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wilderness, they made a wilful attempt to take possession of the land; in which they were put to shame, and made to turn back from before their enemies, into the wilderness, until they had been so trained, as that the land could, consistently with their true good, be given them in permanent possession. From that time to the present, the course of this people has been ever progressive. Their God has been ever, more and more, enriching them by his providence, and unfolding to them, still more clearly and largely, the treasures of His grace. They have been ever in a course of improvement. Discovery and invention have gone hand in hand; and opportunities of consecrating these to the good of man, and the glory of God, have correspondently abounded. The providence of God, equally with the plain declarations of His word, testifies, most distinctly, to the truth of our Israelitish origin.

As to Language, it is granted that this could not of itself identify a people; or distinguish Israel, for example, from the Canaanites, who seem to have spoken the same language with that of Israel; nor does that of Babylon appear to have been greatly different: and we know that the very people referred to, have, in many cases, changed their language; so that the words used by a nation, in one age, can scarcely be understood by their descendants in another. Still it may be expected that a sufficiency would remain of the Hebrew, to tell of this people's former acquaintance therewith, and such is the case. It has been observed by linguists, that a very great deal of the ancient language of Israel exists in the modern languages of Europe; and that it is through a Gothic medium that this plentiful supply of Hebrew has come. So much have these languages been thrown into a Hebrew mould, that a French Abbe has lately proposed to make use of the Hebrew, as the grand key to these languages,- -as that whereby they may most easily be ac


quired; and, it is said, he has been remarkably successful.

The time of the Introduction of Christianity among this people is rather remarkable: it was just when it was fading away into mere formalism or superstition, in all other parts of the world; and when, throughout the east, it was being engulphed by Mohammedanism, so as to be threatened with entire extinction in all its original seats. Then did it reach these nations then did it take root among them, and thence did they become, emphatically, Christendom. And, contrary to all other people, their course has been progressive with regard to religion, as it has been with regard to every thing else.

It need scarcely be remarked, that both Poetry and Music were greatly cultivated in Israel. These were accomplishments which, it might be expected, would be eminently possessed by a people who were to be peculiarly devoted to the worship of God—the Most High over all the earth: and accordingly, they, especially the Germans, have been remarkable for musical talent, and particularly as to instrumental music; and the nius of their music appears to be very much like that of the Jews. With regard to poetry, in all its varieties, these nations have been remarkable. Poetry was greatly cultivated, even among the operatives, in the cities of Germany. And in Italy, after the genius of the Gothic race began to develop itself in verse, one of the most important changes that we observe, is the production of the Sonnet, or song of fourteen lines, in which so much was written by Petrarch. In the same age, Antonio a Tempo, a civilian at Padua, who wrote on poetry, distinguishes sixteen different kinds of Sonnet. Now, the like variety of this kind of composition prevails to an immense extent in the Scriptures, as has abundantly been exemplified in the course of these lectures. This might still more largely be exemplified in the songs of degrees in the Book of Psalms. It will scarcely be said that



these people learned to write sonnets from their perusal of the Scriptures, as conveyed to them through a Christian medium: for, as far as I know, these sonnets have lain unobserved in the Scriptures from the time the Bible was first circulated in Europe. That kind of composition, along with many others, amounting to above an hundred, seems to have been preserved among the people of Israel, during all their wanderings; although they do not appear to have recognized it in their own Sacred Writings, when these were restored to them through the medium of Christianity.

These are the people who have already been blessed with the choicest blessings both temporal and spiritual. When darkness overspread the earth, and gross darkness the people, it was upon them that the light dawned, at the time of the Reformation; just as it was towards their part of the world, as we have already seen, that the preaching and the Epistles of the Apostles, all went forth at the beginning of the Christian dispensation. And among them, or the people sprung from them, did not only that important change take place, but also, every revival in more modern times. These are the people who have shown the greatest adaptation of mind for the study of the Scriptures. They have not merely studied them most for themselves, they have translated them into almost every tongue, and distributed them all over the globe. They are, besides, most in the position of waiting for the coming of their Lord, and the promised outpouring of the Spirit. These are, certainly, much less than they ought—still they are most in the position commanded and promised to Israel.

Many, also, are the temporal blessings which have been conferred upon this race; the numberless discoveries and improvements which have sprung up among them, and by them been distributed over the globe. Among the first of these was paper, the very fine substance of


which books are now made; allowing what would formerly have been a rather extensive library, to be condensed into a volume, that may, without inconvenience, be carried in the pocket; and that this may more effectually be accomplished, and copies multiplied at (comparatively) no labour and expense,—they have been given Printing. By steam power, the process of printing has been still farther facilitated, to an immense extent, and the books rapidly spread over the land, and sent even afar over the sea, with almost the certainty of their reaching their destination at the appointed time. By the discovery of steam power has the city been spread all over the country, and the country brought, as it were, into the city; and remote corners of the earth brought into conjunction: whilst human labour is lightened, and the conveniences of life are multiplied, to an amazing extent. Nor could these advantages have been enjoyed, but for the previous discovery of the compass, by which the great waste of waters can so easily be traversed;—and gunpowder, by which all obstructions can be so rapidly removed, in "exalting the valleys, and making low every mountain," -so that highways may be cast up for the rapid conveyance of men, and the means of blessing them. How rapidly has education of late proceeded! How has all science been searched out, and all arts improved, -and antiquities ransacked, and inventions multiplied. The Lord hath indeed been hastening his work in these our times. He hath been putting most liberally into our hands. He hath also been opening the eyes of many here and there, to see wondrous things out of his law. May the beauty of his word be indeed made to appear,—and may its power be felt; and may, for this, the Spirit be poured upon us from on high, and may his people indeed see their position—and their privilege,—and be thoroughly persuaded to live not unto themselves, but unto Him who died for them, and rose again; reckoning



nothing that they may have as their own, hut all as intrusted to their care, for the good of all, as they have opportunity!

I know not of any objection to the supposition of this people being Israel, which has not been anticipated by the spirit of prophecy, and which may not be turned to the advantage of our argument. Thus:


unclean things, in the land of Assyria. Had they corrupted their religion, so as even to become worshippers of wood and stone, and of new gods, which had newly come up? Such, also, was plainly foretold of Israel. Had they lost even the name of Israel, and were they not known as being the peculiar people of God? This also was foretold. The prodigal son was not only to be lost to his father, but even to himself. But the lost son shall find himself: he hath already, even when afar off, been found of his Father.—Isa. lxiii. 1619:

Had they, like the prodigal son, wandered into a far country, among fields of swine? Were they found eating things that are ceremonially unclean? Such was foretold of Israel. It was prophesied that he would eat

"Doubtless thou art our Father,
Though Abraham be ignorant of us,
And Israel acknowledge us not:
Thou, О Lord, art our Father,

Our Redeemer—thy name from everlasting;

О Lord, why hast thou made us to err from thy ways,

—Hardened our heart from thy fear?

Return, for thy servants' sake,

Тhe Tribes of thine Inheritance.

The people of thy holiness have possessed it but a little while;

Our adversaries have trodden down thy sanctuary.

We are—:
Thou never barest rule over them;
They were not called by thy name."



"Is not this the fast that I have chosen,

To loose the bands of wickedness;
To undo the heavy burdens,

And to let the oppressed go free,
And that ye break every yoke?


Is it not to deal thy bread to the hungry,

And that thou bring the poor that are cast out to thy house:
When thou seest the naked that thou cover him,

And that thou hide not thyself from thine own flesh?

Then shall thy light break forth as the morning,
And thine health shall spring forth speedily;
And thy righteousness shall go before thee,
And the glory of the Lord shall be thy rere-ward:

Then shalt thou call, and the Lord shall answer;
Thou shalt cry, and he shall say, Here--I."

It has been shown how Israel nationally can have come into Europe.--The difficulties all on the other side.---Gothic-Scythian Race.—Ancient Sacae and modern Saxon branchAre traced to the same quarter as that to which Israel had been carried captive: the borders of the Caspian.--The Saxons reach the North-west of Europe, and betake themselves to sea. Come to the assistance of the Inhabitants of South Britain, against those of the North.--Their Beauty: Two remarkable Circumstances connected therewith.--Saxon and Jewish form of Head.—Justice and Truth.—Independence of spirit.—Interest in Public Affairs, and Tendency to Improvement.-Benevolence: its possession befits the design of God, with regard to Israel, and the present position of the English nation, for which they have been also intellectually gifted.--Promises to Israel, as acting worthy of her destiny.

Having previously shown that the Scriptures lead us to look for the lost tribes of Israel in the north-west,—in Europe; and that the whole scheme of Providence, especially with regard to the administration of the word, is correspondent to this expectation: we, in the Lecture before last, proceeded to see whether history favours our view; and we then saw that history, and the traditions of the north, do require this view, in order to clear up what is otherwise inexplicable. Between the third and sixth centuries, Europe, in a

manner, changed its inhabitants. The new race issued from the north-east,— from the same quarter as that in which we saw that Israel had left the most distinct traces of their sojourn. In our last Lecture we saw that the Scripture recognized the facts accompanying this mighty migration of nations; and the circumstances of Europe then, and now, when, if Israel were to see out of obscurity, and out of darkness, they might look for their ancient enemies, and would not find them,--even all that contended with them; so



utterly have they been made a thing of nought. We then, also, saw that the whole phenomena of Europe, after that great change of its inhabitants, were correspondent to this view of the case. When the storm had abated, and when the atmosphere had cleared, and a distinct view could be had of how matters were settled,— we saw that every thing, as far as it was looked at, gave unequivocal indications of its having been Israel who were given to possess the land, to the exclusion of the Romans and barbarians, both of whom had sought their destruction, and had robbed them of the homes they previously had been given, between the Don and the Danube, and in the neighbouring districts of the northern wilderness.

We now enter still more minutely into this latter part of our subject; and propose to take, as a specimen of the grand family of nations, one nearest home—the Anglo-Saxon branch. This, of course, is not taken to the exclusion of the others; but it happens to be the first that arrested the lecturer's attention, one with regard to which it is of the most importance we should be resolved, and one, to the evidence for which we have the most easy access. It surrounds us on every side, and, hereafter, one of the most remarkable facts connected with this subject will be, that such multifarious and obtrusive evidence should have been so long disregarded.

We propose taking a view of the Anglo-Saxons chiefly anterior to their embrace of Christianity, at a time when their manners and institutions, political or religious, were uninfluenced by the Bible, as received through that medium. If, at that time, their physical appearance, their mental and moral character, their conduct in the private and public relations of life, their civil institutions, religious opinions, rites and ceremonies, and all else respecting them, be such as might reasonably be expected of Israel; — - if there be no incongruity, but every correspondency in the case: surely we may say that the truth has been now ar


rived at, on this important, and hitherto most perplexing point; and we may then proceed to see what should be its practical influence,—which we believe to be no less important. If a young man had gone astray, (and this is the lost son,) what else could be done? The father knew the marks of the son, and has ascertained the direction in which he wandered ;all these he has clearly pointed out. Let us now see to whom they apply, The people to whom they all apply, and who are found at the time and in the place predicted, are, we may rest assured, the children of the promise; the nations that were to come of Jacob, the very seed of Abraham according to the flesh, as well as the greater part of those who are also his children by faith.

We before saw that the Scripture leaves captive Israel in the north,— in the cities of the Medes, and in other places in the northern possessions of Assyria. Now it is a remarkable fact, that to this very quarter are the Anglo-Saxons traced by Sharon Turner, in his valuable history of this people. Where Israel was lost, there the Saxons were found. Here are two puzzles which have been long enough before the historians-Whither went Israel, the most important people as to the promises and purposes of Jehovah? Whence sprung the Saxons, the most distinguished of all the families of mankind in the providence of God; and especially as to the benefits he hath bestowed upon them, and enabled them to bestow upon others? Why should we needlessly create a difficulty, and make the Most High work contradictively, and produce miracles without a cause? Why cut off the people to whom the promises were made, and whom He said he would not utterly destroy, although he would seem to do so? Why cut off this people, and in the same place raise up another people, from an origin altogether unknown,—answering in every respect to the character he had been so long giving to the former race: and having also, to the most minute

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