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sanctifying influence which he exerts upon the hearts of men. The descent of the Holy Ghost to supply the presence of Christ on earth, seems to be considered as the main object of his going to the Father. As to the hypothesis which has been sometimes maintained, to which Dr. Whitley alludes in the foregoing extract, and which he elsewhere more particularly opposes, that the love of the Father towards mankind was less than that of the Son, it is sufficient to observe that Archbishop Magee has been no less explicit in its refutation.

In order more fully to expose the erroneous estimate which we conceive Dr. Whitley to have taken of the importance and value of the Atonement, it will be well perhaps to subjoin another extract, in which his sentiments are yet more plainly developed. Towards the close of the work, as well as in the other parts of it, he adverts to the Mahometan objections to Christianity, on the ground of vicarious atonement; and, looking to the fall of this religion as identical with the triumph of the gospel, he thus continues :

Can any clearer proof be imagined of our absolute want of a Saviour, any stronger evidence be afforded of the all-importance of his atonement and sacrifice, than the utter failure of every other plan and ineans of stopping the tide of human corruption, and preventing the overflow of the most gross idolatry, the most appalling iniquity and criminality, from deluging and destroying the world? Or any stronger attestation of the grace and virtue of Christ, of the value and the efficacy of his death and passion, be given, than its happy fruits, its signal and glorious effects ? the conquests it has gained over self and sin; the triumphs it has won over the vices and crimes, over the appetites and passions, over the ignorance and the prejudices of mankind ? As these spiritual victories, these inoral miracles-miracles of truth and virtue contributed chiefly to overthrow the pride of philosophy, the blindness of idolatry, and the blandishmeuts of folly and sensuality in the heathen world ; so these it is that must now be called in to overthrow the pride and self-suffi. ciency of infidelity at home, and the delasion and fanaticism of Mahometanism abroad. The internal divisions and bitter strife, together with the impure and vicious lives of professed Christians, having first stopped the progress and prevented the growth and spread of religion in the world; it is obvious that it must always be advanced or retarded by the like means, and in the like way: that it must prosper by our mutual charity and good will, by our holy lives and good works, or fail and decline by our discord and animosity, our felly and iniquity. To assist the indigent, relieve the oppressed, instruct the ignorant, reform the vicious, convert the sinner from the error of his ways, is the surest and best means of expelling doubt and incredulity, of defending the faith, and maintaining the cause and the truth of Christ in the world: it is the triumph of our religion, and the destruction of theism and apostacy : it lies level to all conditions, and to all ranks and capacities : it can neither be mistaken nor confuted, neither denied nor evaded : it speaks equally to our understanding and our feelings; addresses itself at once to our minds and our hearts; the eyes behold it, the hands handle it, all the senses perceive it. Who can doubt the skill of that physician whose patients are always restored to health; the efficacy of that medicine which never fails to cure? 'Who can question the power and grace of Christ, or deny the truth and virtue of the atonement, when they witness the great, the mighty works it does, the moral miracles it works; the wandering reclaimed, the proud humbled, the passionate calmed, the wicked reformed, the sinner saved ?-Pp. 386-388.

In this concluding summary of the Doctor's opinion,--and he proceeds in the same strains to the end of the volume,—there is not the most distant allusion to the sacrifice of Christ, considered as an atonement for the actual sins of men; not one word of that justifying faith, which is “the power of God unto salvation unto every one that believeth." The work indeed seems to be, in the main, a modified revival of those errors, against which the work of Magee was principally directed. Upon several occasions Dr. Whitley speaks with great severity of the writers who have preceded him in the investigation of the subject; and not only characterises their views as defective, but as written rather for disputation than instruction, and founded upon the "forms and observances of the law, rather than the ordinances and declarations of the gospel.” We confess that, with such treatises as those of Abp. Magee and Mr. Jerram before our eyes, we are not a little surprised at such a sweeping condemnation ; and we are not yet prepared to abandon their full and adequate conception of this important doctrine, in favour of the partial and insufficient scheme of their opponent.

At the same time we are willing to admit, as indeed we have already intimated, that there is a vast mass of valuable matter in the Doctor's treatise. We could readily select a variety of passages, in which sound scriptural criticism, orthodox views of doctrine, and depth of research into the nature and design of the Mosaic institutions, are brought to bear with combined force upon an argument well maintained, at least, if not satisfactorily established. Our object, however, is to guard the student against error; and, having directed his attention to the grand error in the theory under review, we leave him to search for himself those treasures which he will find thickly scattered throughout the work.

Art. II.-Tracts for the Times. By Members of the University of

Oxford. Vol. I., for 1833-4. ( Tracts 46, Records of the Church, XVIII.) Vol. II., for 1834-5. (Tracts 70, Records of the Church,

XXV.) London : Rivingtons. 1834-1836. We are of opinion that these Tracts are likely to exercise a very powerful influence on the Clergy, and, through them, on the other members of the Church. Although this effort at the revival of certain doctrines of former times, which, owing to a variety of circumstances, had partially sunk into oblivion, is but of recent date; and there are, perhaps, numerous parts of the kingdom where the existence of these Tracts is hardly known, eren to the Clergy themselves, yet, we

These Tracts are continued in Monthly Numbers, at the price of Twopence per sheet.

believe they have already had a very extensive influence; and we doubt not, as they become better known and circulated, that influence will increase and spread : and if the effect of our now bringing them under the notice of our readers tends to make them known in any quarter where they had hitherto not penetrated, or to make them better appreciated where any prejudice, or other cause, had operated against them, we shall rejoice at being instrumental in that good work.

These, unlike most other Tracts, are not intended for the unlearned; but are, in reality, addressed to the Clergy; they, in some respects, profess no less an object than that of instructing those whose office it is to instruct others ;-a difficult task, but one which, we think, they have well performed. Not that all these Tracts are specially addressed to the Clergy; but yet, such is evidently their character and design. And their appearance in the present day is to be hailed as a good omen ; it is a proof that the foolish ultra-liberalism which prevailed so much during the last generation-and which shrunk from bringing forward the claims of our own Church, lest they should shock the sensitive feelings of Papists and Dissenters with the name of schism, which is branded on the brow of both alike, is rapidly passing away; it is a proof that truth is no longer to be sacrificed, or indifference to be disguised, under a pretence of charity ; it is a proof that the Church of England has not for ever abandoned her high claims to the character of a true branch of the one holy, apostolic, and catholic Church, diffused throughout the world ; or suffered herself to be brought down to the level of a merely voluntary association, and contented herself with being only one out of a vast and heterogeneous mass of conflicting sects. What is the notion of a Church among Dissenters ? A merely voluntary association, the duty of joining with which, or separation from which, is a matter of very slight obligation. Such is not the doctrine of the Holy Scriptures; and, if the Church of England has hitherto, too much shrunk from pressing forward her high claims to the homage of the people, as if she feared to do so, or had misgivings on the point, let us trust that she will henceforth rouse herself " to the height of this great argument," and fearlessly, yet with all charity and tenderness to those who are "of the contrary part,” lift up the banner of primitive truth in the midst of the Romanism, Dissent, and Infidelity, with which she is surrounded. An opposite course has been, alas ! too long tried, and the lamentable effects have become too palpable to be overlooked. Notwithstanding the boasted progress of Dissent, we are persuaded Dissent is in any situation rather than in one of success or increase. But is this the case with the Romish schism? Alas ! its rapid and surprising increase, since the commencement of the present century, is too notorious to be gainsayed. In arresting that progress, Dissent has shown itself utterly powerless; and, if the Church has not hitherto been as successful as her former history would have led us to anticipate, the cause is, we fear, to be found in her abandoning to Romanism that very ground which she ought to occupy,-of primitive truth, of order, and of apostolical authority. Let her lift up this banner yet once again, “as in the days of old, and as in former years ;" let her go on as she has now begun, and she will see written upon it, in characters of living glory and brightness, the words with which Constantine and his christian soldiers were emboldened to stand against the embattled hosts of paganism,--words emblazoned on the flaming cross of glory displayed in the open firmament of heaven—" In this conquer.” While, however, we hail these publications as almost forming a new era in the Church — an era of the revival and renovation of the principles of her earlier and better days-loud are the outcries raised among the enemies of the Establishment at their appearance. We do not remember any publications, which, in modern times, have drawn more notice from the Dissenters. This, at present, we believe, has chiefly shown itself in abuse and ridicule ; we have not heard of any very serious efforts at counter-reasoning and argumentation. These, however, are early days, and we expect the cruel sport of seeing more than one of the giants of "the Dissenting interest” breaking his battering engines, and himself into the bargain, into a thousand fragments, against this solid fortress of primitive truth. As for the Romanists, they will, probably, with greater prudence, abstain from a controversy in which every step they take can only show and prove the opposition of their own church to the characters of primitive truth, of catholicity, and of apostolical authority,--claims on which they so loudly talk; and their position, with regard to the universal Church every where, and the Established Church in this country especially, to be that of schismatics and wilful separatists. One effort, however, we have already heard of; but it is a joke so "stale, flat, and unprofitable,” that we hardly know whether to treat it with more ridicule or contempt. Some one, we believe a Dissenter, thinking himself, no doubt, supereminently gifted with wit, has published a Letter in the name of His Holiness the Pope, congratulating the Oxford gentlemen, who are the writers of these Tracts, on their hopeful approach to a reconciliation with Romanism. Now, on this matter we would only say, that we sometimes suspect men make “ ridicule the test of truth,” when they have no other test to appeal to ; and this we shrewdly suspect to have been the case with this preeminently ridiculous author.

What we have said, will sufficiently show our high estimation of these important publications ; not, however, that we could bestow on them indiscriminate approbation ; we owe it to the sacred cause which we have at heart in common with the writers of these Tracts, candidly and fearlessly to point out any thing which seems to us erroneous, or likely to diminish the authority and usefulness of their labours. And, keeping these objects in our view, we shall not shrink from what appears to us the plain paths of duty, however highly we rate the general authority of the writers.

In a series of publications, by different authors, it is to be expected that there will be great difference in the degrees of excellency with which they are severally executed ; and this is the case with these Tracts. Generally excellent, and evincing the deepest knowledge of christian antiquity, and the most acute powers of reasoning, we confess them to be; but we nevertheless occasionally meet with matter which we fear must be pronounced an exception to this excellency; and there are perhaps one or two whole tracts, which we had much rather have not found in this collection. But we fear we are detaining our readers too long from hearing the design of these Tracts as stated in the advertisements to the respective volumes. This design is so clearly set forth in the advertisement to the first volume, that we here present it to our readers without curtailment.

The following Tracts were published with the object of contributing something towards the practical revival of doctrines which, although held by the great divines of our

Church, at present have become obsolete with the majority of her members, and are withdrawn from public view even by the more learned and orthodox few who still adhere to them. The Apostolic succession, the Holy Catholic Church, were principles of action in the minds of our predecessors of the seventeenth century; but, in proportion as the maintenance of the Church has been secured by law, her ministers have been under the temptation of leaning on an arm of flesh instead of her own divinely-provided discipline,-a temptation increased by political events and arrangements which need not here be more than alluded to. A lamentable increase of sectarianism has followed; being occasioned (in addition to other more obvious causes,) first, by the cold aspect which the new Church doctrines have presented to the religious sensibilities of the mind; next, to their meagreness in suggesting motives to restrain it from seeking out a more influential discipline. Doubtless obedience to the law of the land, and the careful maintenance of decency and order" (the topics in usage among us,) are plain duties of the Gospel, and a reasonable ground for keeping in communion with the Established Church; yet, if Providence has graciously provided for our weakness more interesting and constraining motives, it is a sin thanklessly to neglect them; just as it would be a mistake to rest the duties of temperance or justice on the mere law of natural religion, when they are mercifully sanctioned in the Gospel by the inore winning authority of our Saviour Christ. Experience has shown the inefficacy of the inere injunctions of Church order, however scripturally enforced, in restraining from schism the awakened and anxious sinner; who goes to a dissenting preacher " because (as he expresses it) he gets good from him:" and though he does not stand excused in God's sight for yielding to the temptation, surely the ministers of the Church are not blameless if, by keeping back the more gracious and consoling truths provided for the little ones of Christ, they indirectly lead him into it. Had he been taught as a child, that the Sacraments, not preaching, are the sources of Divine Grace ; that the Apostolical ministry had a virtue in it which went out over the whole Church, when sought by the prayer of faith; that fellowship with it was a gift and privilege, as well as a duty; we could not have had so many wanderers from our fold, nor so many cold hearts within it.

This instance may suggest many others of the superior influence of an

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