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LEC. X.]

MOSAIC INSTITUTIONS RETAINED.

113

barbarous as has been supposed ; but were rather descended from some of the more civilized portions of the Asiatic population.

diffused over every country, with new forms of government, new principles and new laws, new religious discipline and hierarchies, with many new tenets and practices. A new literature and manners, all productive of great improvements, in every part superseded the old, and gave to Europe a new face, and to every class of society a new life and spirit. In the Anglo-Saxon settlements in Britain, all these effects were displayed, with the most beneficial consequences."

“ Yet from such ancestors a nation has, in the course of twelve centuries, been formed, which, inferior to none in every moral and intellectual merit, is superior to every other in the love and possession of useful liberty: a nation which cultivates with equal success the elegancies of art, the ingenious labours of industry, the energies of war, the researches of science, and the richest productions of genius. This improved state has been slowly attained under the discipline of very diversified events.

“ The barbaric establishments were a new order of things in Europe, but cannot have been so prolific of misery to mankind as we have hitherto, too gratuitously, assumed :---when, notwithstanding the discouragement of new languages and institutions, and ruder habits, they were preferred by many of the Romans to the country which was their birth-place, which had been so long consecrated by deserved fame, and whose feelings, mind, and social manners, were congenial to their own.

“ The invasions of the German nations destroyed the ancient governments, and political and legal systems of the Roman Empire, in the provinces in which they established themselves; and dispossessed the former proprietors of then- territorial property. A new set of landowners was

Limited monarchy, constitutional law, and representative government, and efficient civil police, and trial by jury, are among the most important legacies left the English nation by their Anglo-Saxon forefathers; and these may all be easily traced to an Israelitish origin. And to this origin they have been traced, as we have seen, even by those who were obliged, in rather an uuphilosophical way, to account for the connection. It is, indeed, rather remarkable, that so many of these institutions should have been allowed to remain as incontestable evidence that this people had been Moses' disciples. Equally does their social condition witness to this, as, in our last lecture, we saw that their personal appearance and character give evidence, full and explicit, to their being the children of Abraham.

“ Hearken to me,
Ye that follow after righteousness,
Ye that seek the Lord;
Look to the rock—ye are hewn,
And to the hole of the pit—ye are digged.
Look unto Abraham your father,
And unto Sarah—bare you;
For I called him alone,

And blessed him,

And increased him.
For the Lord shall comfort Zion :
He will comfort all her waste places,
And he will make her wilderness like Eden;
And her desert like the garden of the Lord ;
Joy and gladness shall be found therein,

Thanksgiving,
And the voice of melody."—Isa. xli. 1—3.

H

LECTURE XI.

FRENCH TESTIMONY AS TO THE ANGLES, ENGLISH

CONSTITUTION, AND HISTORY.

"See now that I,—I,—He,
And—no god with Me,
I kill, and I make alive:

I wound, and I heal :
Neither—that caп deliver out of my hand.

For I lift up my hand to heaven,

And say, I live for ever.
If I whet my glittering sword,

And mine hand take hold on judgment;
I will render vengeance to mine enemies,

And will reward them that hate me.
I will make mine arrows drunk with blood,

And my sword shall devour flesh;
With the blood of the slayers and of the captives,
From the beginning of revenges upon the enemy."

Deut. xxxii. 39—42.

Rapin describes the great Change effected in Britain by the Saxons, Angles, and Jutes. —The Heptarchy. —The Angles. —Distinguished Character of the Parts settled by them. --Their Arrival under Twelve Chiefs.—Their Kingdoms, East Anglia, Mercia, and Northumberland.--Spread abroad by the Incursions of the Danes.--The English Constitution not produced in England, but brought with them into Britain.—Their Laws like the Law of God.—Alfred did not originate, but only reform and re-establish the English Constitution and the Common Law of England, so like those of Ancient Israel. The Lord hath dealt wondrously with His People.—Acknowledgment of the Abbe Milot, as to the unparalleled Character of the English History.—The Discovery of the Lord's Truth and Faithfulness to Israel, to precede the abundant bestowment of the Latter Rain.

The evidence produced in these lectures, as to the peopling of England by the race identified with Israel; and which evidence has been chiefly supplied by our own historians this evidence it may be good to confirm by the testimony of witnesses from among our neighbours the French. The two we shall take are, the one a Protestant, the other a Roman Catholic. The former shall give his testimony of the English, at their settlement here, and previous, of course, to

the operation of those causes of our national prosperity, to which the enemies of the Reformation may suspect him of giving an undue degree of prominency, in the latter period of England's history. This latter period, until near his own time, we shall leave to be sketched by a Roman Catholic, who can as little be suspected of partiality in our favour.

Rapin's testimony with regard to the change effected in this island by the settlement therein of the Anglo-Sax

LEC. XI.]

THE HEPTARCHY-THE ANGLES.

115

ons, is thus given at the commencement of his third book:

“ The revolution caused by the conquest of the Anglo-Saxons, introduced a new face of things in Great Britain. The country, formerly inhabited by the Britons, was now possessed by strangers. The very names of the towns and provinces were changed; and the country was divided in a very different manner from what it was by the Romans.

“ The Saxons, Angles, and Jutes, who are all to be considered as one people, and comprehended under the naine of English, had conquered all the southern part of the island, from the Channel to the wall of Severas, and a little beyond, towards the east. This part of Great Britain, possessed by these three nations, was divided into seven kingdoms, whereof the Saxons and Jutes had four, namely, Kent, Essex, Sussex, and Wessex; the Angles alone had two, Mercia and East-Anglia; but in Northumberland were mixed with the descendants of the Saxons that first took possession of the country beyond the Humber, under Octa and Ebusa."

By the Heptarchy is meant the government of the seven kingdoms of the AngloSaxons, considered as making but one body and one state. The Anglo-Saxons, as I said before, established in England a form of government not unlike what they had lived under in Germany; that is, considering themselves as brethren and countrymen, and being equally concerned to support themselves in their conquests, they conceived it necessary to assist one another, and act in common for the good of all. To that end, they judged it proper to appoint a General-in-chief, or, if you please, a Monarch, invested with certain prerogatives, the nature and number of which we are not fully informed of. Upon the death of the general or monarch, another was chosen by the unanimous consent of the seven kingdoms; but there were sometimes pretty long interregnums caused by the wars or divisions between the sovereigns who could not meet or agree

“ Besides this monarch they had also, as the centre of the heptarchal government, an assembly-general, consisting of the principal members of the seven kingdoms, or their deputies. This is what is called the Wittenagemot, or general parliament, where the concerns of the whole nation only were considered. But each kingdom

had a particular parliament, much after the manner practised in the United Provinces of the Low Countries. Each kingdom was sovereign, and yet they consulted in common upon the affairs that concerned the Heptarchy; and the acts and resolutions of the assembly-general were to be punctually observed, since every king and kingdom had assented thereto."

It is worthy of observation, that of the nations from the north of Europe that came into Britain, the Angles alone, who ultimately gave their name to this country, left no known portion of their people on the continent. They seem to have merely passed through the country of the Saxons and Jutes; and to have almost entirely transported themselves into this island ; after whom the whole southern portion of it came ultimately to he termed England. It would, however, be an error to suppose that only the south part of England was peopled by them. Partly by direct emigration, and partly by the scattering occasioned by the incursions of the Danes, and the Norman conquest, the same race that peopled, first, the central parts of the island, called, in the tunes of the Heptarchy, East Anglia, and Mercia, and Northumberland : the same race was spread out southward into the Saxon quarters, and even westward into Wales, as well as northward into Scotland. And thus the whole body of the people that remained, after their first settlement here, had the advantage of being leavened by a race, which, with all its faults, is superior both as to intellectual capacity, and moral power,

This is shown by the eminence to which those parts of England have attained, that were the first, and the most entirely, peopled by the Angles. In their quarters are found the principal seats of learning, Oxford and Cambridge. The chief manufacturing districts are theirs, whether it be as to clothes, or metals, or earthenware, or chemical preparations. The greatest marts for the import of the fulness of the earth by sea, and for sending forth into all quarters of the globe the pro

upon a choice.

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PARTS OF ENGLAND FIRST SETTLED BY THE ANGLES.

[LEC. XI.

ductions of English ingenuity and industry, if we except the capital, are all to be found within those portions of the island that were peopled by the Angles. They all anciently were within the bounds of the Anglian, even as distinguished from the Saxon, kingdoms of the Heptarchy. Nor is it to be overlooked that the capital itself is from these quarters still supplied with some main portions of its population that have carried literature, science, and art, to such perfection: and even mercantile and missionary enterprise to the bounds of the habitable globe.

With regard to the settlement of the Angles in Britain, Rapin thus writes, in his first book, page 38:

About this time (A. D. 527) multitudes of Angles, under the conduct of twelve chiefs, all of equal authority, but whose names, except Uffa (of whom I shall have occasion to speak hereafter), are unknown, landed at some port on the eastern coast of Britain, where, without much difficulty they possessed themselves of some post, those parts being ill guarded by the Britons. In time, as they were continually enlarging their conquests towards the west, they compelled the Britons at length to abandon the country along the eastern shore. The Angles, thus situated, had an opportunity of sending from time to time for fresh colonies from Germany, with which they founded a fifth kingdom, by the name of the kingdom of East Anglia, or of the East Angles. But as their first chiefs assumed not the title of king, the beginning of this kingdom is generally brought down to the

and Cambridge. I have already related how this kingdom was founded by the Angles that landed on the eastern coasts of Britain, under twelve chiefs, the survivor of whom, Uffa, assumed the title of king of the East Angles."

And in page 53:—" The kingdom of Mercia was bounded on the north by the Humber, by which it was separated from Northumberland ; on the west, by the Severn, beyond which were the Britons or Welsh ; on the south, by the Thames, by which it was parted from the kingdoms of Kent, Sussex, and Wessex; on the east, by the kingdoms of Essex and East Anglia. Thus Mercia was guarded on three sides by three large rivers that ran into the sea, and served for boundary to all the other kingdoms. Hence the name Mercia, from the Saxon word, Merc, signifying a hound, and not, as some fancy, from an imaginary river called Mercia. The inhabitants of this kingdom are sometimes termed by historians Mediterranei Angli, or the Mid-land English, and sometimes South Humbrians, as being south of the Humber ; but the most common name is that of Mercians. The principal cities of Mercia were Lincoln, Nottingham, Warwick, Leicester, Coventry, Lichfield, Northampton, Worcester, Gloucester, Derby, Chester, Shrewsbury, Stafford, Oxford, Bristol. Of all the kingdoms of the Heptarchy, this was the finest and most considerable. Its greatest length was a hundred and sixty miles, and its greatest breadth about one hundred."

And in page 47 :— The kingdom of Northumberland was situated on the north of the Humber. as its name imports. It was bounded on the south, and parted from Mercia by that river; on the west, bу the Irish sea; on the north, by the country of the Picts and Scots; and on the east, by the German Ocean.

It contained the present counties of Lancashire, Cumberland, Westmoreland, Northumberland, York, and Durham. The principal cities were York, Dunelm (since called Durham), Carlisle (named by the Romans Luguballia), Hexham, or Hugulstadt, Lancaster, and some others of less note. This country was divided into two parts, Deira and Bernicia, each, for some time, a distinct kingdom of itself. Bernicia was partly situated on the north of Severus's Wall, and ended in a point at the mouth of the Tweed. Deira contained the southern part of Northumberland, as far as the Humber. The greatest length of the whole kingdom, including both parts, was a hundred and

year 571."

As to the kingdoms of the Heptarchy founded by them, he gives the following testimony in his third book, page 55:

“ The kingdom of the East Angles was bounded on the north by the Humber and the German Ocean : on the east by the same ocean, which surrounded it almost on two sides : on the south, by the kingdom of Essex: and on the west, by Mercia. Its greatest length was eighty, and its greatest breadth fifty-five miles. It contained the two counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, with part of Cambridgeshire. The chief towns were Norwich, Thetford, Ely,

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“ They began with attacking Northumberland, of which they at length became masters. They proceeded next to East Anglia, which they also subdued; and, after extorting money from the Mercians, they entered Wessex."

As to the origin of the Anglo-Saxon institutions, Rapin writes thus, pages 147, 148:

And thus, in speaking of the language of the Anglo-Saxons, Rapin writes, page 162:

Το say in general, the Anglo-Saxons spoke English or Saxon, would not be showing with sufficient exactness what their language was. To give a fuller idea of it, it will be necessary to distinguish the several tongues used in England after the arrival of the first Saxons. The English tongue originally differed but little from the Danish, since the ancient writers call them indifferently Cimbric, Scandinavian, Gothic; but this language was not the same with the Saxon. In the parts lying north of the Thames was spoken pure English or Danish, and south of the Thames

pure Saxon. Though these two languages were different, they so far agreed, however, as to be understood by both nations. In process of time, and especially after the union of the seven kingdoms, Saxon prevailed in all England, because the kings were of that nation. Thus pure English (or the language of the Angles), was by degrees disused, or at least banished from common conversation. Afterwards the Danes, settling in England, brought their language, which was not the ancient Danish or English above mentioned, but a modern Danish mist with the language of several neighbouring nations of Denmark. This modern Danish was chiefly used in Northumberland, Mercia, and East Anglia, where the Danes were masters. Though out of compliance to the English, Canute the Great published his laws in Saxon, yet the Danish tongue was still retained in the north, where the people were mostly Danes. As it was also

“ Great Britain was so overrun with Saxons, Angles, and Jutes, that hardly could any remains of the ancient Britons be discovered. It was very natural for these conquerors to establish in their new erected kingdoms their own country customs. And therefore it may be advanced for certain, that the laws now in force, throughout the greatest part of Europe, are derived from the laws these ancient conquerors brought with them from the north. This might be easily proved with respect to all the countries concerned in this great revolution. But at present I shall confine myself to England alone. By what I am going to say, whoever has any knowledge of the English constitution, will easily be convinced that the customs now practised in that kingdom, are, for the most part, the same the Anglo-Saxons brought with them from the northern countries, and lastly from Germany.

“ An English historian, by comparing the laws and customs of the Germans with those of the English, has plainly shown, the English introduced into Great Britain the same laws that were in use in their own country. Nay, he affirms, that till the Norman conquest there was not so much as one law in England but what, in the main, the Germans had the same.

'Tis true, as the Anglo-Saxons consisted of three several nations, who had also their separate quarters in England, there might be some difference upon that account between the seven kingdoms of the Heptarchy. But this difference could not be very great, since the three nations were united in Germany before their coming into England, and made but one and the same people under the general name of Saxons. All that can be inferred from hence is, that the laws established by the Anglo-Saxons in England were composed

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