Imágenes de páginas


“ Let


meant than merely its having a large door, or being spaVer. 7. Threescore and ten kings, having their cious; at least there are now other contrivances in the East, thumbs and their great toes cut off.

to give coolness to particular rooms, which are very com

mon; and though the time in which Eglon lived, is acThe Hebrew has this, " the thumbs of their hands and knowledged to be of very remote aniquity, yet we are to of their feet.” The Hindoos call the thumb the reria-viril,

remember he was a prince, and in the palaces of such these the great finger of the hand, and the large toe is named the

contrivances without doubt began. The doctor is silent great finger of the foot. This punishment was exceeding

upon this point, but Russell has given us the following acly common in ancient times, and was inflicted principally

count of one of their methods of cooling rooms. Their on those who had committed some Aagrant offence with great houses at Aleppo are composed of apartments on each their hands and their feet. Thus, those convicted of for

of the sides of a square court, all of stone; and consist of gery, or numerous thells, had their thumbs cut off. The

a ground door, which is generally arched, and an upper practice is abolished, but its memory will remain, as it is

story, which is flat on the top, and either terraced with hard now one of the scarecrows of the nursery and domestic life : plaster, or paved stone; above-stairs is a colonnade, if not " If you steal any more, I will cut off your thumbs."

round the whole court, at least fronting the West, off from me find out the thief, and I will soon have his thumbs.”—

which are their rooms and kiosques; these latter are a sort ROBERTS.

of wooden divans, that project a little way from their other

buildings, and hang over the street; they are raised about CHAPTER III.

a foot and a half higher than the floor of the room, to which Ver. 17. And he brought the present unto Eglon they are quite open, and by having windows in front and

on each side, there is a great draught of air, which makes king of Moab: and Eglon was a very fat man. them cool in the suminer, the advantage chiefly intended 18. And when he had made an end to offer the by them. They have another way of cooling their rooms

in Egypt. It is done by openings at the top, which let the present, he sent away the people that bare the

fresh air into them. 'Egmont and Heyman, as well as present.

Maillet, make mention of them, but the last-mentioned auSee on Gen. 43. 45.

thor gives the most distinct account of these contrivances: There is often in the East a great deal of pomp and pa

they make, he tells us, their halls extremely large and rade in presenting their gifts. “Through ostentation," says

lofty, with a dome at the top, which towards the North has Maillet, "they never fail to load upon four or five horses

several open windows; these are so constructed as to throw

the north wind down into these rooms, and by this means, what might easily be carried by one. In like manner as to jewels, trinkets, and other things of value, they place in

though the country is excessively hot, they can make the fifteen dishes, what a single plate would very well hold.”

coolness of these apartments such as, oftentimes, not to be Something of this pomp seems to be referred to in this pas

borne without being wrapped in furs. Egmont and fleysage, where we read of making an end of offering the pres

man speak of chambers cooled after this manner, as well ent, and of a number of people who conveyed it. This re

as halls. Eglon's appears to have been a chamber, and

what Shaw calls an olee, which gives a propriety to the mark also illustrates 2 Kings viii. 9. So Hazael went to meet him, and took a present with him, eren of every good

mention that is made of Ehud's passing through the porch,

which no interpreter before the doctor has, that I know of, thing of Damascus, forty camels' burden.-HARMER.

remarked: but whether it was cooled by a kiosqne, as they Ver. 19. But he himself turned again from the

are called at Aleppo, or by an Egyptian dome, or by some

contrivance distinct from both, is of no consequence to dequarries that were by Gilgal, and said, I have

termine. That some contrivance to mitigate the extreme a secret errand unto thee, O king: who said, heat of that climate began early to obtain, in the palaces of Keep silence. And all that stood by him went princes, is natural to believe; that it began as early as the out from him.

time of Eglon, this passage puts out of all doubt. It was

the more necessary, as Eglon appears to have kept his From a circumstance mentioned by Mr. Bruce, it ap- court at Jericho, where the heat is so excessive, that it has pears that Ehud acted in strict conformity to the customs proved fatal to some even in March.-HARMER. of the time and place, so that neither the suspicion of the king nor his attendants should be excited by his conduct. Ver. 25. And they tarried till they were ashamed; It was usual for the attendants to retire when secret mes- and, behold, he opened not the doors of the sages were to be delivered. “I drank a dish of coffee, and

parlour: therefore they took a key and opentold him, that I was a bearer of a confidential message from

ed them; and, behold, their lord was fallen Ali Bey of Cairo, and wished to deliver it to him without witnesses, whenever he pleased. The room was accord- down dead on the earth. ingly cleared without dilay, excepting his secretary, who was also going away, when I pulled him back by the clothes, The wooden locks commonly used in Egypt, "consist of saying, stay, if you please; we shall need you to write the a long hollow piece of wood, fixed in the door, so as to slide answer."--BURDER.

backward and forward, which enters a hole made for it

in the doorpost, and is there fastened by small bolts of iron Ver. 20. And Ehud came unto him; and he was wire, which fall from above into little orifices made for them

sitting in a summer-parlour, which he had for in the top of the lock. The key is a long piece of wood, himself alone.

having at the end small pieces of iron wire of different

lengths, irregularly fixed in, corresponding in number and Dr. Shaw tells us, their doors are large, and their cham- direction with the bolts which fall into the lock; these it lifts bers spacious; conveniences, as he observes, very well upon being introduced into the lock, which it then pulls adapted to those hotter climates. But when Eglon is rep- back. The bolts of wire differ in number from three to resented as receiving Ehud and Death, in a parlour of fourteen or fifteen, and it is impossible to guess at the num: cooling, as it is called, in the margin of Judges jii. 20, or ber a lock contains, cr at the direction in which they are rather in a chamber of cooling, something more seems to be placed.”—TURNER's Journal of a Tour in the Levant.

Ver. 31. And after him was Shamgar the son of slender line of its distant horizon was just perceptible over Anath, which slew of the Philistines six hun

a range of land near the seacoast. From west to south

the plain of Esdraelon extended over a vast space, being dred men with an ox-goad: and he also de

bounded on the south by the range of hills, generally livered Israel.

considered to be the Hermon, whose dews are poeti

cally celebrated, Psalm cxxxii. 3, and having in the Mr. Maundrell has an observation which at once ex

same direction, nearer the foot of Tabor, the springs of plains this transaction, and removes every difficulty from Ain-el-Sherrar, which send a perceptible stream through ihe passage. He says, "the countrypeople were now every- its centre, and form the brook Kishoni of antiquity. Psalm where at plough in the fields, in order to sow cotton. It

1xxx111. 9. From southeast to the east is the plain of Galiwas observable, that in ploughing they used goads of an ex

lee, being almost a continuation of Esdraelon, and, like it, traordinary size; upon measuring of several, I found them appearing to be highly cultivated, being now ploughed for about eight feet long, and at the bigger end six inches in seed throughout. Beneath the range of this supposed circumference. They were armed at the lesser end with Hermon is seated Endor, famed for the witch who raised a sharp prickle for driving the oxen, at the other end with

the ghost of Samuel, to the terror of the affrighted Saul; and a small spade, or paddle of iron, strong and massy, for Nain, equally celebrated as the place at which Jesus raised cleansing the plough from the clay that encumbers it in the only son of a widow from death to life, and restored working. May we not from hence conjecture, that it was

him to his afflicted parent. The range which bounds the with such a goad as one of these, that Shamgar made that

eastern view is thought to be the mountains of Gilboa, prodigious slaughter related of him, Judges iii. 21. I am

where the same Saul, setting an example of self-destruction confident that whoever should see one of these instruments, to his armour-bearer and his three sons, fell on his own would judge it to be a weapon not less fit, perhaps fitter, sword, rather than fall wounded into the hands of the unthan a sword for such an execution. Goads of this sort I

circumcised, by whom he was defeated. The sea of Tibesaw always used hereabouts, and also in Syria; and the rias, or the Lake of Gennesareth, famed as the scene of reason is, because the same single person both drives the

many miracles, is seen on the northeast, filling the hollow oxen, and also holds and manages the plough; which of a deep valley, and contrasting its light blue waters with makes it necessary to use such a goad as is above described,

the dark brown shades of the barren hills by which it is to avoid the encumbrance of two instruments."-BURDER.

hemmed around. Here, too, the steep is pointed out down CHAPTER IV.

which the herd of swine, who were possessed by the legion

of devils, ran headlong into the sea. In the same direction, Ver. 6. And she sent and called Barak the son of below, on the plain of Galilee, and about an hour's distance

Abinoam out of Kedesh-naphtali, and said unto from the foot of Mount Tabor, there is a cluster of buildings, him, Hath not the LORD God of Israel com

used as a bazar for cattle, frequented on Mondays only.

Somewhat farther on is a rising ground, from which it is manded, saying, Go, and draw towards Mount

said that Christ delivered the long and excellent discourse, Tabor, and take with thee ten thousand men of called the Sermon on the Mount; and the whole view in the children of Naphtali, and of the children of this quarter is bounded by the high range of Gebel-el-Telj, Zebulun ?

or the Mountain of Snow, whose sumınit was at this mo

ment clothed with one white sheet, without a perceptible Arriving at the top, we found ourselves on an oval breach or dark spot in it. The city of Saphet, supposed plain, of about a quarter of a mile in its greatest length, to be the ancient Bethulia, a city said to be seen far and covered with a bed of fertile soil on the west, having at its near, and thought to be alluded to in the apophthegm which eastern end a mass of ruins, seemingly the vestiges of says, “a city set on a hill cannot be hid," is also pointed churches, grottoes, strong walls, and fortifications, all deci- out in this direction : but though the day was clear, I could dedly of some antiquity, and a few appearing to be the not distinguish it, its distance preventing its being defined works of a very remote age. First were pointed out to us from hence without a glass. To the north were the stony three grottoes, two beside each other, and not far from two hills over which we had journeyed hither, and these comcisterns of excellent water; which grottoes are said to be pleted this truly grand and inieresting panoramic view. the remains of the three tabernacles proposed to be erected -BUCKINGHAM. by St. Peter, at the moment of the transfiguration, when Van Egmont and Heyman give the following account of Jesus, Elias, and Moses, were seen talking together. In Tabor :-" This mountain, though somewhat rugged and one of these grottoes, which they call more particularly the difficult, we ascended on horseback, making several cirSanctuary, there is a square stone used as an altar; and on cuits round it, which took us about three quarters of an the sixth of August in every year, the friars of the convent bour. It is one of the highest in the whole country, being come from Nazareth, with their banners and the host, to thirty stadia, or about four English miles, a circumference say mass here ; at which period they are accompanied by that rendered it more famous. And it is the most beautiall the Catholics of the neighbourhood, who pass the night ful I ever saw, with regard to verdure, being everywhere in festivity, and light large bonfires, by a succession of decorated with small oak-trees, and the ground universally which they have nearly bared the southern side of the enamelled with a variety of plants and flowers, except on mountain of all the wood that once clothed it. Besides the south side, where it is not so fully covered with verdure. these grottoes, no particular history is assigned to any other On this mountain are great numbers of red partridges, and of the remains, though among them there seem to have been some wild-boars; and we were so fortunate as to see the many large religious buildings. The whole of these ap- Arabs hunting them. We left, but not without reluctance, pear to have been once enclosed with a strong wall, a large this delightful place, and found at the bottom of it a mean portion of which still remains entire on the north side, village, called Deboura, or Tabour, a name said to be dehaving its firm foundation on the solid rock. This ap- rived from the celebrated Deborah mentioned in Judges." peared to me the most ancient part. Traditions here speak Pococke notices this village, which stands on a rising of a city built on the top, which sustained a five years' ground at the foot of Mount Tabor westward; and the siege, drawing its supplies by skirmish from different paris learned traveller thinks, that it may be the same as the Daof the fertile plains below, and being furnished with water berath, or Daberah, mentioned in the book of Joshua, as on from two excellent cisterns still above; but as no fixed the borders of Zebulun and Issachar. “Any one,” he adds, period is assigned to this event, it may probably relate to "who examines the fourth chapter of Judges, may see that ihe siege of Vespasian. As there still remained the frag- this is probably the spot where Barak and Deborah met at ments of a wall on the southeast angle, somewhat higher Mount Tabor with their forces and went to pursue Sisera ; than the rest, we ascended it over heaps of fallen buildings, and on this account, it might have its name from that great and enjoyed from thence a prospect truly magnificent, want- prophetess, who then judged and governed Israel ; for Joing only the verdure of spring to make it beautiful as well sephus relales, that Deborah and Barak gathered the army as grand. Placing my compass before me, we had on the together at this mountain.” This point Josephus was pot northwest a view of the Mediterranean sea, whose blue sur- required to prove, as the sacred history contains explicit inface filled up an open space left by a downward bend in the formation on this head, to which the Jewish historian was outline of the western hills : to west-northwest a smaller incapable of adding a single particular. The name of the portion of its waters were seen : and on the west again the village seems, however, more probably to be derived from


the mountain, than from the prophetess. Deborah, the served five or six armed men, three of whom we recogname of the place where she dwelt, and to which the chil- nised to be those who had made such offers of their hospidren of Israel came up to her for judgment, was between tality in the village of Deborah below. They called out Ramah and Bethel in Mount Ephraim, and consequently to us in a loud voice, that if we attempted the slightest much farther to the south. Whereas in Deboura, or Da- resistance we should be murdered, but that if we submitbour, we have the very Dabor or Thaboor of the scripted to be quietly stripped, no violence should be offered to tures, with only that slight corruption which the Hebrew our persons. There was no time for parley, though my names receive, as pronounced by the Arabs. The moun- companions at first cried for mercy, but as I rushed out tain itself they call Djebel Tour.-MODERN TRAVELLER. with my musket cocked, and presented, they instantly fo)Ver. 10. And Barak called Zebulun and Naph-lowed me, and an unexpected discharge drove our assail

ants to seek shelter behind the masses of rock near the tali to Kedesh; and he went up with ten thou- A regular skirmish now commenced, in which we sand men at his feet: and Deborah went up kept up a retreating fire, and often exposed ourselves to with him.

their shot, for the sake of getting to our mules at the foot of

the bill. During a full hour of this kind of running fight, The phrase “men at his feet,” did not, I believe, refer to none of our party was hurt. From the first it seemed any particular class of soldiers, but applied to all, whether evident to us that we had been betrayed by our Deborah they fought in chariots, on horses, or on foot. This form of guide, and our notion was at length confirmed by his going speech is used in eastern books to show how many obey or over to the assailing party, and using bis arms against us. serre under the general. It may be taken from the action of Fortunately, and justly too, this man was himself wounded a slave being prostrate at the feet of his master, denoting by a ball from my musket, and when he fell shrieking, on submission or obedience. In this way devotees, when ad- the side of the hill, his companions hastened to his relief, dressing the gods, always speak of themselves as being at while we profited by the alarm of the moment to continue their feet. When the Orientals speak of his Majesty of our retreat, and rejoin our mules below. Here we drew off Britain, they often allude to the millions who are at bis at a short distance from the village of Deborah, and, with feet. The governors, generals, or judges in the East, are arms in our hands, being exhausted and fatigued, refreshed said to have the people of such countries, or armies, or dis- ourselves beneath a tree; but we had not yet remounted, tricts, at their feet." Nay, it is common for masters, and when a large party, professing to be from the sheik of people of small possessions, to speak of their domestics as Deborah, a village consisting only of a few buts, came to being at their feet. It is therefore heard every day, for sequester our beasts, for what they called the public service. "I will send my servants,” en-kal-adiyila, "those al my We treated this with a proper degree of warmth, and feet."-ROBERTS.

threatened death to the first that should dare to lay hands Ver. 18. And Jael went out to meet Sisera, and

on any thing belonging to us: so that the brave villagers

kept aloof.”—BUCKINGHAM. said unto him, Turn in, my lord, turn in to me; fear not. And when he had turned in

Ver. 19. And he said unto her, Give me,


pray unto her into the tent, she covered him with a

thee, a little water to drink; for I am thirsty. mantle.

And she opened a bottle of milk, and gave him

drink, and covered him. The Arabs are not so scrupulous as the Turks about their women; and though they have their harem, or wo- The method of making butter in the East, illustrates the men's apartment, in the tent, they readily introduce their conduct of Jael, the wife of Heber, described in the book acquaintances into it, or those sırangers whom they take of Judges: “And Sisera said unto her, Give me, I pray under their special protection. Pococke's conductor, in his thee, a little water to drink, for I am thirsty: and she openjourney to Jerusalem, led him two or three miles to his ed a bottle of milk, and gave him drink, and covered him." lent, where he sat with his wife and others round a fire. In the song of Deborah, the statement is repeated : “He The faithful Arab kept him there for greater security, the asked water, and she gave him milk, she brought forih wife being always with him ; no stranger ever daring to butter in a lordly dish.” The word (Fron hemah) which come into the women's apartment unless introduced. We our translators rendered butter, properly signifies cream; discover in this custom, the reason of Jael's invitation to which is undoubtedly the meaning of it in this passage, for Sisera, when he was defeated by Barak: “ Turn in, my Sisera complained of thirst, and asked a litile water to lord, turn in to me, fear not.”. She invited him to take ref- quench it, a purpose to which butter is but little adapted. uge in her own division of the tent, into which no stran- Mr. Harmer'indeed urges the same objection to cream, ger might presume to enter; and where he naturally sup- which, he contends, few people would think a very proper posed himself in perfect safety.-Paxton.

beverage for one that was extremely thirsty; and conThere is an apparent treachery in the conduct of Jael to cludes, that it must have been buttermilk which Jael, who Sisera ; and it appears from the following account as if the had just been churning, gave to Sisera. But the opinion inhabitants of that country were still actuated by the same of Dr. Russell is preferable, that the hemah of the scripprinciple of interested dissimulation. " It was about noon tures, is probably the same as the haymak of the Arabs, when we reached the small village of Deborah, where we which is not, as Harmer supposed, simple cream, but alighied to refresh, not 'suspecting that the treachery for cream produced by simmering fresh sheeps' milk for some which it is traditionally infamous, both in holy and profane hours over a slow fire. It could not be butter newly churnrecords, was still to be found here at so distant a period.ed, which Jael presented to Sisera, because the Arab butWe entered into this village, and, like the unfortunate Sis- ter is apt to be foul, and is commonly passed through a era, demanded only a little water to drink, for with every strajner before it is used; and Russell declares, he never thing else our scrip was well provided. It was furnished saw butter offered to a stranger, but always haymak: por to us, as we desired, with provender for our beasts, and the did he ever observe the Orientals drink buitermilk, but aloffer of all that the village possessed. While the animals ways leban, which is coagulated sour milk, diluted with were feeding, I was desirous of ascending to the summit of water. It was leban, therefore, which Pococke mistook for Mount Tabor, for the enjoyment of the extensive view buttermilk, with which the Arabs treated him in the Holy which it commands. Our guide from the convent offering Land. A similar conclusion may be drawn concerning the to accompany me, we took with us a man from the village, butter and milk which the wife of Heber presented to Šisewho promised to facilitate our ascent by directing us to the ra; they were forced cream or haymak, and leban, or coageasiest paths; and taking our arms with us, while my ulated sour milk diluted with water, which is a common servant and the muleteer remained below to take care of and refreshing beverage in those sultry regions.—PAXTON. the beasts, we all three set out together; by forced exertions we reached the summit in about half an hour. In our Ver. 21. Then Jael Heber's wife took a nail of descent from Mount Tabor we entered a grotto, in which the tent, and took a hammer in her hand, and there had formerly been a church, and had scarcely got within it, before we heard the rushing of persons before

went softly unto him, and smote the nail into the outer part of the passage by which we had entered. On

his temples, and fastened it into the ground: turning round to ascertain the cause of this noise, we ob- (for he was fast asleep and weary:) so he died.

Shaw, describing the tents of the Bedouin Arabs, says, which professor Gmelin brought from Tartary, was of the “these tents are kept firm and steady, by bracing or stretch- same colour. White asses, according to Morier, come ing down their eaves with cords tied down to hooked wood- from Arabia; their scarcity makes them valuable, and gives en pins well pointed, which they drive into the ground with them consequence. The men of the law count it a dignity, a mallet; one of these pins answering to the nail, as the and suited to their character, to ride on asses of this colour. mallet does to the hammer, which Jael used in fastening As the Hebrews always appeared in white garments at to the ground the temples of Sisera.”—BURDER.

their public festivals and on days of rejoicing, or when the

courts of justice were held ; so, they naturally preferred CHAPTER V.

white asses, because the colour suited the occasion, and Ver. 6. In the days of Shamgar the son of Anath, because asses of this colour being more rare and costly,

were more coveted by the great and wealthy. The same in the days of Jael, the highways were unoc- view is taken of this question by Lewis, who says, the cupied, and the travellers walked through by asses in Judea " were commonly of a red colour; 'and ways.

therefore white asses were highly valued, and used by per

sons of superior note and quality.” In this passage, he There are roads in these countries, but it is very easy to clearly speaks of the colour of the animals themselves, not turn out of them, and go to a place by winding about over of their coverings.-Paxton. the lands, when that is thoughi safer. Dr. Shaw takes notice of this circumstance in Barbary, where, he says, they

Ver. 11. They that are delivered from the noise found no hedges, or mounds, or enclosures, to retard or of archers in the places of drawing water. molest them. To this Deborah doubtless refers, though the doctor does not apply this circumstance to that passage,

Dr. Shaw mentions a beautiful rill in Barbary, which is when she says, " In the days of Shamgar, the son of Anath, received into a large basin, called shrub we krub, drink in the days of Jael, the highways were unoccupied, and the and away, there being great danger of meeting there with travellers walked through byways," or crooked ways, ac

rogues and assassins. If such places are proper for the cording to the margin, Judges v. 6. The account Bishop lurking of murderers in times of peace, they must be Pococke gives of the manner in which that Arab, under proper for the lying in ambush in times of war: a circumwhose care he had put himself, conducted him to Jerusa- stance that Deborah takes notice of in her song, Judges v. lem, illustrates this with great liveliness, which his lordship 11. But the writer who is placed first in that collection, tells us was by night, and not by the highroad, but through which is entitled Gesta Dei per Francos, gives a more the fields; "and I observed,” says he, " that he avoided as perfect comment still on that passage: for, speaking of the much as he could going near any village or encampment,

want of water, which the Croisade army so severely felt, and sometimes stood still, as I thought, to hearken." And the siege of Jerusalem, he complains, that besides their just in that manner people were obliged to travel in Judea, being forced to use water that stunk, and barley bread, in the days of Shamgar and Jael.-HARMER.

their people were in continual danger from the Saracens,

who, lying hid pear all the fountains, and places of water, Ver. 10. Speak, ye that ride on white asses, ye everywhere destroyed numbers of them, and carried off that sit in judgment, and walk by the way.

their cattle. To which may be added a story from William

of Tyre, relating to Godfrey, Duke of Lorrain, afterward The ancient Israelites preferred the young ass for the king of Jerusalem, who, stopping short of Antioch five or saddle. It is on this account, the sacred writers so fre

six miles, to which place he was returning, in order to quently mention riding on young asses and on ass colts.

take some refreshment in a pleasant grassy place near a They must have found them, from experience, like the

fountain, was suddenly set upon by a number of horsemen young of all animals, more iractable, lively, and active,

of the enemy, who rushed out of a reedy fenny place near than their parents, and, by consequence, better adapted to

them, and attacked the duke and his people.-HARMER. this employment. Buffon remarked particularly of the Ver. 17. Gilead abode beyond Jordan: and why young ass, that it is a gay, nimble, and gentle animal, and therefore, to be preferred for riding to the same ani

did Dan remain in ships? Asher continued mal, when become lazy and stubborn through age.” " In- on the seashore, and abode in his breaches. deed the Hebrew name of the young ass, ny," from a root which signifies to rouse or excite," is expressive of its Though the coast of that part of Syria which is denomicharacter for sprightliness and activity.” On public and nated Palestine, is not remarkable for the number of its solemn occasions, they adorned the asses which they rode, ports, yet besides Joppa, St. John d'Acre, Caipha under with rich and splendid trappings. “ In this manner,” says

Mount Carmel, and a few others that might be named, an excellent writer of Essays on Sacred Zoology," the there are some creeks, and small convenient places, where magistrates in the time of the Judges, appear to have rode little vessels, and such are those that are used for fishing, in state. They proceeded to the gate of their city, where may shelter themselves, and land what they take, though they sat to hear causes, in slow procession, mounted on there are very few rivers on all that coast. To these places asses superbly caparisoned with white cloth, which cover- Deborah seems to refer, when she says, Asher continued on ed the greater part of the animal's body. It is thus that we the seashore, and abode in his breaches, or creeks, as it is must interpret the words of Deborah : Speak, ye that ride translated in the margin.-HARMER. on white asses,'on asses caparisoned with coverings made of white woollen cloth, 'ye that sit in judgment, and walk,'

Ver. 21. The river of Kishon


away, or march in state,' by the way.' The colour is not that of that ancient river, the river Kishon. O my the animal, but of his hiran or covering, for the ass is com- soul, thou hast trodden down strength. monly dun, and not white.” No doubt can be entertained in relation to the existence of the custom alluded to in this The Kishon, whose furious current swept away the quotation. It prevails among the Arabs to the present day; routed legions of Sisera, though mentioned in scripture as but it appears rather unnatural, to ascribe the colour of a a river, is only a small stream, except when swelled by the covering to the creature that wears it. Wedo not call a man rain or melting snow. " That ancient river” pursues his white or black, because he happens to be dressed in vest- course down the middle of the plain of Esdraelon, and then ments of white or black cloth; neither did the Hebrews. passing close by the side of Mount Carmel, falls into the The expression naturally suggests the colour of the animal sea at a place named Caipha. When Maundrell crossed itsell, not of its trappings; and the only point to be ascer- this streain, on his way to Jerusalem, its waters were low tained, is, whether the ass is found of a white colour. and inconsiderable ; but in passing along the side of the Buffon informs us, that the colour of the ass is not dun but plain, he observed the tracts of many tributary rivulets fall. faxen, and the belly of a silvery wbite. In many instances, ing down into it from the mountains, by which it must be the silvery white predominates; for Cartwright, who trav- greatly swelled in the rainy season. It was undoubtedly elled into the East, affirms that he beheld on the banks of at the season when the Kishon, replenished by the streams the Euphrates, great droves of wild beasts, among which of Lebanon, becomes a deep and impetuous torrent, that were many wild asses all white. Oppian describes the the bands of Sisera perished in its waters. The Kishon, wild ass, as having a coat of silvery white; and the one like several other streams in Palestine, does not run with

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