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QUESTIONS. By what is comedy sufficiently dis- 1 pairs, is like what? As in every sort of criminated from tragedy? What form composition, the perfection of art is to the province of the latter; and what is conceal art, how will a masterly writer the sole instrument of the former? give us his characters? What should What does comedy propose for its ob- the style of comedy be? Of the French ject? Of the general idea of comedy, rhyme, what is here observed ; and what what is observed ; and why? What is remark follows? What is one of the most doing real service to the world ; and difficult and one of the most imporwhat remark follows? At the same tant circumstances in writing comedy? time, what must be confessed; and What is here observed of our English why? What, therefore, have licentious comedies; what ones are mentioned, writers of the comic class, too often had and what is said of them? What remark in their power? Of this fault, what is follows; but how will its nature and spirit observed ? How is this illustrated ? Of be better understood ? With what reFrench, and of English comedy, what mark does our author commence; and is here observed ? How are our disqui- how is it probable comedy took its rise? sitions concerning comedy shortened? What three stages of comedy do critics To both these forms of dramatic com- distinguish among the Greeks? In what position, what is equally necessary ? did the ancient consist? Of this nature, What was shown to be the scope of all are whose plays, and what is said of these rules; and why is this necessary? them? What do they show? What are Why does this require a stricter obser- several of Aristophanes's plays ? Of vance of the dramatic rules in comedy, what are they full; what is the consethan in tragedy; and what are the quence; and with what dothey abound? great foundation of the whole beauty What are his characteristics? On many of comedy? Of the subjects of tragedy, occasions, what does he display ; but of what is here observed? Why does the his performances, what remark follows? reverse of this hold in comedy? How is Why do they seem to have been comthis illustrated ? At what should the posed for the mob? Of the treatment comic poet aim? What is not his busi-given by this comedian to Socrates, ness; what should he give us; and why? what is observed? What is remarked Of Plautus and Terence, what is of the chorus in his plays ? Soon afhere remarked; but what must be re-ter the days of Aristophanes, what took membered ? In after times, what had place? Why was the chorus also the Romans? Into what two kinds may banished? Then what arose, and what comedy be divided ; and of them, re- was it? How was it conducted; and spectively, what is observed? In which what remark follows? To them sucdo the French most abound; and what ceeded what, and what did the stage instances are given? In which do the then become? Of Menander what is English; and what remark follows ? observed ? What are the only remains In order to give this sort of composition which we now have of the new comeits proper advantage, what is requisite ? dy? For what is Plautus distinguished ? How is this remark fully illustrated ? | As he wrote at an early period, what is Of the action in comedy, what is re- the consequence? How does he open marked; and why? Hence, what is a his plays; and what are sometimes congreat fault? What are now justly con- founded? Of him, what is farther redemned and laid aside; and why? marked? Which of his plays have What remark follows? In the manage- been copied; and by whom? What is ment of characters, what is one of the said of Terence? Of what is his style most common faults of comic writers ? a model ? What is observed of his diaWherever ridicule is concerned, what logue; and what does he, leyond most is very difficult ? What instance is writers, possess? What is the general mentioned; and of it, what is remarked ? character of his morality; and what of the characters in comedy, what is remark follows? Hence, of what may observed; but what give too theatrical he be considered the founder ? In what, and affected an air to the piece? Why if in any thing, does he fail? How is has this become too common a resource this illustrated ? In order to form a perof comic writers ? How is this illustra- fect comic author, what would be reted? What instances are mentioned ; quisite ? and such production of characters by When we enter on the vicw of mo

dern comedy, what is one of the first how is this irregularity conspensated ? objects which presents itself; and of it, At what are we surprised; and why? what is observed ? Who are the chief | What is said of Sir John Vanburgh ? Spanish comedians ? Of Lopez de How is this illustrated? Or Congreve, Vega, what is remarked? Of these what is observed ; and what is his chief plays, what is the nature ? At the same fault? How is this illustrated ? What time, what is generally admitted ? kind of a writer is Farquhar? Which What apology does he himself give, are his two best plays? Why does our for the extreme irregularity of his com- author say the least exceptionable? positiona ? What are the general cha- How is this fully illustrated ? Or the racters of the French comic theatre ? censure which our author has notv What writers of note has it produced ? passed, what is observed; and why? OC Moliere, what is wrther observed ? How do foreigners speak of this? How What does Voltaire boldly pronounce is this illustrated ? Or what, therefore, him? Of this decision, what is obser- is there no wonder, and what does he ved? Of what is Moliere always the say? To have what in his power, howsatirist; and what has he done? Whatever, is our author happy; and of what does he possess, and of what is he full ? have we at last become ashamed ? of his comedies in verse, what is ob- What remark follows? For this reforserved; and also of those in prose, mation, to what are we indebted; and what is remarked ? Together with of it what is observed ? From what those high qualities what defects has does it appear that this is not altogehe? Few writers, however, have done ther a modern invention? Of the nawhat, so perfectly as he has ? Which are ture of this composition, what is obseraccounted his two capital productions ? ved? What comedy have we in EngFrom the English theatre, what are we lish that approaches this character; naturally led to expect; and why? What and what is said of it? In Frencli, afford full scope to the display of singu- what are there; and name them ? larity of character, and to the indulgence When this form of comedy first aof humour? What is the case in France? peared in France, how was it received ? Hence, what follows; but what is ex- Why was it objected to; and what tremely unfortunate ? How does it ap- was said of it ? But of this, what is obpear that the first age of Englise come- served ? Why should not all comedies dy was not infected by this spirit? Or be formed on one precise model ? Oi Shakspeare's general character, par- serious and tender comedy, what is farticularly, what is observed? What is ther remarked? But when may it prove also said of Jonson? What is remarked both an interesting and an agreeof the plays of Beaumont and Fletcher; able species of dramatic writing ? If it but in general, with what do they become insipid and drawling, to what abound? How have these comedies be- must this be imputed ? What may alcome too obsolete to be very agreeable; ways be esteemed a mark of society and why? With what comedies is this, advancing in true politeness? Repeat especially the case; and for what reason? the closing remark. Of Plautus, what is here observed ; and what is a high proof of Shakspeare's genius? When did licentiousness seize

ANALYSIS. on comedy for its province? Who then Comedy. became the hero of every comedy; and! 1. The nature of comedy. upon what was the ridicule thrown ?

2. Rules respecting it. At the end of the play, what common

3. The scene and subjects.

4. The different kinds of comedy. ly took place ? But for what is he set

5. The characters. up throughout it, and what is the conse-l 6. Thc style. quence? What remark follows; and 7. The origin of comedy. how long did this spirit prevail upon

8. Greek comedy. the comic stage? What is said of Dry

A. The different stages of it.

9. Spanish comedy. den? As he sought to please only, A. Lopez de Vega. what was the consequence? Since his 10. French comedy. time, who have been the writers of A. Moliere. greatest note? Of Cibber, what is re

11. English comedy.

A. Shakspeare-Beaumont-Fletcher, marked? Of the former, what is ob

B. Dryden-Cibber-Vanburgh-Conserved ; and what is said of the latter?

greve. To wliat if it liable; and wri:y? Butl c. A new species of comedy.

· INDE X.

Accents, thrown farther back from the ter- that mountain, 46. And on that by Sir
mination in the English than in any oth Richard Blackmore, ibid.
er language, 99. Seldom more than Affectation, the disadvantages of, in public
one in English words, 368. Govern the speaking, 376.
measure of English verse, 430.

Ages, four, peculiarly fruitful in learned
Achilles, his character in the Iliad examin- men, pointed out, 388.
ed, 485.

Akenside, his comparison between sublimi.
Action, much used to assist language in an t y in natural and mcral objects, 36, note.

imperfect state, 63. And by ancient ora Instance of his happy allusion to figures,
tors and players, 64. Fundamental rule 155. Characters of his Pleasures of the
of propriety in, 374. Caution with res- Imagination, 449.
pect to, 376. In epic poetry, the requi. Alphabet of letters, the consideration which
sites of, 474.

led to the invention of, 76. Remote ob.
Acts, the division of a play into five, and scurity of this invention, ibid. The al.

arbitrary limitation, 513. These pauses phabets of different nations derived from

in represent tion ought to fall proper one common source, 77.
. ly, 514.

Allegory, explained, 168. Anciently a fa.
Adam, his character in Milton's Paradise vourite method of conveying instruc-
Lost, 504.

tions, 169. Allegorical personages im.
Addison, general view of his Essay on the proper agents in epic poetry, 172, 230.

Pleasures of the Imagination, 31. His Ambiguity in style, from whence it pro-
invocation of the muse in his Campaign ceeds, 114.
censured, 48. Blemishes in his style, Amplification in speech, what, 191. Its
115, 116, 124. Ease and perspicuity of, principal instrument, ibid.
127, 128, 130. His beautiful description American languages, the figurative style
of light and colours, 155. Instance of of, 67, 152.
his use of metaphor, 165. Improper Anagnorisis, in ancient tragedy explained,
use of similes, 184. His general cha- 615.
racter as a writer, 208. Character of Annals and history, the distinction be-
his Spectator, 216. Critical examina. tween, 408.
tion of some of those papers, ibid. Re. Ancients and moderns distinguished, 388.
marks on his criticism of Tasso's Amin. The merits of ancient writers are now
ta, 441, note. His tragedy of Cato cri finally ascertained, 389. The progress

tically examined, 511, 518, 522, 524. of knowledge favourable to the moderns,
Adjectives, common to all languages, 88. in forming a coniparison between them,
How they came to be classed with nouns, 390. In philosophy and history, ibid.
ibid.

The efforts of genius greater anong the
Adverbs, their nature and use defined, 93. ancients, 391." A mediocrity of genius

Importance of their position in a sen now more diffused, 392.
tence illustrated, 116.

Antithesis, in language explained, 188.
Æneid, of Virgil, critical examination of The too frequent use of, censured, ibid.

that poem, 489. The subject, ibid. Ac. Apostrophe, the nature of this figure ex.
tion, 490. Is deficient in characters, plained, 179. Find one from Cicero,
ibid. Distribution and management of 290, note.
the subject, ibid. Abounds with awful Arabian Nights Entertainments, a charac-
and tender scenes, 491. The descent ter of those tales, 418.
of Æneas into hell, 492. The poem left Arabian poetry, its character, 425.
unfinished by Virgil, 493.

Arbuthnot, character of his epistolary writ.
Æschines, a comparison between him and ing, 416.
Demosthenes, 272.

Architecture, sublimity in, whence it arises,
Æschylus, his character as a tragic writer, 35. The sources of beauty in, 54.
526.

Arguments, the proper management of in
Æina, remarks on Virgil's description of a discourse, 353.' Analytic and synthe-

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tic methods, 354. Arrangement of, 355. of vague application, 50. Colours, ibid

Are not to be too much multiplied, 357. Figures, 51. Hogarth's line of beauty
Ariosto, character of his Orlando Furioso, and line of grace considered, 51. The
419, 498.

human countenance, 53. Works of art,
Aristotle, his rules for dramatic and epic ibid. The influence of fitness and de-

composition, whence derived, 27. His sign in our ideas of beauty, 54. Beauty
definition of a sentence, 112. His ex. in literary composition, ibid. Novelty,
tended sense of the term metaphor, 159. 55. Imitation, ibid.
Character of his style, 197, 201. His in- Bergerus, a German critic, writes a treatise
stitutions of rhetoric, 270, 386. His de- on the sublimity of Cæsar's Commenta-
finition of tragedy considered, 507. His ries, 38.
observations on tragic characters, 520. Berkeley, bishop, character of his Dia-
Aristophanes, character of his comedies, logues on the existence of Matter, 413.
537.

Biography, as the class of historical com-
Arithmetical figures, universal characters, position, characterized, 409.
75.

Blackmore, Sir Richard, remarks on his
Ark of the covenant, choral service per. description of Mount Ætna, 46.

sormed in the procession of bringing it Blackwell, his character as a writer, 210.
back to Mount Zion, 461.

Boileau, his character as a didactic poet,
Armstrong, character of his Art of Preserv. 451.
ing Health, 449.

Bolingbroke, instances of inaccuracy in his
Art, works of, considered as a source of style, 121, i32. A beautiful climas
beauty, 54.

from, 129. A beautiful metaphor from,
Articles, in language, the use of, 81. Their 159. His general character as a politi-

importance in the English language il. cian and philosopher, 160). His general
Justrated, ibid.

character as a writer, 211, 383.
Arliculation, clearness of, necessary in Bombast, in writing described, 48.
public speaking, 367.

Bossu, his definition of an epic poem, 470.
Associations, academical, recommended, His account of the composition of the

384. Instructions for the regulation of, Wiad, 471.
385.

Bossuei, M. instances of apostrophes to
Athenians, ancient character of, 266. Elo personified objects, in his funeral ora-
quence of, ibid.

tions, 179, note. Conclusion of his fu-
Allerbury, a more harmonious writer than neraloration on the Prince of Conde, 364.

Tillotson, 142. Critical examination of Britain, Great, not eminent for the study
one of his sermons, 326. His exordium of Eloquence, 280. Compared with
to a 30th of January sermon, 345.

France in this respect, 281.
Allici and Asiani, parties at Rome, account Bruyere, his parallel between the elo
of, 275.

quence of the pulpit and the bar, 313,
Authors, petty, why no friends to criticism, note.

28. Why the most ancient afford the Buchanan, his eharacter as an historian,
most striking instances of sublimity, 39. 407.
Must write with purity to gain esteem, Building, how rendered sublime, 35.
100, 101.

C.

Cadmus, account of his alphabet, 76.
Bacon, his observations on romances, 417. Cæsar's commentaries, the style of charac.
Ballads, have great influence over the man- terized, 38. Is considered by Bergerus

ners of a people, 417. Were the first as a standard of sublime writing, ibid.
vehicles of historical knowledge and in Instance of his happy talent in historical
struction, 423.

painting, 404, note. His character of
Bar, the eloquence of defined, 263. Why Terence the dramatist, 538.

more confined than the pleadings before Cameons, critical examination of his Lusi.
ancient tribunals, 283. Distinction be ad, 499. Confused machinery of, ibid.
tween the motives of pleading at the Campbell, Dr. his observations on English
bar, and speaking in popular assemblies, particles, 87, note.
299. In what respect ancient pleadings Carmel, Mount, metaphorical allusions to
differ from those of modern times, ibid. in Hebrew poetry, 464.

Instructions for pleaders, 301, 350. Casimir, his character as a lyric poet, 446.
Bards, ancient, the first founders of law Catastrophe, the proper conduct of, in dra-
and civilization, 424.

matic representations, 514.
Barrow, Dr. character of his style, 199. Caudine Forks, Livy's happy description
Character of his sermons, 325.

of the disgrace of the Roman army there,
Beaumont and Fletcher, their characters 402.
as dramatic poets, 540.

Cellic language, its antiquity and charac-
Beauty, the emotion raised by, distinguish. ter, 95. The remains of it where to be

ed from that of sublimity, 49. Is a term found, ibid. Poetry, its character, 424

Characters, the dangers of labouring them Comedy, how distinguished from tragedy,

too much in historical works, 405. The 506, 533. Rules for the conductor, ibid.
due requ.sites of, in tragedy, 519.

The characters in, ought to be of our
Chinese language, character of, 64. And own country and our own time, 534.
writing, 74.

Two kinds of, ibid. Character; ought
Chivalry, origin of, 418.

to be distinguished, 535. Style, 536.
Chorus, ancient, described, 509. Was the Rise and progress of comedy, ibid. Spa-

origin of tragedy, ibid. Inconveniences nish comedy, 538. French comedy, 539.
of, ibid. How it might properly be in English comedy, 540. Licentiousness of,

troduced on the modern theatre, 503. from the era of the restoration, 541.
Chronology, a due attention to, necessary The restoration of, to what owing, 543.
to historical compositions, 397.

General remarks, 544.
Chrysostom, St. his oratorical character, Comparison, distinguished from metaphor,
280.

158. The nature of this figure explain-
Cibber, his character as a dramatic writer, ed. 181.
541.

Composition. See Literary composition.
Cicero, his ideas of taste, 17, note. His dis. Congreve, the plot of his Mourning Bride

tinction between amare and diligere, 108. embarrassed, 513. General character
His observations on style, 113. Very of his tragedy, 532. His comedies, 541.
attentive to the beauties of climax, 129. Conjugation of verbs, the varieties of, 90.
Is the most harmonious of all writers, Conviction, distinguished from persuasion,
135. His remarks on the power of mu- 262.
sic in orations, 137. His attention to Copulatives, caution for the use of them,
harmony too visible, 141. Instance of 124.
his happy talent of adapting sound to Corneille, his character as a tragic writer,
sense, 113. His account of the origin 528.
of figurative language, 152. His obser. Couplets, the first introduction of, into
vations on suiting language to the sub- English poetry, 432.
ject, 161. His rule for the use of meta. Cowley, instances of forced metaphors in
phor, 162. Instance of antithesis in, 187. his poems, 162. His use of similes cen.
The figure of speech called vision, 90. sured, 186. His general character as a
His caution against bestowing profuse poet, 446.
ornaments on an oration, 193. His disa Crevier, his character of several eminent
tinction of style, 196. His own charac French writers, 382, note.
ter as a writer, 197. His character of Criticism, true and pedantic distinguished,
the Grecian orators, 268. His own cha 13. Its object, 27. Its origin, 28.
racter as an orator, 274. Compared Why complained of by petty authors,
with Demosthenes, 276. Masterly apos ibid. May sometimes decide against the
trophe in, 290, note. His method of voice of the public, ibid.
studying the judicial causes he under. Cyphers, or arithmetical figures, a kind of
took to plead, 301. State of the prose- universal character, 75.
cution of Ayitus Cluentius, 305. Analysis

D.
of Cicero's oration for him, ibid. The ex. David, King, his magnificent institutions
ordium of his second oration against Rule for the cultivation of sacred music and
lus, 343. His method of preparing intro- poetry, 460. His character as a poet,
ductions to his orations, 344. Excelled in 468.
narration, 351. His defence of Milo, ibid. Debate in popular assemblies, the eloquence
357. Instance of the pathetic in his last o f, defined, 262. More particularly con-
oration against Verres, 362. Character of sidered, 285. Rules for, 287.
his treatise de Oratoré, 389. Character Declamation, unsupported by sound rea-

of his dialogues,412 His epistles, 415. soning, false eloquence, 286.
Clarendon, Lord, remarks on his style, Declension of nouns considered in various

120. His character as an historian, 407. languages, 84. Whether cases or pre-
Clarke, Dr. the style of his sermons cha positions were most anciently used, 85.
racterized, 324.

Which of them are most useful and
Classics, ancient, their merits now finally beautiful, 86.

settled beyond controversy, 388. The Deities, heathen, probable cause of the
study of them recommended, 393.

number of, 173.
Climax, a great beauty in composition, Deliberative orations what, 284.
129. In what it consists, 191.

Delivery, the importance of, in public speak-
Cluentius, Avitus, history of his prosecu• ing, 292, 365. The four chief requisites

tion, 305. His cause undertaken by Ci. in, 366. The powers of voice, ibid.
cero, ibid. Analysis of Cicero's oration Articulation, 367. Pronunciation, 368.
for him, ibid.

Emphasis, 369. Pauses, 370. Decla
Colours, considered as the foundation of matory delivery, 374. Action ibid. Af
beauty, 60.

fectation, 376.

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