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extends, -as the surplus capital of peace with her than she has in keepeach country becomes invested in the ing peace with them. others, and as the commercial firms Wars are often nothing but rapids throughout Europe come to depend or cataracts in the stream of civilisa

one another, or indeed tion, occurring when unyielding matamalgamatein“European” companies ters cross its course, and hastening, -the various States will approximate not hindering, its progress onward to a community, of which the mem- to the goal. Morally considered, bers will be as closely related as pro- the kingdoms of Europe resernble a vinces of the same country were series of plateaus of different heights, at the beginning of this century. upon which agencies are at work

Among states so closely related, reducing them to a lower level; international war will gradually die and convulsions are inevitable as out. That is the tendency,—but the the various States, each for itself, end is afar off; and we must beware make the transition to a broader and the error of acting as if we were at safer basis of power. As the units the goal, while we are still upon the of the population develop into journey. The end may be seen afar, thinking self-willed beings, they like a star guiding us homeward; naturally throw off those fetters and but they are fools who, the mo- leading-strings which suited them in ment they catch sight of that distant their state of pupillage, and grow star, throw off their harness, as if the into a self-acting community. The troubles of the night and the dangers British nation has run through this of the way were already over. Such, course, not without civil war and it appears to us, is the conduct of political convulsions; but, happily that section of our politicians who secluded by the sea from foreign inare known by the name of the Peace tervention, and aided by the practical Party. They do not consider the spirit of compromise natural to the many obstacles to be overcome, the Anglo-Saxon race, they have at many shocks to be encountered, ere length reached the broad level of Europe reach that almost millennial individual freedom and popular gohaven of peace. They do not con- vernment. The pyramid, once poised sider the widely diverse circum- unstably on its apex, now rests on stances of its component States,— its base. In this respect we stand that while one end of Europe is ra- alone among the nations of Eupidly nearing the goal of civilisation, rope ; but each and all of these the other has hardly yet started on are on the road, and will reach the the journey; and consequently that goal in due time, and after their the pacific tendencies of the western own fashion. Even Russia, where nations, if unguardedly indulged, the masses are still serfs and autoonly place them more at the mercy matons, has exhibited an evanescent of the semi-barbarous population of thrill and convulsion from the poputhe eastern half of the continent. lar passion (prematurely caught by Russia has not, and will not for gene- contagion from western Europe in rations have, any surplus capital to 1815-18), and not all the power of invest in other countries; moreover, the Czars will suffice in the future to alone of European powers (owing to stop its onward progress, leavening her vast extent) she has a self-suffic- and

descending deeper into the masses ing internal trade, which renders her of Russian society. Next to Great comparatively independent of foreign Britain, if we omit the small states of markets: and therefore it will be long Switzerland and Belgium, we unhesiindeed before she fairly enters into tatingly place our northern kindred, the commercial system of Europe, the Scandinavian Powers, as possessand anything like a commercial equi- ing popular rights fully acknowlibrium be established over the Con- ledged, and a political constitution tinent. Indeed, the pacific tendencies which works without convulsions. of commerce will for long tell in France comes next : there the nafavour of Russia, by drawing into tional will is supreme after a fashion, her vast fields the surplus capital of but as yet it has only learned to make other States, and thereby giving them itself felt imperfectly or by revolua greater interest in maintaining tions. Spain has virtually no voice

in its own government, and the tho- the less dear to us because the opporoughly reactionary and absolutist site of those prevalent on the Contitendencies of its dissolute Court are nent. Any keen watcher of events rapidly hastening on a convulsion. must have perceived that since the Italy, if we except Sardinia, has no suppression of the revolutionary voice at all in its own government; struggles in 1848-9, Popery and its natural homogeneity

is destroyed Absolutism have alike shown new life by the maintenance of antiquated on the Continent. Despotism has territorial divisions ; a large part of called to its aid

the wiles and terrors it is under foreign domination; and on of the Romish Church, and both are the whole it is the most unstably con- slowly culminating towards a reditioned country in Europe. Germany action, shortlived it may prove, but has not arrived at its ultimate natural powerful. Once fairly dominant on state; it will never be in stable rest the Continent, that tide of reactiontill it obtain the constitutional form ary opinion cannot fail to burst like of government promised to it in a floodtide against our shores; and 1815, and simplify the organisation of woe to all that is most truly British the Fatherland at the expense of the if we are not ready to meet the assault. petty Courts which at present eat up The plain facts of the case are its revenues, divide its energies, and these. If a popular movement were furnish so favourable a field for the now to take place in Italy, it would influence of Russia's diplomacy. be followed by one in Spain ;-if it Prussia may part with its present take place in Spain, it will be inindividuality in return for the covet- stantly caught up in Italy. How ed leadership of Germany; but on the would these movements be regarded map of the future will there be any in this country? Any one who has abiding place for Austria ? She is but felt the popular pulse or attended a political fabric, with no basis to to the signs of the times, can give rest upon, either of nationality or but one reply — With the liveliest geographical configuration. No com- sympathy. Let our Government act munity of race or of feeling binds to- as it may, the popular voice and the gether the varied populations of that public journals will vociferate in faempire, and as these populations be- vour of the insurgents and the cause come more developed by the action of of liberty. Austrian intervention on civilisation, will they not draw asunder the one side would give us a right and range themselves along with the to intervene on the other. Italy is national groups to which they belong accessible at all points --Sicily could -Germanic, Slavonic, and Italian be effectually protected by our fleet;

We write these things in no idle will not, then, the popular demand spirit of conjecture, but to show the for intervention be almost, perhaps fallacy of the Peace-dreamers, and to wholly, irresistible? And in any indicate the insecurity of the basis case, if the movement (as is almost upon which rests the peace of the certain) be ultimately suppressed, Continent. Far be it from us to our shores will be a refuge for not set a day or a year for the accom- a few of the insurgent chiefs; and plishment of these changes; but come the vehemence with which our jourthey will, whether we like it or no; nals at one time assailed Louis Naand he who thinks that they can all poleon, and at another King Bomba, pass off peaceably, alike contradicts will be renewed in one tremendous the past and very much misconceives volley against the general system of the future. England has nothing to imperial despotism, by which the gain in Europe, but she has much to popular cause has been crushed and defend. She has not only her out- its leaders immolated. What reply posts-Heligoland, Gibraltar, Malta, will the despotic Courts make? Will the Ionian Islands-lying all round they remain quiet like a set of amiable the Continent, and upholding her Quakers, and let us rage our fill? maritime power and communications No, truly. England will then indeed with India ; but she has a commerce be a foyer of revolutions--a constant spreading over every sea; and prin- declaimer against absolutism, a living ciples and institutions at home not incentive to rebellion ; and the ConVOL. LXXXI.-NO. CCCCXCV.


tinental Powers will put as down if will never surrender her freedom of they can. It is only natural that the press as long as she can keep her they should wish to do so ; and it is flag flying on the seas. very certain that in such circum- Depend upon it, then, howsoever stances they will make the attempt. Mr Cobden and his party may desire Will they not form a naval con- to spin their cotton or loan their federacy (as the Assemblée Nationale money in perpetual peace, there considerately hinted last month), are causes at work in the world in the hope of extinguishing our which will ruthlessly demolish their supremacy at sea, and with it every- dreams. We take no disconsolate thing? Need we remind our readers view of the future. We have a suffiof the hatred with which the free ciently lively faith in the wisdom of press of this country is regarded by the Divine government to believe the Continental Courts, and of the that Providence will order the ways probability that they will one day of the world a great deal better than give us the curt alternative of sup- the best ideal which Mr Cobden or pressing its freedom or accepting war? any of us can suggest. We believe British statesmen will do well to Europe is travelling on a good though bear in mind that most suggestive rough road, and fancy we can discern episode of the Conferences in April, a happy goal to her journey. But where the President proposed that the what we assert again and again assembled Plenipotentiaries should is the perions folly of those who Baca behalf of their Governnients, would have this country act as if a i presung sa end to the license of millennial pesce already existed in en Beigin-the only State the vocii irund us. Even as the m zie anchent where the press is eni uť citisation is Peace, so the end Tait Tre. En radstone, with otrzügion is Love; and week after 2) lis Dint pence, vas start veek me heavenly doctrines of love, # T U Ting, m viis brotherly eharity, and universal phiPNL ING N i Przinment lanthropy are expounded and enforc

1 Sim Tas muçit meine from our pulpits. But what sane de e a units. Thus, živine would exhort his hearers to

F# the Qazitution of set in their daily life as if the reign True The Press representative universal love were already estabGoizalizat de wezi w...gly take isbad! Who would exhort to love part in any inquiry into the measures and trust all men everywhere—from Soitatile to put an end to such prac- the showy adventurer who is ready to tione Count Buol went further, and swindle whom he can, to the ticketalmitted the necessity of repressing of-leave reprobate who only waits till the excess of the press in every your back is turned to garotte you? country of the Continent-perhaps We have said that international peace every island two." This coalition of is the goal of civilisation ; but even Governments against the liberty of social peace, the first-fruit and beginthe press, be it remembered, was pro- ning of civilisation-alas ! how frail posed in a Congress assembled for it is! Who would yet venture to entirely, other purposes, and yet it dispense with bolts and bars and met with the above-mentioned coun- police, even in this most advanced tenance. What would the issue have country of all the earth 2-who dare been if Great Britain, instead of being leave a company's books unaudited present as the pillar of the Alliance, or keep no check even upon the most had been absent, isolated, proscrib- pious of bankers ? Not one. Yet the od? And yet if Mr Cobden or any trust we would not put in one another, one olne thinks that England would the Peace Party think we may safely submit to the extinction of her free place in alien powers ! Surely the prown at the dictation of the Conti- events of the last nine years ought to nontal courts, ho reckons without his teach us the visionary nature of such hont. Ho has only to look at the delusions. The rude wars of peoples fire and fury excited amongst us by so against their Governments, and of amall a matter as the recent minatory Governments against their peoples muggestions of the semi-official Con- and one another, may show us how stitutionnel, to be assured that Britain far off yet is that end of civilisation

which bringeth peace. Peace in leaders be corrupt. Neither does Europe is a-coming, so we trust; any one despise the Italian, once but certainly, it is not yet within celebrated alike in art, in arms, and hail

. Its white sails may be seen in polity-in whose veins nationality glimmering on the far horizon, as if and patriotism are now panting, and coming towards us from the heavens whose recovery of freedom may inof the future; but many a wild bil- augurate a new development of the low and hurricanous gust will yet national genius. Indeed the three break on the European strand, ere peninsular kingdoms of Southern that white-winged messenger of glad Europe -Greece, Italy, Spain,-after tidings cast anchor in our havens. long lying like exhausted fields,

Whenever the dreams of the Peace seem about to quicken after their Party are realised, it will first be fallow, and join again in the race of among the christianised communities progress which they once led,-in of the White race of Europe, -that the stately march of National De"upper crust” of the world, who velopment, which, proceeding in early acknowledge in each other equals times westwards along the shores of and fellows of the same dominant the Mediterranean, thereafter turned caste. Each of these communities northwards, and, after culminating in has had its day of power. Greece Britain and France, is now running once conquered by arms, and still eastward again through the central conquers by its heirlooms of intellect. region of Europe. Rome subdued, and spread the seeds Such may be deemed some leading of civilisation throughout the ancient points and indications in European world. Spain and Portugal first politics. But in order to embrace subjugated the seas, and overran the the theme even in outline, we must gold-regions of the New World. far overpass the territorial limits of France has twice threatened Europe Europe, and, following the dominant with domination, and is now spread- White race in its distant wanderings ing her sway over Northern Africa, and conquests, observe how the interBritain, a little island, has done more ests accruing from its varied positions than they all. Russia has already abroad are reflected back upon the done much, and will soon do far politics of the Continent of its birth. more. Even Scandinavia once sent It is a marvellous phenomenon, these her conquering rovers to every shore, migrations of the White race; and and subsequently turned the tide of yet they have occurred so gradually, battle in Germany in favour of the and we have become so habituated Reformation. Germany is the sleep- to the phenomenon, that it does not ing giant of the European system, adequately impress us. In studying never having established its unity, the primordial history of nations we but ere long it will take the high have often felt it hard to believe that place that belongs to it in the com- a few families, shooting off from one munity of the White oligarchs. All small parent stock, should have these peoples—all the members of grown into mighty nations far apart the far-spread European race --- re- from each other, and in lands which gard each other as equals. Those they at first_entered as strangers that are weakest now have at one and aliens. In whatever region we time been greatest; and if actual look, we find traces of a quasi-aboriequality of power be not present, ginal race in remote times peopling it is felt that at least the power has the country,—then the arrival of been there, and may return. The straggling bands, belonging to a new subtle Greek, more famed now for wave of population; and, lo! when duplicity than manly virtue or learn- we see again, by a process mysteing, is respected as having once been rious because we cannot trace its links, great, and still makes himself dis- the new-comers have grown into a tinguished in the pursuits of com- nation entirely supplanting the old ! merce. The indolent Spaniard is The phenomenon is indeed marvelknown to have had his epoch of chi- lous; but if we do but open our eyes, valrous gallantry and far-reaching we may see it in actual process in enterprise, and the manly virtues still our own day, and pre-eminently in live in the population, though its the wanderings and conquerings of


our own nation. The British Isles, stain little doubt that, as the Anglocontaining but a hundred thousand Americans of the Union extend their square miles of soil, and at first sway southwards over central Amethe abode of rude and thinly-scat-rica, they will carry negro-slavery tered tribes, have reared a with them; and, moreover, while which within the last two centuries 'fraternising with the remnant of has spread itself as masters into pure Spaniards in Mexico and elseevery region of the world. Wave where, will endeavour to reduce the after wave of population has gone half-breeds and native population forth, as if the process was inexhaust- linto systematic serfdom. Mr Buchanible, and yet the little Island only an’s contemplated course in regard to grows more densely peopled. Over Kansas is still uncertain ; but if, as

nearly the entire expanse of North is possible, he conciliate the nori America has the British race spread, thern States by letting Kansas de

-it has colonised Southern Africa, clare itself a free member of the -it is fast peopling the island-world Union, we may rely that he will of Australasia, and it rules as a do- simultaneously take steps to extend minant caste over the vast realms of the Slave States by encroachments India Everywhere the native races on central America. It is bad pohave disappeared before it-the Red licy for the Slave States to extend men of America, the Caffres of the themselves by encroaching on the Cape, the aborigines of Australia, – limited territory of the Free-soilers, or, like the Hindoos and Negroes, do thereby exciting animosity, and neit reverence and service. A great cessitating a contest for supremacy.

natural law is marked by the various And we have no doubt they will will; settlements of the White race. In ingly abandon this course whenever

temperate climates it colonises, and a substitute is found, and a gateway the inferior races die out before it; of expansion is opened for them into while in tropical regions, unfavour the countries to the south. able to its physical development, it The age

of territorial conquest in reigns as a dominant caste, making Europe is past. But the overflowing some inferior race act as its hands, of the European race, and expanwhile itself forms an

sion over other regions of the globe, and supplies the directing power. At is very far from having reached the Cape, over the temperate regions its term. Compared with what of America, in New Zealand and will yet be, it is only beginning. And Australia, the European race has in the course of this expansion, the colonised and is covering the land leading nations of Europe will come with its own people ; but in India in contact, and find grounds of conit rules, and ever will rule, only tention of a kind fast disappearing as a dominant caste-a mere hand- from the continent of their birth. ful of men compared to the mil- The territorial limits of the various lions of the native population, yet nations in Europe is now, not quite, ruling over them by dint of moral, but pretty nearly established on a physical, and intellectual superiority. natural and lasting basis ; but not The same principle, in a less pleasing so the limits of their power in extraform, is observable in the hot regions European regions. We have spoken of of the American continent. The the wondrous expansion of the AngloSpaniards, when they first arrived in Saxons—those lords of the sea, and central America, reduced to slavery colonisers of ultra-oceanic regions. the native population, and in acknow- The Russian empire will play a similedged or virtual slavery that popula- lar but less marvellous part by land. tion still remains; while in the It will yet wage a desperate war of Spanish islands, in the vast Portu- principles with Western Europe, guese territory of Brazil, and in the but its grand and lasting, because southern half of the United States, territorial triumphs, await it in the negro race has been imported the East

. Destined to be kept in from Africa to act as a slave-caste, check by the dense populations of and do the work which climate an equal race in Europe, its desire renders impossible to the White con- for territorial expansion will find querors from the North. We enter- full vent the vast regions of the

upper crust

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