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tinuing to hover round and round the conclusion, till they become heartily tired of us. We should endeavour to go off with a good grace; not to end with a languishing and drawling sentence; but to close with dignity and spirit, that we may leave the minds of the hearers warm, and dismiss them with a favourable impression of the subject, and of the speaker.
In treating of the constituent parts: In what situation should every speaker of a regular discourse, what have been place himself; and why? What reconsidered ? To what does our author marks follow ? Supposing their argunext proceed ? From what does it ap-ments properly chosen, on what, is it pear that this is always of the greatest evident, their effect, in some measure, consequence? Of what do reason and will depend ? Concerning this, what is argument make the foundation ? With the first rule that may be taken? All respect to argument, what three things arguments are directed to prove one of are requisite? Of invention, what is what three things; and what do these observed ? Of art, what is remarked; make? Of the arguments directed to and why? What was attempted by wards any one of these, what is rethe ancient rhetoricians; and what did marked ? Of this remark, what illusthey profess? Hence, what arose? Oftration is given? In the second place, these topics, or loci, what is observed ? with regard to the different degrees of What had they? What were the com- strength in argument, what rule is mon, or general loci? For each of the given ? When, especially, is this to be different kinds of public speaking, what the course? What course may he then had they? How is this remark illus-venture to pursue? Why is not this trated ? Who were the first inventors rule to be always followed ? About inof this artificial system of oratory, and conclusive arguments, what does Cicein the contrivance of their loci, what ro advise ? Of arguments, in the third did they show? Of succeeding rhetori- place, what is observed; and why? cians, what is observed ? At the same But when is it safer to throw them totime, what is evident? What did the gether? What says Quintilian on this loci supply; and what remark follows?subject; and what example is given ? Whence must what is truly solid and Where have we a most beautiful expersuasive in oratory be drawn; and ample of the distinct amplification of what remark follows ? On this doctrine, one persuasive argument? From what what is farther remarked ; and to what is the argument taken? Repeat the sources are those referred who think manner in which it is conducted. Rethat the knowledge of them may con-peat the passage. In the fourth place, tribute to improve their invention ? But against what must we guard? What efwhen are they advised to lay aside fect does this have? What, also, is to be their common places, and to think observed? From what does this detract? closely on their subject? Of Demosthe- When a speaker dwells long on any nes and Cicero, what is here observed ? favourite argument, what is the conseTo what does our author proceed ?quence? After due attention to the What two different methods may be proper arrangements of arguments, used by orators in the conduct of their what is the next requisite for their sucreasoning? What is the analytic me-cess ? On these heads, to what is the thod ? How are his hearers led on? Of reader referred ? To what does our authis method, what illustration is given thor, therefore, next proceed? In comWith what method is this much the batting what scruples, will our author same; and of it, what is observed? But, not, in beginning this head, take up what remark follows; and consequent-time; and why? Where, is it evident, ly, what mode of reasoning is more ge- the passions have no concern? What nerally used ? In all arguing, what is remark follows ? What illustration of one of the first things to be attended to?l this remark is given? But why does the man who seriously intends to per-| shall we always find ? of this lansuade ancther, address himself to his guage, what is further remarked ; and passions ? How is this illustrated ? In why not? His mind being wholly seized treating of this part of eloquence, what by one object, which has fired it, what attempt did the ancients make, and for is the consequence? When must this what purpose? What order did they fol- be the style of the orator ; and when, ow? What has Aristotle done; and of in reality, will it be his style ; and what 4, what is observed? What cannot confer will be the consequence? When will this talent; and to what must we be he touch the heart no more; and what indebted for it? With what attainment will his composition become? Of what may one remain a cold and dry speak- must we take notice? How is this diler ? What is the use of rules and in- ference illustrated ? In the sixth place, structions on this, or any other part of what must be avoided? Of what dioratory?
gressions should we beware; and what On the head of the pathetic, what is beauties should we sacrifice ? Hence, the first direction given? Why does it of comparisons, what is observed; and belong to good sense to determine these of what further should we beware? In points? What is all that can, in gene- the last place, what should we never ral, be said ? Of what must the hearers attempt; and why? In what manner be convinced ; and what may they be must we, however, study to make our able to justify ? Unless their minds be retreat ? Above all things, of what brought into this state, what will be must we beware? A due regard to the consequence? Hence, what place what must we always preservc; and have most writers assigned to the pa- what must we remember? By endeathetic; and what remark follows? Invouring to warm them too much, of the second place, what does our author what does he take the most effectual advise? What is almost always the ef- method ? Having given these rules fect of this; and why? What is the in-concerning the pathetic, what does our direct method of making an impression? author do? Whence is it taken? Of How can this often be happily done ? this Gavius, what is related; and also In the third place, what is it necessary of the chief magistrate of Messina ? to observe ? By whom is this distinction How is the behaviour of Verres, on this not sufficiently attended to ; and of occasion, described ? Entering the fothem, what is here observed ? How is rum, what does he there direct, and this remark illustrated ? To every emo- what follows ? How does Cicero then tion, or passion, what has nature adapt-I proceed ? Or this passage, what is ob ed; and what follows ? What illustra- served ? In what manner does the oration of this remark follows? All this tor exaggerate Verres' cruelty still rartime he is speaking of what? When, ther? Of the address, hitherto, what is only, does the heart begin to be touch-observed? But what must he needs do? ed, and the gratitude and compassion Repeat what follows. What must we begin to flow? What, therefore, is the pronounce this to be? What does every foundation of all successful execution in hearer immediately perceive? What the way of pathetic oratory? By what remark follows? What part, only, now is every passion most strongly excited ; remains to be treated of? Concerning and what examples are given? Why this, why is it needless to say much? must the orator, therefore, avail himseir How is this remark illustrated? What of this power ? To accomplish this, is the great rule of a conclusion ? In what, in the fourth place, is the only sermons, what make a common coneffectual method; and why? What is clusion ? With regard to these, about the effect of the internal emotion of the what should care be taken; and why? speaker ? Why does our author not In this case, like what do they appear? now insist on this point? Of what does In what manner does the most eloquent Quintilian take pains to inform us; and of the French orators terminate his what was it? To this method, what funeral oration on the great prince of does he attribute; and of what can Condé ? Repeat the passage. In the there be no doubt? In the fifth place, conclusion of all discourses, what is a to what is it necessary to attend ? | matter of importance ? How should we What should we observe; and what endeavour to go ofl; and not to end in
what manner? Why should we end: D. They should not be extended too far. with dignity and spirit ?
2. The pathetic part of a discourse.
A. Discretion necessary in introducing it. ANALYSIS.
B. No part of the discourse should be set 1. The argument of a discourse.
apart for it. A. The invention of arguments.
c. The speaker should actually affect the B. The analytic and synthetic methods. hearers. Rules for the proper disposition of argu D. The speaker should be moved himself. ments.
E. The proper language of the passions A. They should not be blended together. should be attended to. B. They should advance in the way of F. Nothing foreign should be interwoven climax.
with it. c. If strong, they should be distinctly. G. It should not be too much prolonged. treated.
3. Instances of the pathetic.
PRONUNCIATION, OR DELIVERY. Having treated of several general heads relating to eloquence, or. public speaking, I now proceed to another very important part of the subject yet remaining, that is, the pronunciation, or delivery of a discourse. How much stress was laid upon this by the most elo- . quent of all orators, Demosthenes, appears from a noted saying of his, related both by Cicero and Quintilian; when being asked, what was the first point in oratory ? he answered, delivery; and being asked, what was the second ? and afterwards, what was the third ? he still answered, delivery. There is no wonder that he should have rated this so high, and that for improving himself in it, he should have employed those assiduous and painful labours, which all the ancients take so much notice of; for, beyond doubt, nothing is of more importance. To superficial thinkers, the management of the voice and gesture, in public speaking, may appear to relate to decoration only, and to be one of the inferior arts of catching an audience. But this is far from being the case. It is intimately connected with what is, or ought to be, the end of all public speaking, persuasion; and, therefore, deserves the study of the most grave and serious speakers, as much as of those whose only aim it is to please.
For, let it be considered, whenever we address ourselves to others by words, our intention certainly is to make some impression on those to whom we speak : it is to convey to them our own ideas and emotions. Now, the tone of our voice, our looks and gestures, interpret our ideas and emotions no less than words do ; nay, the impression they make on others, is frequently much stronger than any that words can make. We can see that an expressive look, or a passionate cry, unaccompanied by words, convey to others more forcible ideas, and rouses within them stronger passions, than can be communicated by the most eloquent discourse. The signification of our sentiments, made by tones and gestures, has this advantage above that made by words, that it is the language of nature. It is that method of interpreting our mind, which nature has dictated to all, and which is understood by all; whereas, words are only arbitrary, conventional symbols of our ideas, and, by consequence, must make a more feeble impression. So true is this, that to render words fully significant, they must, almost in every case, receive some aid from
the manner of pronunciation and delivery; and he who, in speaking, should employ bare words, without enforcing them by proper tones and accents, would leave us with a faint and indistinct impression, often with a doubtful and ambiguous conception, of what he had delivered. Nay, so close is the connexion between certain sentiments and the proper manner of pronouncing them, that he who does not pronounce them after that manner, can never persuade us, that he believes, or feels, the sentiments themselves. His delivery may be such, as to give the lie to all that he asserts. When Marcus Callidius accused one of an attempt to poison him, but enforced his accusation in a languid manner, and without any warmth or earnestness of delivery, Cicero, who pleaded for the accused person, improved this into an argument of the falsity of the charge, 'An tu, M. Callidi, nisi fingeres, sic ageres?' In Shakspeare's Richard II. the Duchess of York thus impeaches the sincerity of her husband:
Pleads he in earnest ?-Look upon his face,
We pray with heart and soul. But I believe it is needless to say any more, in order to show the high importance of a good delivery. I proceed, therefore, to such observations as appear to me most useful to be made on this head.
The great objects which every public speaker will naturally have in his eye in forming his delivery, are, first, to speak so as to be fully and easily understood by all who hear him; and next, to speak with grace and force, so as to please and to move his audience. Let us consider what is most important with respect to each of these.*
In order to be fully and easily understood, the four chief requisites are, a due degree of loudness of voice, distinctness, slowness, and propriety of pronunciation.
The first attention of every public speaker, doubtless, must be, to make himself be heard by all those to whom he speaks. He must endeavour to fill with his voice the space occupied by the assembly. This power of voice, it may be thought, is wholly a natural talent. It is so in a good measure; but, however, may receive considerable assistance from art. Much depends for this purpose on the proper pitch, and management of the voice. Every man has three pitches in his voice; the high, the middle, and the low one. The high, is that which he uses in calling aloud to some one at a distance. The low is, when he approaches to a whisper. The middle is, that which he employs in common conversation, and which he should generally use in public discourse. For it is a great mistake, to imagine that one must take the highest pitch of his voice, in order to be well heard by a great assembly. This is confounding two things which are different, loudness, or strength of sound, with the key or note on which we speak. A speaker may render his voice
* On this whole subject, Mr. Sheridan's Lectures on Elocution are very worthy of being consulted; and several hints are here taken from them.
louder, without altering the key; and we shall always be able to give most body, most persevering force of sound, to that pitch of voice, to which in conversation we are accustomed. Whereas, by setting out on our highest pitch or key, we certainly allow ourselves less compass, and are likely to strain our voice before we have done. We shall fatigue ourselves, and speak with pain; and whenever a man speaks with pain to himself, he is always heard with pain by his audience. Give the voice, therefore, full strength and swell of sound; but always pitch it on your ordinary speaking key. Make it a constant rule never to utter a greater quantity of voice, than you can afford without pain to yourselves, and without any extraordinary effort. As long as you keep within these bounds, the other organs of speech will be at liberty to discharge their several offices with ease; and you will always have your voice under command. But whenever you transgress these hounds, you give up the reins, and have no longer any management of it. It is an useful rule too, in order to be well heard, to fix our eye on some of the most distant persons in the assembly, and to consider ourselves as speaking to them. We naturally and mechanically utter our words with such a degree of strength, as to make ourselves be heard by one to whom we address ourselves, provided he be within the reach of our voice. As this is the case in common conversation, it will hold also in public speaking. But remember, that in public as well as in conversation, it is possible to offend by speaking too loud. This extreme hurts the ear, by making the voice come upon it in rumbling indistinct masses; besides its giving the speaker the disagreeable appearance of one who endeavours to compel assent, by mere vehemence and force of sound.
In the next place, to being well heard and clearly understood, distinctness of articulation contributes more, perhaps, than mere loudness of sound. The quantity of sound necessary to fill even a large space, is smaller than is commonly imagined; and with distinct articulation, a man of a weak voice will make it reach farther than the strongest voice can reach without it. To this, therefore, every public speaker ought to pay great attention. He must give every sound which he utters its due proportion, and make every syllable, and even every lecter in the word which he pronounces, be heard distinctly; without slurring, whispering, or suppressing any of the proper sounds.
In the third place, in order to articulate distinctly, moderation is requisite with regard to the speed of pronouncing. Precipitancy of speech confounds all articulation, and all meaning. I need scarcely observe, that there may be also an extreme on the opposite side. It is obvious that a lifeless, drawling pronunciation, which allows the minds of the hearers to be always outrunning the speaker, must render every discourse insipid and fatiguing. But the extreme of speaking too fast is much more common, and requires the more to be guarded against, because, when it has grown up into a habit, few errors are more difficult to be corrected. To pronounce with a proper degree of slowness, and with a full and clear articula