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From the year 1155 to 1199, the fraternity was under the command of the Grand Master of the Knights Templars, whose mysteries and titles are still continued. We have still extant records of a lodge held in the reign of Henry V., at Canterbury, where Chichely, the Archbishop of that See, presided, where the names of the master, wardens, and other brethren are given : this was in 1429 ; the King himself was instituted, The St. Clairs of Rosslyn were hereditary grand masters of the order from the time of James II. of Scotland till 1736, when the then representative of the family being old and childless, resigned it to the grand lodge. Among the Grand Masters in England are numbered Dunstan, Edward the Confessor, Gondulph, Bishop of Rochester, Gilbert de Clare, William a Wykeham, Henry VII. Sir Thomas Gresham, Inigo Jones, W. Wren, and Dr. Desaguliers. William III. was a freemason, so was George IV. and so is his present Majesty. In 1717 there were only four lodges in London, who constituted themselves a grand lodge. There are now masons in all parts of the globe, who instantly recognise each other.
ORIGIN OF THE GROTESQUE CarvingS IN THE Stalls, &c. or CATHEDRALS AND Abbeys.—“ There are many bas-reliefs, particularly those carved underneath the seats of the choirs of different religious structures, that represent grotesque, and even obscene subjects, altogether at variance with the sacred character of the buildings in which they are placed. Something of this kind may be observed in Worcester cathedral, in Ely cathedral, in the priory chnrch of Great Malvern, and in many other ecclesiastical edifices. What may be thought most singular is, that the sculptures sometimes represent priests, and other religious persons, engaged in actions of a very profane description. For a satisfactory reason for this, I am indebted to my friend, Mr. Cottingham. The sculptors who executed those carvings were the caricaturists of the time; and, as different religious communities were frequently at variance with each other, they employed these artists to satirise their mutual follies and vices. Under their seats they concealed from the public eye, but exposed for their own private gratification, a series of pictorial libels. In one place, the monks of a certain order are represented as licentious, ridiculous, and depraved ; in the building belonging to these holy fathers will, probably, be found similar series of bas-reliefs, exposing the secret debaucheries of the sacred brotherhood by whom they have been libelled—but never, in any church, will a purest of that order be represented in an unholy character. He will very likely be discovered thus pictured in the church of the Franciscan, while the follower of St. Francis receives the same treatment from the Carthusian brethren in their own building. The various monastic establishments, which at one time were exceedingly numerous in England, generally regarded each other with considerable jealousy; and more than once their animosities and squabbles have disturbed the peace of the kingdom, and brought disgrace upon the unreformed religion. This occasioned some of our most ancient ecclesiastical edifices to be disfigured with grotesque and offensive designs.”– Williams's “Sculpture in Wood."
COPY OF A HANDBILL CIRCULATED BY A CLERGYMAN, IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF SALISBURY, WITH VERY
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the Constitution of 1812 has been prorogued till October next. The speech claimed almost through all Spain; the of His Majesty, or rather of His Ma- Regent and the Queen were actually jesty's ministers, is, perhaps, the most for a time prisoners in the bapds of uninteresting ever spoken. Compared the army; Quesada, and others of the with the large promises with which the most strenuous friends of the Isturiz session opened, it shrioks into an ab- ministry, have been massacred ; and surd abortion of what ministers would the ministers themselves have been not, and could not, and did not do. compelled to save their lives by conThey are evidently in the most pre- cealment. To add to the confusion, carious situation, and are not free to Rayneval, the French ambassador, bas follow their own judgments; and here died suddenly; and Louis Philippe, is the secret of the abortiveness of the whose tortuous policy has probably session ;-obliged to alter and enlarge accelerated the crisis, is, in this their measures, at the dictation of the important moment, unrepresented at Whig-Radical party, contrary to their Madrid. General Evans, forgetting own opinions. The measures sent up the doctrine of the electors of Westto the House of Lords were such as it minster, issued a proclamation, throwbecame imperative on their lordships ing cold water on the sovereignty of the to reject, if they would not forfeit all people; but the sovereign people of claims to the character of men desiring Spain were unlike the electors of to prevent the utter ruin of the Con- Westminster, and have shown no destitution, and of those mighty interests ference to his orders. Where all this which depend upon it. Their lordship3 will end, even that astute old diploat this moment, by the folly of minis- matist, Talleyrand, will hardly venture ters, are really the government; and to prognosticate. He probably will while the majority of the Lower House not now hazard the declaration, from continues as it is, they may safely go which, on a former occasion, he justly on in their present course. This is the gained so much credit, that " it is the sting of the matter; Mr. Hume and beginning of the end." his clique are compelled, when bard king of Naples, who has been on a pressed, to acknowledge it. This ma- matrimonial tour to the Tuilleries, and jority seems gradually decreasing; and to whom fame already assigns the all the elections, (if we may judge from band and dowry of the Princess Clethose of recent date,) which are likely mentine, has been frightened from his to occur, seem destined still further to propriety, and returns to Naples with decrease it. Even Warwick, which all haste. Former events show a symhad been hitherto so equally divided pathy between the kingdom of the Two as to return one member of each party, Sicilies and Spain, which may well notwithstanding the recent change oc- hasten his return. If this was the casioned by the Municipal Reform advice of Louis Philippe, who is wise Act, has, within the last week, returned in his generation, (and we can come to an avowed Conservative, the son of the no other conclusion,) it shows that the late gifted Mr. Canning. The friends Citizen King thinks the present a crisis. of the Constitution may therefore now AMERICA, - The affairs of Texas rest secure, that neither the changes of wear a very gloomy aspect. However the representation, introduced by the they may terminate, humanity will proReform Bill, nor those of the Muni- bably have cause for grief. If Mexico cipal Act, will ultimately work the conquer, the Texians will doubtplans of the Destructives.
less be exterminated ; if the latter SPAIN.-It was very unfortunate for conquer, Santa Anna, now a prisoner poor Lord Palmerston that the deve- with them, and his suite also, will lopment of his plans for the pacifica- forfeit their lives; and then the grave tion of the Peninsula should have been question, how far England can suffer made just on the eve of the King's the United States to add another imspeech. Spain is in utter confusion; mense tract of territory to herself, and
how such addition may affect the sup- over the difficulties brought on by the pression of the slave-trade, will arise. French and anarchical faction. Mr. Alter paying twenty millions for the Hume and others may take their part; emancipation of the slaves, England but the last accounts hold out à fair can hardly see all her plans frustrated prospect that they are fast losing their by such addition ; and there seems a influence, and that Canada, one of the moral certainty that this effect would most splendid jewels in the imperial follow.
crown of Great Britain, will still be CANADA.— It is gratifying to every left to her present allegiance, nor Englishman to learn, that there seems madly throw away her rising greatness a fair chance that Canada will triumph for anarchy and burren independence.
UNIVERSITY, ECCLESIASTICAL, AND PAROCHIAL
TRIBUTES OF RESPECT. THE LATE BISHOP OF DURHAM.— The name of the late venerable and venerated Dr. Van Mildert, the munificent benefactor to the Church and University of Durhani, has been inserted in the preamble on the Established Church Bill (as it is called). This appropriate and well-reserved tribute of respect to the memory of a most learned, liberal, and exemplary prelate, was adopted on the motion of Mr. Estcourt, the member for the University of Oxford.
Bishop or LICHFIELD AND COVENTRY. - At a recent meeting of the Town Council of Shrewsbury, an address to the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, on bis resigning the Head Mastership of the Royal Free Grammar School in that town, and on his appointment to the see of Lichfield and Coventry, was unanimously adopted, and subsequently presented to his lordship, who has been staying at Shrewsbury. It was afterwards also unanimously resolved, to congratulate the Rev. Dr. Kennedy on his appointment to the Head Mastership of the Free Grammar School, as the successor of Dr. Butler, and the address has been presented to Dr. Kennedy by the mayor and a large body of aldermen and councillors.
ARCHDEACON OP MADRAS. --Previous to the departure from India of the Ven, J. Robinson, Archdeacon of Madras, an address, signed by 190 of the inhabitants of Jolin Pereira's, and others, forming the congregation of Trinity Chapel, was presented to him, expressive of their high respect and esteem for him, on account of the unassuming piety, ardent zeal, and affectionate solicitude for their spiritual welfare, which he had displayed during his ministry amongst them. A memorial also was determined to be presented to the Archdeacon, consisting of a breakfast service of plate, and a silver inkstand, by the Clergy and Laity of the Archdeaconry, in testimony of the esteem and affection they bore towards him,
Rev. D. JAMES.--A meeting of the friends of the Church in Almondbury has been held in the National School at that place, for the purpose of presenting the Rev. D. James with a piece of place, on his retirement from the curacy. The interest felt in paying this compliment to the Rev. gentleman by every rank of bis hearers, and the readiness even of the operatives in giving their mite to the lady who so praiseworthily exerted herself in collecting subscriptions, were highly gratifying, and will long be remembered. The plate cousisted of a very rich silver basket, and a cage for the pocket, containing a communion paten and chalice. The basket and paten bore the following inscription :-" Presented to the Rev. D. James, on his retirement from the curacy of Almondbury, by the members of the Church of England in that township, as a testimony of their esteem and regard, 1836."
DR. ROTTLER.–The Asiatic Journal states, that a monument to the memory of the late Rev. J. P. Rottler, D.D., is to be erected by subscription in Vepery church, and that any excess in the amount of the funds subscribed, over the cost of the monument, is to be applied to the founding of one or more Scholarships, which are to bear the title of “ The Rottler Scholarship.” This pious and excellent divine died at Madras, January the 24th, after a few days' illness, which commenced with a paralysis, at the advanced age of 86. For above sixty years, he had laboured as a Missionary in India, formerly in the Danish Mission at Tranquebar; and, since 1804, in the Mission at Vepery, of the Suciety for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts,
Right Rev. Dr. Maltby.— The Right Rev. Dr. Maltby, the new. Bishop of Durham, accompanied by his family, lately arrived at Auckland Castle. On approaching Bishop-Auckland, the Rev. Prelate was met by a large concourse of persons in carriages and on horseback, who paid him the respect of escorting him to the splendid seat of the see of Durham. After the usual ceremony of presenting a falchion by the owners of Pollard's Lands had been gone through in the vestibule of the palace, his lordship turned round, and addressing the company assembled, returned them his thanks for the warm and hearty welcome with which he had been received, and hoped he should live on terms of the best neighbourhood and good feeling with those who had honoured his arrival with their presence.
Rev. O. LODGE.-The parish of Barking, in Essex, bas had, for the last twenty-seven years, the benefit of the ministerial labours of the Rev, Oliver Lodge. Upon bis removal, caused by the death of the late vicar, his parishioners have presented him with a handsome ten service of plate and a purse of sovereigns, raised by subscription among themselves. They have also, we understand, addressed to high authority a statement of his merits, conceived in the warmest terms of sympathy and veneration towards their old curate.
Rev. C. B. SwEeT.-The Rev. C. B. Sweet, formerly of Balliol College, and curate of Kellesford, Somerset, lately preached a farewell sermon to a numerous congregation, after a residence of twenty-five years; and the next day the principal parishioners, being chiefly rack-renters, presented him with two elegant pieces of plate, as a tribute of respect and affectionate esteem.
The Hon. AND Rev. E. Pellew.- A splendid piece of place, value 1001., has been presented to the Hon. and Rev. Edward Pellew, of Oriel College, by his parishioners in Great Yarmouth, for gratuitously performing the evening service in the chance of St. Peter's church.
STATUE TO THE MEMORY or DR. JOHNSON.- The Rev. Chancellor Law has submitted to the Corporation of the city of Lichfield, the very liberal proposition to erect a statue, at his own expence, to the memory of Dr. Johnson, in the market-place, opposite the house where the learned lexicographer was born. It is expected that the Corporation (who are owners of the market-place) will at once accept this handsome offer of the Rev. Gentleman.
Rev. S. BRISCALL.-The inhabitants of the parish of Strathfieldsaye have testified their high esteem and regard for their late curate, the Rev. Samuel Briscall, B.D., late Fellow of Brasennose College, by presenting him with a handsome piece of plate, as a return for his care and attention to his flock for the last seventeen years.
Rev. W. VILLERS.- The Rev. William Villers, M.A., of Balliol College, curate of St. George's Chapel, has been absent from Kidderminster for the benefit of his health. His congregation, anxious to testify their esteem for their pastor, and evince their gratitude for his long and faithful services, have subscribed upwards of 1601. to present him with a piece of plate on his return.
Rev. J. COLLEY.- The Rev. James Colley having lately resigned the curacy of Montford, Shropshire, which he had served for the last five years, the parishioners have kindly presented him a handsome silver inkstand, bearing the following inscription :" Presented to the Rev. James Colley, M.A., by the parishioners of Montford, as a token of their esteem and graitude, for his faithful and laborious services during the five years he ofliciuted as their minister. July 30th, 1836."