, &c. and he will find that he can speak these with as much ease and correctness as he can sing them. When he has acquired a knowledge of these different pitches and tones let him take a sentence and read it on the lowest note-then read it on a note higher, and so on, till he has reached the highest note of his voice. Take the following line.

“ On-on-to the just and glorious strife." • The Semitone between the 3 and 4 is not noticed here, being unnecessary in the present case.

viii

ELEMENTS OF ELOCUTION.

A little practice, it is believed, will give the reader a perfect command of his voice in all the degrees of tone from the lowest to the highest notes to which the voice can be raised.

ACCENT. Accent is a stress of voice given to a particular syllable to distinguish it from others in the same word; as in the word a-tone'-ment, the stress is laid on the second syllable. Accent is, in a measure, dependent on emphasis, and is transposed where the claims of emphasis require it; as when words occur, which have a partial sameness in form, but are contrasted in sense; as,

Neither jústice nor injustice.
Neither hónor nor dishonor.
He must increase but I must decrease.
He that ascended is the same as he that descended.
Neither láusul nor unlawful.
Neither worthy nor unworthy.

EMPHASIS. Emphasis is a stress of voice laid on particular words in a sentence, to distinguish them from others, and convey their meaning in the best manner; as, “ You were not sent here to play, but to study.The learner will perceive that the words play and study are pronounced with more force than the rest of the sentence, and are therefore termed the emphatical words.

A word, on which the meaning of a sentence is suspended, or placed in contrast, or in opposition to other words, is always emphatical.

As to the degree or intensity of force that the reader or speaker should give to important words in a sentence, no particular rules can be given. He must enter into the spirit of what he reads-feel the sentiment expressed, and he will seldom fail in giving each word its proper force, or emphatic stress. Emphasis is ever associated with thought and emotion; and he who would become eminent as a reader, or speaker, must remember that the “soul of eloquence is feeling.

EXAMPLES FOR EXERCISE.
I do not request your attention, but demand it.
It is not so difficult to talk well, as to live well.
Prosperity gains friends, adversity tries them.

'Tis hard to say, if greater want of skill

Appear in writing or in judging ill.
Angels! and ministers of grace,-defend us.
I come to bury Cæsar, not to praise him.

A METHOD OF MARKING THE DIFFERENT FORCES OF WORDS. Various methods have been devised to mark the different forces of words in sentences, in such a manner as to convey a clear idea of the pronunciation. The most simple and practical method is to unite the unaccented words to those that are accented, as if they were syllables of them. This classification naturally divides a sentence into just so many portions, as it contains accents; as in the following sentence :

Prosperity I gains friends and adversity | tries them. When there is no uncommon emphasis in a sentence, we can pronounce it with more or fewer accents, without materially affecting the sense. The following sentence may be pronounced in four portions, or in ten, without
any injury to the sense of it.

Pitchuponthátcourseoflife | whichisthemostéxcellent | andcustom I will
makeitthemostdelightful.

Pitch uponthát | course oflife | whichisthemòst | excellent | andcús-
tom / willmakeit | themóst | delightful.

Some place the bliss 1 in action | some , in ease.

Those call it | pleasure | and contentment | these.
The following extract from the poems of Ossian is inserted as scored
by Dr. Rush:

And is the son of Semo fallen? | Mournful are Tura's walls. / Sorrow
dwells at Dunscai. | Thy spouse is left alone in her youth. The son of
thy love is alone! | 'He shall come to Brageta, / and ask why she weeps ?

| He shall lift his eyes to the wall, / and see his father's sword. | Whose
sword is that? | he will say. / The soul of his mother is sad. I'Who is
that, I like the hart of the desert, , in the murmur of his course ? | His
eyes look wildly round | in search of his friend. Conal | son of Colgar, |
where hast thou been I'when the mighty fell ? | Did the seas of Cogorma
roll round thee? | Was the wind of the south in thy sails? | The mighty
have fallen in battle, I and thou wast not there. Let none tell it in Sel-
ma, | nor in Morven's woody land. Fingal will be sad, I and the sons
of the desert | mourn.

CONTENTS.

Mrs. Sigourney. 53

27. The Two Bees,

Dodsley. 55

28. Heroism of a Peasant,

56

29. Biographical Sketch of Major Andre,

57

30. The Miracle-a German Parable,

60

31. The Compassionate Judge,

61

32. The Prudent Judge-an Eastern Tale, Mass. Magazine. 62

35. Lion and Dog,

66

38. The Gentleman and his Tenant,

73

39. Dishonesty Punished,

Kane's Hints. 74

40. Socrates and Leander,

74

41. Socrates and Demetrius,

76

42. The Dead Horse,

Sterne. 79

43. Biographical Anecdotes,

79

44. The Revenge of a Great Soul,

80

45. Death of Prince William,

Goldsmith. 81

48. Naval Action,

86

49. Damon and Pythias,

90

50. Test of Goodness,

92

51. The Mysterious Stranger,

Jane Taylor. 93

52. Earthquake in Calabria,

Goldsmith. 98

53. The Starling;

Sterne. 100

54. Alcander and Septimius,

Goldsmith, 102

55. Ingratitude-Story of Inkle and Yarico,

104

60. Story of the Siege of Calais,

112

61. Examples of Decision of Character,

John Foster. 116

62. Ortogrul: or, the Vanity of Riches,

Dr. Johnson. 118

63. Schemes of Life often Illusory,

Dr. Johnson. 121

64. The Hill of Science,

Aikin. 123

65. The Vision of Mirza,

Spectator. 126

70. The Voyage of Life,

Dr. Johnson. 137

71. The Journey of a Day—a picture of human life, Dr. Johnson. 140

75. Destruction of Jerusalem,

148

76. Destruction of Jerusalem-concluded,

152

79. Address to the Sun,

Ossian. 160

81 Formation of Character,

J. Hawes, D. D. 162

82. On Happiness of Temper,

Goldsmith. 164

84. A Good Scholar,

May. 168

85. Select Sentences,

170

86. Select Paragraphs,

173

87. Happiness is founded in rectitude of conduct,

Harris. 177

88. Virtue and Piety man's highest interest,

Harris, 178

89. Importance of Virtue,

Price. 179

90. The Folly of Inconsistent Expectations,

Aikin. 180

91. On the Beauties of the Psalms,

Horne. 182

98. On the Irresolution of Youth,

Goldsmith. 190

99. The Hero and the Sage,

193

100. The Blind Preacher,

Wirt. 194

101. Specimen of Welch Preaching,

London Jewish Expositor. 196

102. Happiness,

Lacon. 199

107. The Dervis and the Two Merchants,

Lacon. 214

108. On the Present and Future State,

Addison. 215

113. The Just Judge,

223

114. On Happiness,

Sterne. 226

115: On Sincerity,

Tillotson. 228
116. Story of Le Fevre,

Sterne. 230
119. Speech of a Scythian Ambassador to Alexander, Q. Curtius. 244
120. Diogenes at the Isthmian Games,

245
125. The Nature of True Eloquence,

D. Webster. 254
126. The Perfect Orator,

Sheridan. 254
127. Rolla's Address to the Peruvians,

Sheridan. 255
132. Character of William Pitt,

267
133. Character of the Puritans,

Edinburgh Review. 268
134. Character of Washington,

Phillips. 271
138. Address to the Patriots of the Revolution, D. Webster. 275
139. Specimen of the Eloquence of James Otis,

277
140. On Conciliation with America,

Burke, 278
141. Speech on the Question of War with England, Patrick Henry. 280
146. Hannibal to Scipio Africanus,

288
147. Scipio's Reply to Hannibal,

290
149. Brutus Speech on the Death of Cesar,

Shakspeare. 293

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