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been conspicuous in the clouds to-day. The upon the names of the parsons being men. long lines of'cirrus extending to eitherhorizon, tionell, to insert them in the writings, tbey large well defined twainclouds to leeward, were the same with those of the purchaser's and waineclouds in the intermediate region father and mother; and, upon further inquiof the atmosphere, forned a character of ry, he ascertained them to be, in fact, his fasky contrasted to the rapid productions of ther and motber, the latter declaring, that if rainclouds and showers which had gone on he was their son, he had a remarkable mole alınost every day for a week before.-The upon his left arm-which proved to be the barometer was stationary nearly all day, case ! It is added, that nothing could sur. and till midnight, at 29-13.

pass the joy of all parties. The Providence

of God has snatched the venerable pair The Journal of Augsburgh of the 8th ult from poverty and servitude, and conducted has published the following observations them to plenty and independence, under the made in the Observatory of that city :- protection of an effectionate son. He, it “On the 7th inst. at 42 minutes past eight in seemns, had run away from his parents when the evening, Professor Stark observed, in a quite a boy, and froin the contiuual wars in serene sky, a luminons band, of a colour Europe neither had ever heard of the other siinilar to the Milky Way, in the direction of since.

Raleigh Reg. the head of Serpentarius, in the constellation Hercules; and which passing below the Northern Crown, and then between the tail

TO CORRESPONDENTS. of the Great Bear, and the head of the Little Bear, ended in the star Alpha of the Dragon. emendation.

C. is right in bis suggestion and in his Its length was 71 degrees, and its breadth, almost every where uniform, was two appa

We are obliged to Corrector for pointing fent diamerers of the Moon. This phæno.

out an error in the review of the Manual of menon, which had a great resemblance to Botany in our last number. He informs us the prolongation which rapidly took place that Mr. Eaton, so far from having been a on the 13th of September 1811, in the tail of lecturer in Yale College, only attended the the great comet, disappeared at 58 minutes lectures given in that institution, for a short

time. past eight. From this moment until one o'clock in the morning the Professor observ- Mr. M. Nash's communication on the ed that the nebulous part No.8, of the con- subject of determining the latitude and longistellation of the Buckler of Sobiesky, when tude of places on the land, with the mean of the luminous band had commenced, seemed his observations on the latitude of the City the surrounded with an aureola greater, Hall, which was received too late for ioser: Le lively, and more sparking than usual. tion in this number, shall appear in our next.

Ten great spot or crevice, which appeared We have on hand a communication from sathe 3 of July last on the sun's disk, dis

our valued correspondent, J. A. M. but do appeared on the 4th of August. There were not consider it quitely suiied to our coluinns, afterwards formed a great number of small although we approve its tenor. We shall be spots, arranged in several groups, which Pro. bappy to hear from birn on any topic that fessor Stark intends to describe in a work falls within our range. which he proposes to publish suon.

Democritus will perceive that we have

taken as much notice of a late occurence at Among the rare events of the present age,

the Theatre as is requisite at present. We lew bave happened more rare, or interesting

agree with him, that the managers of the tban the following:

play-house stand exactly on a par with the

players in regard to their responsibility to the A person who had made a considerable

public, and shall alırays exercise the same fortune in Philadelphia, as a butcher, went on freedom of animadversion in regard to them, board one of the last ships from Amsterdam, which had a number of German redemp- file, shall appear in our next.

Several interesting communications on tioners, for the purpose of purchasing one to assist him in his business. After examining The Mathemalical Department is unavoida. the plıysiognomy of several of the passen. bly omitted in this nuinber. gers, without being able to please himself, Corrections in No.6, rol. I. p. 427. where his attention was arrested by the tranquil and it is mentioned that Richard's Dictionary composed countenance of a man rather ad- does not contain modern improvements, vanced in years, but with much appearance strike out Willdenow, Acharius and Smitli, of strength and activity. Not less pleased since they appear to have been consulted. with Ule conversation of the German than with his exterior, he described the purpose ral Humphrey.

Vol. I. p. 435, for gen. Hawkins, readgenefor which he wanted a servant, and obtained the man's consent to purchase his indentures, provided he would also purchase those Page 13, of this Number, for such a trick of his wife, who had accompanied bim. read such a lruth.' The parties then went ashore to complete

P. 27. Vol. 2. for courl read cour. the busiuess, attended by the captain; and

P. 30. Vol. 2. for ballot read halle!

ERRATUM.

THE

AMERICAN MONTHLY MAGAZINE

AND

CRITICAL REVIEW.

No. II......VOL. II.

DEC. 1817.

INTRODUCTION.

ART. 1. ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. Survey of the progress and actual state of as was every thing else; but nevertheless,

NATURAL SCIENCES in the UNITED that first period of their cultivation was States of AMERICA, from the begin- adorned by the following eminent or worrring of this century to the present time. thy writers, Winthrop, Franklin, Jefferson,

Rittenhouse, Clayton, Bartram, Walter, trade, poets in literature, painters ill, Colden, Garden, Marshall, Carver, Bel

, in pictures, every one in the objects con- knap, Cutler, &c. and among the visiters nected with his pursuits and labours : it is or travellers, Catesby, John Mitchill, therefore very natural, that those who Kalm, Bosc, Castiglione, Vieillot, Palishave devoted a share of their attention to sot-Deauvais, Volney, Mason, Mackenzie, the noble pursuits of science, should like- Frazer, Dupratz, Charlevoix, Michaux, wise feel a desire to take an occasional Schoepf, &c.—some of whom belong to survey of the progress, situation, and both centuries, and will be noticed again prospects of the various branches of sci- hercafter. ence, which they may have undertaken Since 1300, a great impulse has been to cultivate, as well to ascertain their given to some branches of these sciences; positive advances as their relativ: im- many societies have been established for provements.

the purpose of fostering their study ; muAmong sciences, those connected with seums have been formed in many cities; the natural and material objects of the professorships established to teach every universe, claim of course a conspicuous branch; and, at present, a great number rank, since they relate to every thing of young and able observers or writers bewhich we perceive, or which falls under gin to appear every where, who bid fair to the observations of our senses.

Even the reflect honour on themselves and their numberless arts which human ingenuity country. To encourage the disposition has devised, for the purpose of imitating which is manifesting itself is the design or modifying those objects, ought to class of this review. The record of the labours with them ; but custom separates them, of their predecessors, whilst it is a grateful while it acknowledges their intimate con- tribute for past services, will tenue to exnexion, and absolute dependance. Natu- cite the emulation of the rising generation, ral Sciences are therefore limited to three and may serve to enlarge the ideas of Eugreat branches: Cosmony, or Natural ropean writers, in reference to our geneHistory, which enables us to distinguish, ral and national characier. describe, value, and employ the natural All those who pursue the noble path of ohjects and bodies : Physics, or Natural natural knowledge are united by a friendPhilosophy, which teaches us their func- ly bond ; although strangers, although tions, laws, and phenomena: CHEMISTRY, distant, as soon as they become known or Natural Analysis, which decomposes to each other, either personally or by and recomposes them, reaching the ele- fame, they are friends : it is our object, ments of nature. They are divided into if practicable, to strengthen those ties, not many collateral branches, such as Astro- merely among ourselves, but between nomy, Geonomy, Botany, Zoology, Op- American and European writers. tics, Statics, &c. which are again subdi- Let no national rivalry interfere-it vided into numberless minor branches. ought to be unknown among men of en

In the last century these sciences were lightened and enlarged ninds: and let no yet in their infancy in the United States, mean jealousy arise among ourselvesmit VOL. 11.-No. 11.

11

can never be fostered by the generous and The Linnean Society of Philadelphia, the wise. But above all let us disregard founded in 1804: whose first president those snarlers and sneerers, whose pro- was Dr. Benj. Barton, and whose actual found ignorance prevents them from con- president is Þr. W.P.C. Barton. ' It hạs ceiving the scope and use of our pursuits, not been very active, and had even beand without allowing ourselves to deviate come nearly extinct; but has lately been from the honourable paths of knowledge revived. None of its labours have been and improvement, let us steadily persevere published except an address of the first in observing, collecting, and imparting, president. useful facts and truths-in improving our- The Linnean Society of Boston, foundselves and mankind.

ed in 18**. Its actual president is Judge We shall divide this subject into two Davis: it has not published any transacparts:

: first, collective improvements and tions. labours-second, individual labours and The Columbian Chemical Society of discoveries, concluding by some remarks Philadelphia, founded in 1811, which has on what remains to be done.

published a volume of memoirs in 1819. PART I. Collective Improvements and The Literary and Philosophical Society labours.

of New York, founded in 1814. PresiAt the beginning of this century there dent, Dr. Dewitt Clinton. It has been were only three learned societies in very active, has published in 1815 a first the United States, which included natu- volume of transactions highly valuable, ral sciences within their range; and even and is preparing a second for the press. they did not assume their study as the The Literary and Philosophical Society base of their labours.

of Charleston, founded towards 1814. These were the Philosophical Society, President, Stephen Elliot, who has pube at Philadelphia, founded in 1744; the lished his Introductory Discourse. American Academy of Arts and Sciences, The Academy of Natural Sciences oft at Boston, founded in 1780, and the Con- Philadelphia, established in 1815. Presinecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, dent, Mr. Patterson: the members meet founded in 1799. Some other societies weekly, and instruct each other by lechad directed their pursuits towards some tures; an example worthy of imitation. of the auxiliary branches; such as the It has formed a museum; and since May, Agricultural Societies of Charleston, and 1817, has begun to issue a monthly sheet, Massachusetts, the Society for the Pro- under the name of Journal of the Academotion of Useful Arts and Agriculture, my of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, &c. of Albany, and several Medical or and after the plan of the bulletins of the Chemical Societies in different cities. Philomatie Society of Paris, which is the

While these societies are mentioned, it first of its kind in the United States, and will not be improper to notice their la- will materially contribute to spread natubours in this century, The Philosophi- ral knowledge. cal Society of Philadelphia has published The Cabinet of Sciences, of Philadelthree volumes of transactions in 1802, 4 phia, established in 1815. President, and 6, containing many valuable commu- Dr. Clymer. Nearly on the plan of the nications ; but it has promulged nothing foregoing society; but not so active, it has since, and the Magellanic premium, of undertaken to form a botanical garden.. which it has the disposal, has not been The Columbian Institute, of Washingawarded for many years. The Academy ton, was established in 1816: the presiof Arts and Sciences of Boston has pub- dent is Dr. Cutbush ; it has for its object lished two volumes of transactions, 2d. to encourage the cultivation of sciences and 3d. The Society of Albany has and arts ; but as it meets only twice & published, occasionally, some tracts con- year, it will not be able to become of nected with its views. The Connecticut much avail.. Academy has published a volume of

The Lyceum of Natural History, of transactions in 1810. The other socie- New-York, was formed in 1817: Presities have not published any thing to our dent, Dr. Mitchill—it holds weekly meetknowledge; but they have probably been ings. Within a few months, this society, instrumental in imparting knowledge to by the activity of its members, has begun their members, and nourishing a taste for a museum, and an herbarium: it has aptheir pursuits.

pointed lecturers on all the branches of Since 1800 the following learned socie- Natural History, and travelling committies have been established, mostly, as tees, and proposes to publish its transacwill be perceived, for the cultivation of tions in a short time. Batural sciences.

Besides the above, another learned so.

ciety, under the name of School of Arts the following deserve notice, as the most and Literature, has been established at rich and valuable. The mineralogical Cincinnati, in Ohio, towards 1814; but collections of Dr. Bruce in New York, we are unacquainted with its officers or of Coł. Gibbs, in the museum of the Hislabours: it deserves attention, however, torical Society of New-York, and of as the first instance of such an institution Yale College at New-Haven, &c. The in the Western States.

conchological collections of John G. BoSeveral other minor societies, for auxi- gert, Esq. of New-York, and of the Acadeliary branches of natural sciences, my of Natural Sciences, in Philadelphia, have likewise been established at differ- &c. The entomological collections of ent periods ; such as, the Agricultural Mr Say in Philadelphia, of Mr. Torrey Society of Philadelphia, of which Judge in New York, &c. The general collecPeters is the worthy president, and tions of Dr. Mitchill in the University of which has been very active, having pub- New-York, of the Academy of Natural lished two volumes of important papers: Sciences of Philadelphia, &č. the Historical Society of New-York, which Herbariums, or collections of specimens has lately assumed the subject of natural of plants, have been made by many, but history, and formed a museum, &c.—be- they are generally confined to American sides some new Medical Societies, to plants; the most valuable are those of whose lot it falls to elucidate the natural the late Rev. Dr. Henry Muhlenberg, in history of man;

and three Botanical So- the possession of his son, Dr. Muhlenberg cieties in Utica, Philadelphia, and Boston, of Lancaster, of Mr. Elliot of Charleston, lately established.

of Mr. Collins of Philadelphia, of Dr. The collective labours of these socie- Eddy of New-York, of Dr. Bigelow of ties have been surpassed by the personal Boston, of Dr. W. P.C. Barton of Philalabours of their members, and other indi- delphia, of Mr. Torrey of New-York, of viduals, which we shall notice at length Mr. Rafinesque of New-York, &c. in the second part: but we mean to give Botanical gardens are connected with here an account of the gradual means botany, medicine, agriculture, horticulemployed by them.

ture, and become useful appendages thereOnly two small museums of natural to, when properly directed; but no such history existed in the United States in public gardens have been endowed as yet 1800, in Philadelphia and Boston. These in the United States, upon the liberal Euestablishments, which increase the taste ropean system. Mr. Bartram's private for natural beings, or even create it, botanical garden was perhaps the only when the simple survey of nature cannot one in existence at the beginning of this inspire it, have become numerous and century; since which period many similar splendid of late; some of them begin to private gardens have sprung, such as Mr. equal the best European museums; W. Hamilton's at the Woodlands, near among which, those of Peale in Philadel- Philadelphia, Dr. Hosack's at Elgin, near phia, and Scudder in New-York, deserve New-York, several in the vicinity of Bogparticular notice for elegance of taste and ton, and one in Charleston, &c. The abundance of objects. There are also garden of Elgin has lately been purchased public museums and menageries,orexhibi. by the legislature of New-York, and tions of living animals, in the following ci- given to the University; but it is much ties: Boston, Salem, Baltimore, Charles- to be regretted, that it has meanwhile ton, Norfolk, Lexington, New-Haven, &c. been neglected, and almost destroyed, beThey have all been collected by indi- cause no able director was appointed vidual exertions, and the liberal patron- Several new botanical gardens are in age of the public has generally well reward- contemplation, by subscription, in Philaed them ; in some instances legislative or delphia, New-York, and elsewhere; but municipal patronage has been extended unless they are liberally endowed, they to them, by the grantof suitable rooms, &c. will not become of permanent utility.

Private collections are increasing every The botanical garden at Cambridge, day in number and value; almost every forms however a partial exception, and is University and College has a small mu- an useful appendage of that University. yeum, or a collection of minerals, shells, Gardens on a more moderate scale, &c.: many gentlemen and ladies begin to but not less useful, are common near delight in procuring collections, which Charleston, Alexandria, Baltimore, Philahas a general tendency to increase the delphia, New-York, Boston, &c. where taste for rational and innocent amuse- useful and ornamental plants, trees, and ments. Among those private collections, seeds are raised for sale: those of Mr.

Macmahon near Germantown, and of Mr. dents, and the endowment of many new Prince at Flushing, &c. may be quoici colleges and academies, particularly in as examples. The establishments more the western and southern States, among closely connected with agriculture, such which may be mentioned those of Lexas nurseries, seed-stores, &c. have also ington in Kentucky, of Millegeville in increased in proportion, among which the Georgia, of Columbia in South Carolina, nursery of fruit trees of Mr. Cox, near &c. In all the coileges of the United Burlington in New-Jersey, has ranked States, which amount to more than forty, among the most valuable.

natural philosophy is taught; in some of Agriculture, the base of our real wealth, them chemistry; in a few natural history. is of course attended to with uncertaing In the Universities, all those branches care, and a few worthy individuals, sich as have professors, often men of ability ; Chancellor Livingston, Dr. Mease, Judge but they are generally annexed to the Peters, John Lowell

, Esq. &c. have been schools of medicine. In the University of endeavouring to study it and teach it as Cambridge, however, a distinct course of a science; but their attempts have gene- lectures on Natural Sciences, is delivered rally failed, because the great mass of by professors in all the branches of those farmers conceive they know enough! sciences. In the University of PennsylvaEnlightened proprietors and farmers, are nia, since the death of Dr. Benjamin Barnot however, willing to admit of im- ton, a faculty of natural sciences has been provements, and to allow their practice established last year: this is the first into be directed by a wise theory.

stance of the kind in the United States. Horticulture, both practical and orna- The following professorships were apmental, is likewise become fashionable pointed and filled; of natural philosophy, among our wealthy citizens. The cultiva- of botany, of natural history, particularly tion of our native ornamental plants and zoology, of comparative anatomy, of mishrubs is spreading everywhere, and neralogy and chemistry applied to the exotics are not neglected; green-houses arts ;-those of the institutes of chemisare quite common, and some hot-houses try and materia medica, being left united are to be found in the vicinity of every city. with the medical faculty.

Extensive public libraries, on a liberal It is to be regretted that professors are plan, had been established last century; sometimes appointed who have yet to they have gradually increased their stock learn what they are to teach: instruction of books, where valuable materials for will flourish with more rapidity when the study of natural sciences are to be they shall be selected, in all instances, met; those of Philadelphia, Baltimore, among the most worthy and learned canNew-York, and Boston, hold the first didates. sank. The libraries of Hospitals, Colle- Public lectures on the most popular ges, &c. have likewise been materially and branches of natural sciences have been usefully increased; the libraries of Dr. given by many private lecturers, e. 6. Benjamin Barton, and Dr. Hosack, have by Mr. Čorrea in Philadelphia, on hotany, been purchased by the hospitals of Phila- and the natural method; by Mr. Whitlow, delphia and New-York, and are exceed- on demonstrations of botany, in Newingly rich in rare books of natural history. York, Philadelphia, Albany, New Haven,

Most towns, and even many villages, Boston, &c.; by Mr. Hare, on chemistry, have established circulating or subscrip- in Philadelphia; hy Dr. Bruce, on mineraltion libraries on improved plans; they ogy in New-York, &c. convey useful publications into every cor- Natural knowledge has been gradually ner of the Union. Atheneums have been diffusing itself by all these means, as well formed in Boston, Philadelphia, Lexing- as by the individual exertions of the obton, and elsewhere, whose object is to servers of nature, their writings and pubcollect useful works, and where the lite- lications; among which, periodical ones rary journals of America and Europe are are not to be reckoned the least useful. regularly received; as they are likewise Even newspapers and literary journals in the Literary Rooms of Messrs. East- haveosten been the vehicles of much useburn and Co. of New-York. The Athe- ful knowledge on the physical and geoloneum of Boston contains one of the gical geography of our country, the natumost extensive and valuable libraries in ral history of our shores, meteors, &c.: the United States. Reading-rooms and and even those daily papers which apatheneums, on a minor scale, are not un- pear to be the most hostile to knowledge common throughout the Union.

and science, cannot help to convey, oce Public instruction has kept pace with casionally, valuable facts belonging to, or our rapid increase of population, which is connected with, natural sciences. The evinced by the general increase of stu- periodical works dedicated to literature,

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