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CHAELIS.

and cultivated mind, is said to be full of points. “He is every child, such measures would be qnite superfiuous ; well sharpened."- ROBERTS.

but if we would enier into the ideas of Moses, we must

place ourselves in an age, when the book of the law could Ver. 8. And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon only come into the hands of a few opulent people.-Mi

thy hand, and they shall be as frontlets between thine eyes.

CHAPTER VII. I look upon the words in Deut. vi. 8, as not properly a

Ver. 20. Moreover, the Lord thy God will send law, but an admonition; because they merely occur in an the hornet among them, until they that are left, harangue which Moses addressed to the people. The and hide themselves from thee, be destroyed. Orientals make great use of amulets ;-a subject on which I cannot here expaiiate, but of which I generally treat un- To the people of England this may appear a puerile der Art. 26, of my Hebrew Antiquities. These amulets way of punishing men, but they should recollect that the consist sometimes of jewels and oiherornaments, and some- natives of the East wear scarcely any clothes, having, gentimes of certain sentences, or unintelligible lines, and Abra- erally speaking, only a piece of cloth round their loins. cadabra, written on billets, or embroidered on pieces of They are, therefore, much more exposed than we are to linen. Some such things the Israelites, in those days, seem the sting of insects. The sting of the hornet and wasp of to have worn on their fcreheads, and on their hands; and those regions is much more poisonous than in Europe, and the Mohammedans do so still. For how often do we find on the insect is larger in size. I have heard of several who their breasis a passage from the Koran, which is said to died from having a single sting; and not many days ago, make them invulnerable, or rather aciually does so; for as a woman was going to the well “to draw water,'' a hora this I know for certain, that no Turk, wearing any such net stung her in the cheek, and she died the next day. I billet, was ever yet slain or wounded in baule, excepting have many times seen the hornet attack and kill the taranin the single case (which, indeed, they themselves except) tula. Under large verandahs the former may be seen flyof his death-hour being come, according to the decree of ing near the rooi, searching in every direction for his foe, God. It would appear, that with regard to these embroi- and never will he leave them, till he has accomplished his dered phylacieries, the Israeliles, in the days of Moses, did destruction. Sometimes they both fall from the roof 10noi enieriain such superstitions ideas, (else would he prob- gether, when the hornet may be seen thrusting his sting ably have forbidden them,) but only wore them as orna- most furiously in the tarantula, and it is su prising to see ments, and for fashion's sake. As Moses, therefore, wished with what dex:erity the former eludes ile bite of the latter. to exhort the Israelites to maintain the remembrance of The people orien curse each other by :aying, Unsutlårhis laws in every possible way, and, in a particular man- Aniverum-Kullive Kuilam, i. e.“ May all around thee be ner, to impress it on the hearts of their children, he sig: stung by the hornet!” (ineaning the person and his relagesied to them a variety of expedients for the purpose ; and tions.) The toddy drawers use this imprecation more than this among others, that if they chose to wear any embroi. other people, because the hornet's nest is generally found in dered ornament on the hand or forehead, it should no: con- the top of ihe palmirah or cocoa-put tree, whence they prosist of any thing useless, and siil less of any superstitious cure the toddy. When they ascend, iheir hands and feet nonsense, but rather of sentences out of the laws, which being engaged, they cannot defend themselves againsi their their children would thus be in the way of learning. If, attacks. The god Siva is described as having destroyed howerer, the fashion changed, and embroidery was no mady giants by hornets.-ROBERTS. more worn, the Israelites were no longer bound to wear embroidered linen, or bille:s inscribed with sentences from

CHAPTER VIII. the Mosaic law; and that the Jews, during the time of Ver. 7. For the Lord thy God bringeth thee into prayer, still use them ander the name of Thefillin, proceeds from a misconception of the statuie in qnestion. A

a good land; a land of brooks of water, of further detail on this subject, with the proofs that the words

fountains, and depths that spring out of valleys of Moses in this passage are not to be understood as only and hills. figurative, I cannot here give: but I give it, as I have said, in my Hebrew Antiquities. To most of the read- The account which has been now given of the soil and ers of the present work, who may be desirous of having productions of Canaan, will enable the reader to perceive a philosophical glance at the ancient laws of mankind, with greater clearness, the force and justice of the promresearches merely antiquarian would not afford much ise made by Moses to his nation, a little before he died: gratification.-Micha ELIS.

“The Lord thy God bringeth thee into a good land; a land

of brooks of water, of fountains and depths, that spring out of Ver. 9. And thou shalt ivrite them upon the posts valleys and hills; a land of wheat and barley, and vines, and of thy house, and on thy gates.

fig-irees, and pomegranates, a land of oil olive, and honey."

If to the natural fertility of this highly-favoured country be The observation made in the beginning of the preceding added, the manner in which it was divided among the tribes article is equally applicable to the subject of the present of Israel, it will furnish an easy and satisfactory answer to one. The words of Moses in Deut. vi. 9, immediately fol- the question which the infidel has often put : How could lowing those just illustrated, are in like manner to be under- so small a country as Canaan maintain soimmense a popusood,

not as a positive injunction, but as an exhortation to lation, as we find in the writings of the Old Testameni ?” inscribe bis laws on the door-posts of their houses. In That rich and fertile region was divided into small inheriSyria and the adjacent countries, it is usual at this day to tances, on wbich the respeciive proprie:ers lived and reared place inscriptions above the doors of the houses, not, as their families. Necessily, not less than a spirit of industry, the vulgar among us do, in doggerel rhyme, but consisting required that no part of the surface capable of cultivation of passages from the Koran, or from the best poets; and should be suffered to lie waste. The husbandman carried his some of them, that are quoted in books of travels, are truly improvements up the sides of the steerest and most rugged elegant. This must now be a very ancient practice, as it mountains, to the very top; he converted every patch of existed in the time of Moses. For when he exhorts the earth into a vineyard, or olive plantation; he covered ihe bare Israelites to take every opportunity in inculcating his laws rocks with soil, and thus turned them into fruitful fields ; on their children, we find him suggesting to them this as where the steep was too great to admit of an inclined plane, one reans of doing so; "Write them on the doors of your he cut away the face of the precipice, and built walls around houses, and on the gates of your cities.” In these words the mountain to support the earth, and planted his terraces we have not properly a statuie; for if the Israelite did not with the vine and the olive. These circles of excellent choose to have an inscription over his door, he had no oc soil were seen rising gradually from the bottom to the top casion to make one; but they are merely introduced in an ex- of the mountains, where the vine and the olive, shading hortatory discourse to the people, as furnishing an instance the intermediate rocks with the liveliest verdure, and bendof the means which they might take, to impress the laws ing under the load of their valuable produce, amply rewardupon the minds of their posterity in their earliest years. ed the toils of the cultivator. The remains of those hang. Among us, where, by the aid of printing, books are so ing gardens, those terrace plantations, after the lapse of so abandantly' multiplied, and may be put into the hands of many centuries, the revolutions of empire, and the long de

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cline of industry among the miserable slaves that now oc- tile, and so covered with plants and fruit-trees, that it cupy that once highly-favoured land, may still be distinctly seemed to be a garden cultivated by art." Remains of the traced on the hills and mountains of Judea. Every spot of practice of making terraces on the hills for the purpose of ground was in this manner brought into a state of cultiva- cultivation, were also found by Maundrell, as he states in tion; every particle of soil was rendered productive; and the account of his journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem. The by turning a stream of water into every field where it was produce of Palestine is still considerable, not only serving practicable, and leading the little rills into which they di- for the supply of the inhabitants, but also affording an overvide it, to every plantation, every tree, and every plant, they plus for exportation. Corn and pulse are excellent in their secured, for the most part, a constant succession of crops. kind, and much corn is annually sent from Jaffa to Con

“ Thus much is ceriain," says Volney, “and it is the ad- stantinople. Though the Mohammedan religion does not vantage of hot over cold countries, that in the former, favour the cultivation of the vine, there is no want of vinewherever there is water, vegetation may be perpetually yards in Palestine. Besides the large quantities of grapes maintained, and made to produce an uninterrupted suc- and raisins which are daily sent to the markets of Jerusacession of fruits to flowers, and flowers to fruits." In cold, lem and other neighbouring places, Hebron alone, in the nay even in temperate climates, on the contrary, nature, first half of the eighteenth century, annually sent three benumbed for several months, 'loses in a steril slumber hundred camel loads, that is, nearly three hundred thouthe third part, or even half the year. The soil which has sand weight of grape-juice or honey of raisins to Egypt. produced grain, has not time before the decline of sum- The cotton which is grown on the plains of Ramle and mer heat to mature vegetables; a second crop is not to be Esdraelon, is superior to the Syrian, and is exported partly expected; and the husbandman sees himself condemned raw and partly spun. Numerous herds of oxen and sheep to a long and fatal repose. Syria is exempt from these in- graze on the verdant hills of Galilee, and on the well-waconveniences; if, therefore, ii so happens, that its produc- tered pastures of the northern valley of the Jordan. Counitions are not such as its natural advantages would lead us less swarms of wild bees collect honey in the trees and clefts to expect, it is less owing to its physical than to its political of the rock; and it is still literally true that Palestine slate."- Paxton.

abounds in milk and honey.- ROSENMULLER.

It is, I think, highly probable, that in the time of the most Ver. 8. A land of wheat, and barley, and vines, remote antiquity, pomegranate juice was used, in those

and fig-trees, and pomegranates; a land of oil. countries where lemon juice is now used, with their meat, olive, and honey.

and in their drinks, and that it was not till afterward, thai

lemons came among them: I know not how else to account If Palestine were now cultivated and inhabited as much for the mention of pomegranates in describing the fruitfulas it was formerly, it would not be inferior in fertility and ness of the Holy Land, Deut. viii. 7,8; Numb. xx. 5. They agreeableness to any oiher country. The situation and would not now, I think, occur in such descriptions: the nature of the country favour agriculture, and amply re- juice of lemons and oranges have, at present, almost superward the farmer. Between the 31st and 320 degrees of seded the use of that of pomegranates. Sir John Chardin north latitude, it is sheltered towards the south by lofty supposes that this pomegranate wine means, wine made of mountains, which separate it from the sandy deserts of that fruit; which he informs us is made use of in considArabia ; breezes from the Mediterranean cool it from the erable quantities, in several places of the East, and particuwest side; the high Mount Lebanon keeps off the north larly in Persia: his words are, On fait, en diverses parts wind, and Mount Hermon the northeast. Mountains de l'Orient, du vin de grenade, nommé roubnar, qu'on which decline into hills, are favourable for the cultivation transporte par tout. Il y en a sur tout en Perse. My reader of the vine and olive, and the breeding of cattle ; the plains must determine for himself, whether pomegranate wine, or and valleys are watered by innumerable streams. The wine commonly so called mixed with pomegranate juice, fame of the fertility of Palestine, and its foriner riches in was most probably meant here. The making the first of corn, wine, and dates, is even immortalized by ancient these was a faci unknown to me, till I saw this manuscript, coins which are still in existence. But since the land has I confess, though it seems it is made in such large quantibeen several times devastated, greatly depopulated, and ties as to be transported.-HARMER. come under the Turkish dominion, and the Arab tribes, Hasselquist, in the progress of his journey from Acre to who rove about it, not only make it insecure for natives Nazareth, tells us, that he found "great numbers of bees, and strangers, but also have continual feuds among each bred therealouts, to the great advantage of the inhabitants. other, agriculture has decreased, and the country has ac- They make their bee-hives, with little trouble, of clay, four quired its present desert appearance, particularly near the feet long, and half a foot in diameter, as in Egypt. They roads; but the traces of its original fertility and beauty are lay ten or twelve of them, one on another, on the bare not even now wholly obliterated. As a proof, we may ad- ground, and build over every ten a little roof.” Mr. duce the following passage from D’Arvieux. “We left Maundrell, (observing also many bees in the Holy Land,) the road to avoid the Arabs, whom it is always disagreea- | takes notice," that by their means the most barren places ble to meet with, and reached, by a side path, the summit of that country in other respects became useful, perceiving of a mountain, where we found a beautiful plain. It must in many places of the great salt-plain near Jericho, a smeli be confessed, that if one could live secure in this country, of honey and wax, as strong as if he had been in an apiait would be the most agreeable residence in the world, part- ry." Hasselquist also tells us, that he ate olives at Joppa, ly on account of the pleasing diversity of mountains and (upon his first arrival in the Holy Land,) which were said valleys, partly on account of the salubrious air which we to grow on the Mount of Olives, near Jerusalem; and that, breathe there, and which is at all times filled with balsam- independent of their oiliness, they were of the best kind he ic odours from the wild flowers of these valleys, and from had lasted in the Levant. As olives are frequently eaten the aromatic herbs on the hills. Most of the mountains in their repasts, the delicacy of this fruit in Judea ought are dry and arid, and more rock than mould adapted for not to be forgotten; the oil that is gotten from these trees cultivation ; but the industry of its old inhabitants had tri- much less, because still more often made use of. In the umphed over the defects of the soil. They had hewn these progress of his journey, he found several fine vales aboundrocks from the foot to the summit into terraces, carried ing with olive-trees. He saw also olive-trees in Galilee, mould there, as on the coast of Genoa, planted on ihem the but none farther, he says, than the mountain where it is fig, olive, and vine; sowed corn and all kinds of pulse, supposed our Lord preached his sermon.-ROSENMULLER. which, favoured by the usual spring and autumnal rains, by the dew which never fails, by the warmth of the sun Ver. 9. A land wherein thou shalt eat bread with. and the mild climate, produced the finest fruit, and most excellent corn. Here and there you still see such terraces,

out scarceness, thou shalt not lack any thing which the Arabs, who live in the neighbouring villages,

in it; a land whose stones are iron, and out of keep up, and cultivate with industry. We then camé whose hills thou mayest dig brass. through a valley about six hundred feet long; and, to judge from ihe fineness and fresh verdure of the grass, it appear- Iron is the only mineral which abounds in these moun. ed to be an excellent pasture; at the end of which we found tains, (Lebanon,) and is found in those of Kesraouan, and a deeper, longer, broader, and by far more agreeable val- of the Druzes, in great abundance. Every summer the inley than the former, in which the soil was so rich and fes- | habitants work those mines, which are simply ochreous.

Report says, there was anciently a copper-mine near Alep- quantity he dashes the water plentifully with his foot ! po, which Volney thinks must have been long since aban- ROBERTS. doned: he was also informed by the Druzes, that in the The custom of watering with the foot, Dr. Shaw thus declivity of the hill formerly mentioned, a mineral was explains, from the present practice of the Egyptians: discovered which produced both lead and silver ; but as " When their various sorts of pulse, safranon, musca, melsuch a discovery would have proved the ruin of the whole ons, sugar-canes, &c. (all of which are commonly planied in district, by attracting the attention of the Turks, they quick- / rills) require to be refreshed, they strike out the plugs that ly destroyed every vestige of it. These statemenis estab- are fixed in the bottoms of the cisterns, (wherein they prelish the accuracy of Moses, in the account which he gave serve the water of the Nile,) and then the water gushing his nation of the promised inheritance: “A land whose out is conducted from one rill to another by the gardener, stones are iron, and out of whose mountains thou mayest who is always ready as occasion requires, to stop and didig brass.” A different temperature prevails in different vert the torrent, by turning the earth against it with his foot, parts of these mountains; hence, the expression of the Ara- | and opening at the same time, with his mattock, a new bian poets, That Lebanon bears winter on his head, spring trench to receive it. This method of conveying moisture upon his shoulders, and autumn in his bosom, while sum- and nourishment to a land rarely or never refieshed with mer lies sleeping at his feet.-Paxton.

rain, is often alluded to in the holy scriptures; where also

it is made the distinguishing quality betwixt Egypt and the Ver. 15. Who led thee through the great

and ter

land of Canaan, Deut. xi. 10, 11.". Mr. Parkhurst is inrible wilderness, wherein were fiery serpents, clined to adopt another interpretation of the expression, and scorpions, and drought; where there was

watering with the foot. He says, it seems more probable no water; who brought thee forth water out of which was worked by the foot. Such a one, Grotius long

that Moses alluded to drawing up water with a machine the rock of flint.

ago observed, that Philo, who lived in Egypt, has describ

ed as used by the peasants of that country in his time; and The sacred historian gives here a most accurate and the ingenious and accurate Niebuhr, has lately given us a luminous description of an African desert. It is not only representation of a machine which the Egyptians make use descriptive of that desert at the north end of Africa, in

of for watering the lands, and probably the same, says he, which the Israelites sojourned for forty years, but equally that Moses speaks of. They call it sakki tdir berid sjel, or so of those at the southern end, on its western side, the

an hydraulic machine worked by the feet.”—BURDER. greater part of which, for about iwo thousand miles along In the gardens in Africa, inio which they can lead water the coasi, is covered with deep sand. A desert is great for irrigation, they have small trenches between each row when it is extensive; and such a desert may be called ter

of plants, made by a rake or hoe. The water being led into rible, from the anxiety, dread, or fear, which it causes to the first trench, runs along it until it reaches the other end, the persons travelling in it, from what they experience, when a slave, with his root, removes any mould which and from their doubts as to the result. He comes to pools, might have slid into the little trench, that it may have a free but he finds that they are like broken cisterns, which, unobstructed course; then again clearing a way for it wrth though they once contained water, contain none now; his foot round the end of the second row of plants, the wahas sunk into the ground. He observes two rows of trees ter freely runs into the next trench; and in this way I have and bushes at a distance, which raises hope in his mind, seen a slave lead the little stream from one trench' to anoexpecting there to find a river. He hastens to the spot; ther, zigzag, over the whole garden ; which is much easier bui on reaching the banks, he finds the stream is dried up, done with the foot than by stooping down and doing it with not a drop of water is visible, for it only runs after rains. the bands. The first time I witnessed this operation, it He then digs a few feet under the surface in the bed or

cleared up, to my satisfaction, the meaning of the above channel of the river, in hopes of reaching some remnant of text.-AFRICAN Light. its waters, but finds his labour is fruitless; the water has Sometimes the drought of summer renders frequent waeither sunk beyond his reach, or has been exhaled into the terings necessary even in Judea. On such occasions, the heavens. He has no expectation of relief from a shower water is drawn up from the wells by oxen, and carried by falling that evening, or week, or month, for it is a land of the inhabitants in earthen jars, to refrigerate their plantaDROUGHT, as no rain has fallen for the preceding six, twelve, tions on the sides of the hills. The necessity to which the or eighteen months. Would it be surprising to hear the Jewish husbandman is occasionally reduced, to water his traveller's assistants express themselves thus-“This is grounds in this manner, is not inconsistent with the words indeed a great and terrible wilderness, a land of drought, of Moses, which distinguish the Holy Land from Egypt, by where po water is !” There were also fiery serpents, and its drinking rain from heaven, while the latter is watered scorpions. It is believed in Africa that the most poisonous by the foot. The inspired prophet alludes, in that passage, serpents were in the most arid parts, and where the heat

not to gardens of herbs, or other cultivated spots on the was greatest. In such parts I uniformly found the scor- steep declivities of the hills and mountains, where, in so pions most numerous. The knowledge of this being the warm a climate as that of Canaan, the deficiency of rain case might render the wilderness through which the Is

must be supplied by art, but to their corn-fields; which, in raelites travelled, more terrible to them.-AFRICAN LIGHT. Egypt, are watered by artificial canals, in the manner just

described ; in Canaan, by the rain of heaven. The lands CHAPTER XI.

of Egypt, it must be granted, are supplied with water by Ver. 10. For the land whither thou goest in to the overflowing of the Nile, and are so saturated with moisipossess it, is not as the land of Egypt

, from ure, that they require no more watering for the producing whence ye came out, where thou sowedst thy require fresh supplies every three or four days. But then

of corn, and several other vegetables; while the gardens seed, and wateredst it with thy foot, as a garden it is to be remembered, that immense labour was requisite of herbs.

to conduct the waters of the river to many of their lands;

and those works of the ancient kings of Egypt, by which To water a large garden requires three men, one of they distributed the streams of the Nile through their whom stands on a lever near the well, (which has a rope whole country, are celebrated by Maillet, as the most magand a bucket attached to it;) on this he moves backward nificent and the most admirable of their undertakings; or forward, as the bucket has to ascend or descend. Ano- and those labours which they caused their subjects to under: ther person stands on the ground near the well, to pour the go, doubtless were designed to prevent much heavier, to water into a basin. From this a channel, of about eight which they must otherwise have submitted. The words of inches deep and nine broad, runs through the garden ; and Moses, addressed to the people of Israel, probably containconnected with it are smaller water-courses, which go to ed a significancy and force of which we can form but a the different beds and shrubs. The business of the third very imperfect idea, and which has not of late been at all person, then, is to convey the water to its destined place, understond. Maillet was assured, that the large canal which he does by stopping the mouth of each course (where which filled the cisterns of Alexandria, and is at least fifsufficient water has been directed) with a little earth; so teen leagues long, was entirely paved, and its sides were that it flows on to the next course, fill the whole be water- lined with brick, which were as perfect as in the days of ed.

On those herbs or shrubs which require an extra the Romans. If bricks were used in the construction of

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