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the genera of that family by the double rather clumsy, with a large head and mouth, want of tail, ears, &c. It con- breast, short legs, &c. they often sit on tains probably several species ; 'but only their hind legs as dogs. two are known as yet, and they have 2. Cynomys? griseа. Raf. Entirely been discovered and ascertained by Mr. gray, tail one third of total length.-Obs. Bradbury: they both are found in the Capts. Lewis and Clarke who describe Missouri Territory, they burrow under also this animal, do not say if it has ground and live on roots; they are call- pouches ; I have united it to this genus, ed Gauffre by the French settlers. for the great similarity with the forego

1. Diplostoma susta. Raf. Entirely ing; but if it has none, it may rather bebrown, length twelve inches.

long to the following genus. Its man%. Diplostoma alba. Raf. Entirely ners are similar to those of the foregowhite, length six inches.

ing; but its villages are smaller; it does III. GEOM/S. (Order Gliria.) Feet not bark, and makes instead a whistling short, all with five toes and nails, those noise ; it has a fine fur and long nails: It of the forefeet very long: mouth as in is found also on the Missouri, and is callthe genus Cricetus, and with exterior ed Petit-chien by the Canadians. pouches, tail round and naked.-Obs. V. ANISONYX. (Order Gliria.) Teeth as The generic name means Earth-rat; it in Soiurus, no pouches, five toes and has the appearance of a mole; but the nails to all the feet, the two inner toes of characters of the family Cricetia, and it the forefeet very short, and with blunt only differs from the genus Cricetus by nails, the three others long, and with having the tail of a rat and the feet of a sharp nails: tail distich as in Sciurus.mole: the animals belonging to this new Obs. It differs from the genera Arctomys, genus burrow like the rest of the family, and Sciurus, by the number and shape and live on roots: two species are known of its toes; whence its generic name, already.

which means unequal nails : It belongs to 1. Geomys pinetis. Raf. Murine colour, the family Myoria, tail entirely naked, shorter than the 1. Anisonyx brachiura. Raf. Brown body.--Obs. This animal has been call- grey above, slightly speckled with redish ed Georgia Hamster, by Milledge, white, light brick-red beneath, tail oval, Mitchill, Anderson, Mease, &c. It lives in one seventh of total length, redish brown Georgia, in the region of Pines, where it above, iron grey beneath, marginated raises little mounds, size of a rat. with white.-Obs. The Burrowing

2. Geomys cinerea. Raf. Ash colour, Squirrel of Capts. Lewis, and Clarke: tail very short, nearly naked.–Obs. It they live in society on the plains of the was cailed.llus bursorius or Ash coloured Columbia, in burrows and villages, their Rat by Dr. Mease: it has very large burrows have several openings round a pouches, and in size is larger than the mound on which they keep a watch ; foregoing.

when any one approaches they make IV. Cysours. (Order Gliria.) Mouth a shrill whistling sound: they feed on with pouches, teeth as in Sciurus, all the the roots of grass. Total length sevenfeet with five toes and nails, the two teen inches. outer toes shorter, the two inner toes of 2. Anisonyr? rufa. Raf. Fur long, silky, the forefeet long, with sharp nails, tail entirely redish brown, ears short, pointed distich as in Scirrus.-Obs. This genus, with short hair.--Obs. This animal callwhose name means Dog-rat, belongs ed Sewewell by Capts. Lewis and Clarke, also to the family Cricetia, next to the is of a doubitul genus, since they only genus Tenotus, (the ground squirrels,) saw the fur of it; it burrows and runs on from which it differs by the shape and trees like the ground squirrels ; length number of tocs, besides living in society eighteen inches, found in the neighbour. and not having the striped back.

hood of the Columbia river. 1. Cynomys socialis. Raf. Brick red, VI. MYNOMES. (Order Gliria.) Teeth grey underneath, tail one fourth of total as in Ondatra, five toes and nails to all length.-Obs. We are indebted to Capts. the feet, inner toes very short: tail hairy, Lewis and Clarke for the discovery of depressed or flat.-Obs. It belongs to this interesting animal, which they call the family Tiberia: it differs from the in their travels the Barking Squirrel. It genus Ondatra by having a tail not scaly, lives in the plains of the Missouri, in and depressed instead of compressed, large subterraneous villages, and several and also from the genus Lemmus by this in each burrow, they bark like small last character: the name means Pasturedogs, and live on roots and grass. Its, mouse. whole length is seventeen inches; it is 1. Mynomes pratensis. Raf. Dark


brown, hoary underneath, chin and feet graphy of this genus, and I shall merewhite, ears shorter than the fur, tail one- ly give at present the definitions of fifth of total length, linear obtuse. --Obs. some, best known, from this continent. We are indebted to Wilson for the Their vulgar names are Catamount, knowledge of this animal, he has des- Mountain-cat, Wild-cat, Loocervia, &c. cribed it and figured it in his Ornitholo- 1. Lynx canadensis. Raf. (Felis canagy, Vol. 6. p. 59. tab. 50. fig. 3. under densis Geoffry.) Ears bearded, white inthe name of Meadow-mouse. It lives side, fallow outside; fur grayish witha near Philadelphia, &c. in meadows and fallow dots, head with some black lines, even in salt marshes, where it burrows whitish unspotted underneath.-Obs. In in all directions, and even perforates the Canada, Labrador, &c. Small size. embankments, it swims and dives well,

2. Lynr montanus. Raf. Ears beardfeeds on roots and bulbs of plants: it has less, black outside, with a white spot, the appearance of the Ondatra zibethi- fallow inside ; fur grayish and unspotted cus or Musk-rat; but is only five inches above, whitish with brown dots under long altogether, it has small eyes, a thick neath, tail grayish.-Obs. On the Highfur and a blunt nose.' Many hawks and lands of New-York, the Catskill and owls prey on it.

Peru mountains, the Alleghany, &c. VII. Lynx. (Order Ferea.) Six equal Length from three to four feet, larger front teeth to each jaw, canine teeth than the foregoing. strong, three grinders on each side of

3. Lynx rufus. Raf. (Felis rufa Geneeach jaw, with sharp denticulated edges: lin.) Ears bearded; fur fallow dotted head rounded; five toes to the forefeet, brown; tail white underneath and at the four to the hind feet, connected by a top, striped of black above.-Obs. Io loose skin, and with sharp retractible the woods of New York, Pennsylvania, nails : tail thick truncated, not reaching Ohio, &c. Size of a large cat. the knees, no purse under it; long ears 4. Lynx floridanus. Raf. Ears beardoften tufted.--Obs. This extensive and less, für greyish, sides varied with yelbeautiful


had been blended by lowish brown spots and black waved Linneus, and the other authors, with the streaks.-Obs. Small size as the foregenus Felis, or only considered as a sub- going, lives in Florida, Georgia, and genus by some modern zoologist ; but Louisiana. This is the Lynx or Wild this last genus differs by having four cat of Bartram. grinders on each side of each jaw, a long

5. Lynx fasciatus Raf. Ears bearded, tail, and shorter ears., I had established black outside ; fur reddish brown above, this genus ever since 1814 in my Analy- with blackish stripes and dots, white sis of Nattire, and ever since 1812 had underneath with black dots; tail very prepared a monography of it, in which short, white, with a black tip.-Obs. I noticed as many as fifteen species, al- Foundby Capts. Lewis and Clarke on the though only four or five had been des- North-West Coast, where many other cribed by methodical writers. I have unnoticed species dwell likewise, of a since increased that number to twenty- large size, and with a beautiful thick fur. four species, by collecting and compar- 6. Lynx aureus. Raf. Ears beardless; ing the accounts of travellers and natu- fur bright yellow with black and white ralists; of these, two species are from Eu- dots, pale yellow and unspotted underrope, four at least from Asia, five from neath, tail very short.-Obs. Small size, Africa, three from South America, and observed by Leraye; lives on the plains nearly ten from North America. They of the Missouri, and perhaps elseshall be all described in my new mono- where.




The following letter, obligingly commu- DEAR SIR, nicated to the editors, hy Doctor Mitch


N Saturday last, a man in the emill, will be read with interest, as con- ploy of my father, in digging a drain taining an account of the discovery, for

or ditch through a miry swamp, discoverthe first time on the east side of the ed, about three feet from the surface of mountains, of some fossil remains of the earth, several pieces of teeth of enorthe Mammoth.

size :—from their appearance, “TAE Hon. Sam. L. MITCHILL, shape, and the manner they are worn away, the animal must have lived I sup- orders. These improvements, however, pose to a great age, and belonged to the appear destined for a time, at least, to Granivorous species; who have probably confine their immediate benefits to the inhabited this region, and become extinct indigent and subordinate classes of soprevious to the discovery, or at least the ciety. There is something in the feelsettlement of this country by the Euro- ings of the higher orders in a state hog. peans. The largest piece appears to be- tile to the introduction, among them. long to the extreme back tooth of the selves, of improvements which have nounder jaw, and is eight inches in length, thing but plain sense and immediate four inches in breadth, and three inches in practical utility to recommend them, height, from where it has rested on the and they are ever too ready to lavish jaw bone to the head or top of the their patronage upon those who teach tooth, (though it evidently appears that what are called polite accomplishments, one half of its original size is worn away and who multiply the mere decorations by mastication,) weighing three pounds of society; while they neglect those six ounces, Avoirdupois weight. The men, and their plans, whose object it is to enamel is the principal part of the tooth teach them the earliest and best use of that is preserved ; the root or periostium their intellectual powers, and learn them is chiefly decayed, and, upon being ex- how to think and act. Rich men and posed to the air, moulders away. The their children are too prone to look with ditcher, before he discovered the teeth, contempt upon those plans which are broke them while diyging with the spade: calculated to economise their time or these are full of marrow resembling lard. money, when either is to be expended If you should deem a further discovery for their own behoof; and the self-comnecessary to aid you in your scientific placent spirit of wealth and fashion is pursuits, I shall be happy to see you at hardly willing to admit that it stands my residence, or I will carefully preserve in need of any aid in the acquisition of the pieces, and bring them with me to the elements; nature had been too New-York for your inspection and ex- liberal to leave any thing to be supamination.


plied. A circumstance which has tendI have the honour to be,

ed to strengthen this feeling is, doubtSir, your most obedient

less, the fact that all these improvehumble servant,

ments are put to experiment among EDWARD SUFFERN." the poor and dependent--the perpe. New Antrim, Rockland County,

tual objects of public charity, or the September 11th, 1817.

proteges of private associations. The

state of feeling alluded to among the These specimens have since been re- higher orders, is much to be regretted ; ceived, and deposited by Dr. Mitchill, but when it will be otherwise, I will not in the Cabinet of the New-York Histori- undertake to say, as it must be left to cal Society

experience to effect a change. But

among the lower orders the time need Messrs. Editors,

not be far distant, when the admirable Permit me, through the medium of methods of teaching first recommended your valuable Miscellany, to express the and carried into practice by Lancaster pleasure, which I lately experienced at shall universally obtain. Our legislathe annual examination of the African tures could do nothing wiser than to enFree School, of this City. The subject act a law that the whole establishment of education has excited so much en- of common schools, in the several States, lightened curiosity of late years, that, so 'should be new-modelled upon the Lanfar as the general theory is concerned, castrian plan, and ordain that the public little seems to have been mistaken or school-funds should be appropriated acoverlooked. The more practical spirit cordingly. A great portion of the comof modern metaphysical philosophy has mon schools of our country are of very laid the ground-work of the improve- doubtful utility--many times they are ments in the plans of education; and positivelypernicions—from the ignothe freer institutions, and more intelligent rance and perversity of school-masters. public spirit of modern society have It would be superfluous at this time to given opportunity for common sense enter into an exposition of the princiand philanthropy to execute their favo- ples of the Lancastrian system, or unrite designs for the benefiif communi- dertake a detail of its advantages ; if ty, by the more careful and thorough this were necessary, one attendance at discipline and instruction of the lower an annual examination of the African



Free School of New-York, would speak compositions, permit me to request your more than volumes on the subject. At attention to the course of familiar deca the visit, which I made, I saw enough tures on grammar, delivered to his elasto convince the most sceptical, that the ses, by Mr. Ingersoll of this city. Mr. Incoloured race is abundantly endowed by gersoll divests his subjects of all mystery, nature with every intellectual and moral and does not in the outset intimidate faculty, and capable of repaying the the learner with even the sight of a most assiduous culture. One hundred book. He commences his instructions and fifty or two hundred boys and girls, in the way of conversation, and draws from four or five, to fifteen or sixteen all his.illustrations from the sensible ob. years of age, constitute the school. jects that casually present themselves; They are under the superintendence of thus teaching his pupils that words are a master, who certainly appeared to signs of real or imaginary existences, and execute the duties of his station with of the relations between them. Having fidelity and skill; he is aided by a initiated them in the general principles young_female, educated at the New- of the science, he proceeds to make the York Free School, who made an intel- application of the knowledge they have ligent and useful assistant. The pupils acquired to written sentences. He comunderwent an examination. in reading, pels the scholar, by such means, to reaspelling, arithmetic, geography, and son for himself, and furnishes him with grammar. Several dialogues and sin- the rules which enable him to form a gle pieces, discreetly selected, were de- correct judgment. His success is the livered with much propriety, and one hest evidence of the superiority of his of the boys, with great credit to his own system, over the old fashioned method capacity and to the thoroughness of his of getting the accidents' by rote, as a instructor, explained the use of the preliminary to the study of grammar. globe. A piece of original composition It is necessary to know something of was also read; but this exercise had been grammar before a book that treats of it proposed to the school so short a time can be comprehended. previous to the examination, that only By giving a place to this hint in your one, a boy, who was among the most valuable publication you may render a improved and ambitious in the school, service not only to a deserving individuhad been able to prepare himself. The al, but to the rising generation. specimens of writing and of needle-work

A WELL-WISHER. were well done, and there were exhibit

-0com ed a few specimens of drawing, which is merely a permitted, not a required

MERMAIDS AND MERMEN. branch of education in the school, which Messrs. Editors, were executed with much correctness As the visit of the great Sea-Serpent and taste. Indeed, if my eyes had not to our Eastern shores has awakened a told me otherwise, I should have thought new spirit of curiosity in regard to the myself in one of the best-regulated and monsters of the deep, I send you the best-taught schools, composed of the following notices, of the Mermaid, which, fairest-hued children in the land. as you will perceive, I have cut out of

This is an interesting subject, and on the English newspapers, within a few that account I thought a communication years past. It is useful to collect and rein regard to it would not be unaccepta- cord coincident testimony en subjects of ble to you. It is principally by the force so much doubt. The insertion of these of such manners and modes of thinking extracts may, perhaps, leati persons who as depend upon early mental discipline, have observed animals in any degree anand the thorough diilusion of practical swering to this description to communi.. knowledge, that the republic is to be cate the information which they possess. perpetuated ; and he who contributes, Respectfully Yours, in any degree, to objects of such substan

A CONSTANT READER. tial good, will be acknowledged as a philanthropist and

“In a History of the Netherlands, it PATRIOT. is stated, that in the year 1480, the dikes

were broken near Campear by an inunMessrs. Editors,

dation ; and when the inundation had As you appear to take an interest in returned, a Merwoman was left in the overy thing that appertains to literature, Dermot Met; and the milk-maids, and as the right use of language is the who used to cross that Meer in boas, basis of all elegant or even intelligible when they went to milk, saw a human

head above water, but believed their count is mentioned in the Talliamed, p.23. eyes deceived them, till the repeated Hudson, the great navigator, in his sight confirmed their assurance ; where- Journal, written by himself, in the Briupon they resolved one night to watch tish Museum, bas the following entry: her, and saw that she repaired to a sed- “ June 15, 1607, 15 lat. 75. 7. this morn&y, or fagsy place, where it was ehb, ing one of our company looking overand near the side ; whereupon, early in board, saw a Mermaid, and calling up the morning, they got a great many some of the company to see her, one boats together, and environed the place more came up, and by that time she in the form of a half moon, and disturb- was come close to the ship's side, looked her ; but she, attempting to get under ing earnestly on the men.

A little after, the boats, and finding her way stopped a sea came and overturned her. From up by staves and other things, on pur- the navel upwards her back and breasts pose fastened, began to flounce and were like those of a woman; (as they say make a hideous deafening noise, and that saw her;) her body as big as one with her hands and tail sunk a boat or of us; her skin very white, and long hair two, but at last was tired out and taken. hanging down behind, of colour black. The maids used her kindly, and cleaned In her going down they saw her tail, the sea-moss and shells from off her, and which was like the tail of a porpoise, offered her water, fish, milk, bread, &c. and speckled like a mackarel. Their which she refused; but with good usage, names that saw her were Thomas Nelles, in a day or two they got her to eat and Robert Rayner, and Joseph Wilson.” drink, though she endeavoured to make Arasaig, 28th Sept. 1809.—The folher escape again to sea. Her hair was lowing declaration was this day emitted, long and black, her face human, her in presence of the after subscribing witteeth very strong, her breasts and belly nessses. to the navel were perfect; the lower Neil M'Intosh in Sandy Island, Canparts of her body ended in a strong fish na, states that he has heard from differtail. The magistrates of Haerlem com- ent individuals in the island of Canna, manded her to be sent to them, for that that they have seen the fish called Merthe Mere was within their jurisdiction. maids ; that these animals had the upper When she was brought thither she was parts resembling the human figure, and put in the Town-house, and had a dame the lower extremities resembling a fish. assigned her to teach her. She learned In particular about six years ago, Neil to spin, and show devotion in prayer; Stewart and Neil M‘Isaac, both alive in she would laugh, and when women came Canna, when walking upon the sea beach into the Town-house to spin with her on the north end of the island, on a Sunfor diversion, she would signify by signs day, saw, stretched on a rock at a small she knew their meaning in some sort, distance, an animal of the above descripthough she could never be taught to tion, having the appearance of a woman in speak ; she would wear no clothes in the upper parts, and of a fish below; that summer ; part of her hair was filleted up on seeing them it sprung into the water, in a Dutch dress, and part hung long na- after which they had a more distinct turally. She would have her tail in the view of its upper parts, which strongly water, and accordingly had a tub of wa- resembled a female of the human species. ter under her chair, made on purpose That Lachlan M'Arthur, of the same for her. She eat milk, water, bread, island, informed M'Intosh, that some butter, and fish ; she lived thus out of years ago, sailing from Uist to Skye in a her element (except her tail) fifteen or stormy day, he saw rising from the water sixteen years. Her picture was painted near the stern of the boat in which he was, on a board with oil, and hangs now in a figure resembling a woman in its upper the Town-house of Haerlem, with a su- paris, which terrified himn extremely. perscription in letters of gold, giving an Neil M'Intosh further states, that he account when she was taken, how long himself, about five years ago, was steershe lived, and when she died and in ing a boat from Canna to Skye in a storwhat church-yard she was buried; their my day; that when about one fourth annals mention her, and their books have of the passage from Canna he saw someher picture, and travelling painters draw thing near him of a white colour, and of her picture by the table. By the above the human figure, spring almost out of mentioned relation the querist may be the water, which he took for the animal satisfied, that she exceeds all the other above described; but as it instantly discreatures in cunning and docility that appeared again, he had no opportunity have ever yet been kuown."--This oc- of examining it minutely, that he fett


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