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and orators would adopt his chaste style. What are those' mysterious characters, The sermon is marked with strong and over which they pore with such incessant delicate feelings, which do honour to its delight, and which seem to gladden the writer as a man and a christian, and indi- hours that pass by me so sad and cheercate, we think, as far as such a produc- less! What mean the ten thousand custion could, that kind of judiciousness, toms, which I witness in the private cirgood sense, and kindness, which the sta- cles and the public assemblies, and which tion filled by Mr. G. requires. We can- possess such mighty induence over the not deprive our readers of the pleasure conduct and feelings of those around me? which they will derive from the follow- And that termination of life; that placing ing extract:
in the cold bosom of the earth, those “ There are chains more galling than whom I have loved so long and so tenthose of the dungeon-the immortal mind derly; how it makes me shudder !What prejing upon itself, and so imprisoned as is death ?-Why are my friends thus laid not to be able to unfold its intellectual and by and forgotten?-Will they never remoral powers, and to attain to the com- vive from this strange slumber?-Shall prehension and enjoyment of those ob- the grass always grow over them ?-Shall jects, which the Creator has designed as I see their faces no more for ever? - And the source of its highest expectations and must I also thus cease to move and fall hopes. Such must often be the condition into an eternal sleep! And these are the of the uninstructed deaf and dumb! meditations of an immortal mind." What mysterious darkness must sadden We cannot conclude without the warmtheir souls! How imperfectly can they est congratulations to the friends of huaccount for the wonders that surround manity, at our singular felicity in opening them. Must not each oue of them, in the institution at Hartford under such fathe language of thought, sometimes say, vourable auspices. Considering the va“What is it that makes me differ from rious moral and intellectual qualities, and my fellow-men? What is that strange the great experience required for instrucmode of communicating, by which they tors in such a seminary, it may be reason: understand each other with the rapidity bly doubted whether the world could of lightning, and which enlivens their have furnished two equal to Mr. Galfaces with the brightest expressions of laudet and Mr. Clere. We hazard nojoy? Why do I not possess it, or why thing in saying it did not contain their can it not be communicated to me? superiors.
ART. 7. MUSEUM OF NATURAL SCIENCES.
By C. S. RAFINESQUE, ESQ.
9. Synopsis of four New Geners and ten Memoir on them, presented to the Lite
new Species of Crustacea, found in the rary and Philosophical Society of NewUnited States.
York; but he has not adopted the geneTHE Crustacea or Crustaceo!!s are a ric improvements of Latreille, Leach, peculiar class of animals, formerly and myself
, (in Analysis of Nature.) Mr. blended with the insects; but of late distin- Say of Philadelphia, who has wisely guished with propriety, since they have adopted most of these improvements, has gills, a heart and blood, of which the in- described a new genus, Ceru pus, and hesects are entirely deprived. The anima's gun an account of the southern species, commonly called crabs, lobsters, shrimps, in the fourth Number of the Journal of &c. belong to this class; they had been the Phil. Ac. of Nat. Sc. I shall add, enumerated by Linneus in only three ge- thereto, fourteen new species, four of nera, cancer, monocilus, and oniscus, which belong to new genera; whence we while they form now a large and exten- may hope, that the knowledge of these sive group of about one hundred and fisty animals will begin to increase in our genera, and one thousand species, and country, and wlien all those which live we only know a small share as yet. in our lakes, rivers, and brooks, and
Few species of the United States had those inhabiting the shores of Florida, been noticed by Linneus and Fabricius, Louisiana, Massachusetts, &c. shall be Bose has described several and Leach described, we may hope to be enabled some, mostly new:Dr. Samuel L. Mitchill to sketch a general enumeration and his. has noticed those of New-York, in history of those singular beings. I shall merely give, at present, synoptical deg. beneath, thoras wrinkled, last segment criptions of my new genera and species, of the tail lanceolate acute ciliated. ---Obs. the nature of this work precluding the This beautiful little animal is about one possibility of giving figures and full des- inch long, and lives on the sandy shores criptions, which must be delayed till I of Long-Island, where it burrows in the shall be able to frame an American Plax- sand as a mole with great rapidity, and ology. I have given that name to the swims with equal swiftness. It was combranch of Zoology which assumes the mụnicated to me and the Lyceum by study of those animals. The former Dr. S.L. Mitchill, who has named it Hipnames, Crustaceology and Gammaro- paachiria in his paper on the New-York logy, being both erroneous, the first being Crustacea ; but the genus Hippa (or rahalf Latin and half Greek, the second ther Emerita of Gronovius, an anterior applying, or implying, a reference to the and better name) belongs to the longgenus Gammarus only.
tailed cancers, and this has the tail shorter I. NECTOCERAS. (N. Order Macruria, than the thorax, and all the characters of N. family Palinuria.) Two interior an- Ranina, &c. tens bearing at the top a fiat appendage, III. PSAMMILLA. (N. Order Branchythe two lateral antens longer simple, eyes pia, N. Family Gammaria.) The two lateral behind them: feet nearly equal, upper antens, with two long segments at with simple nails: tail four lobed.-Obs. the base, and many small articles at the The name of this singular genus is derived top; lower antens very short; all the from the two antens which have a folia- feet with one nail, the last pair much ceous and swimming appendage, and longer and larger: each segment of the means swimming horns. It has very body with a lateral appendage, tail with much the habit of its family, and particu- four bifid unequal filaments.- Obs. The larly of the genera Crangon and Palinu. name is abbreviated from Psammop sylla, Tus: this family is the fifth belonging to which means sand-fea.
The family the second natural order, and is distin- Gammaria is the fifteenth in my natural guished by its long fan tail, ten feet with- classification, and is distinguished by out nippers, peduncled eyes, &c. fourteen feet, four antens, body not de.
1. Nectoceras pelagica. Rostrum su- pressed, &c. bulate, equal in length to the interior 1. Psammylla littoralis. Longer antens antens, their appendages oboval: body doubly than the head, short antens not omooth fulvous, tail white, with four longer than their first segment; last pair violet spots opposed to the lobes. Obs. of feet double in length; body rulous It lives in the Atlantic ocean and in the above, white beneath. Obs. I have kulph stream on the Fucus natans, where found this animal in great numbers on the it was first observed by Mr. Bradbury, shores of Long-Island, and New-York, who has shown me a fine drawing of it; and on the Hudson river, jumping about I observed it likewise in 1815. Its length like fleas, whence its vulgar name Sandis two or three inches; when it loses its flea; it jumps by means of its hind feet hold it swims with its antens and tai). and tail, like locusts. Length about half
II. NECTYLUS. (N. Order Brachuria, an inch, often less; eyes large and N. Family Nectonyria.) Body eliptic, 'round. two pairs of antens ciliated, the upper IV. PEPHREDO. (Natural order and antens longer; two large thick and bifid family of the foregoing.) The two upper palps; feet nearly equal, the first pair a antens longer and with six long segments; little swelled, all with flat toes, without all the feet with one nail, and nearly pails; the last segment of the tail very equal, the two first pairs with thick long.-Obs. The name means in Greek, swelled hands; body without lateral apswimming fingers, being contracted from pendages, tail with simple filaments. Nectodactylus. It has much affinity with Obs. This genus was noticed in my Anathe genera Orithyia and Ranina, from lysis of nature, and formed on an Eurowhich it difiers by having all the feet pean species; the name is mythological. without nails, and two large cheliform It may be deemed a singularity in this palps. The family Nectonyria contains family, that this genus should be a fresh all the short tailed crabs with swimming water one, and the last a land one! vails or feet.
1. Pephredo potamogeti. Long antens, 1. Nectylus rugosus. Palps cheliform scarcely longer than the head and double two-thorned as long as the eyes; fore- of the short ones; body fulvous, transpahead three toothed and ciliated; first rent, with a central brown or longitudinal pair of feet with a long external thorn to stripe.-Obs. It lives on the Potamogeton the wrist; body olivaceous aborc, white perfoliatum in the Hudson and the FishVOL.II NOI
kill, near Newburg. Length three lines, A small brownish species, with yellow creeper, eyes very small.
ish hands and belly, about one inch in 1. N. Šp. Asiacus limosus. Antens diameter; the body is quite square, length of the thorax, rostrum equal to scarcely half an inch broad. I have their peduncle, one toothed on each side, found it common on the sea shores of canaliculated at its base; a thorn above Long-Island in muddy overflowed banks, the eyes, another on each flank, three where it burrows in the mud, and is al. pairs of pinciferous feet, bearded at their ways covered with a muddy slime, articulations, hands short, smooth, un- 7. Ocypoda pusilla. Forehead adarmed.--Obs. I discovered this species vancing obtuşe entire, shoulders flexuose in 1803, and observed it again in 1816, in with a sharp angle, sides angular with the muddy banks of the Delaware, near two angles below, and a suture between Philadelphia ;'vulgar name mud-lobster, them, back convex shining olivaceous; length from three to nine inches; good to feet compressed and bristly, hands uneeat, commonly brown, with an olivaceous qual, the left granular, the right very tinge.
small and smooth.-Obs. Shape of a 2. Astacus fossor. Antens length of short rhomboid, broader anteriorly as in the body, rostrum short, one toothed on all the real species of Ocypoda ; those with each side, a thorn behind the eyes; three a different shape belong
to my genus Ocypairs of pinciferous feet, hands of the pete. Size of the foregoing, common in first pair very large, granular gaping salt marshes and on the south shores of toothed, with a furrowed and bispinous Long-Island. wrist.-Obs., Vulgar name, burrowing Portunus menoides. Forehead with lobster-communicated to me by Dr, three teeth, the middle one longer, one Samuel L. Mitchill-native of Virginia, fissure behind each eye, sides with five Pennsylvania, and New-York; size from nearly equal teeth : hands prismatic, four to six inches, it burrows in meadows with one internal tooth, and the wrist and mill dams, which it perforates and with two teeth, the external larger, back damages.
olivaceous with small black dots.- Obs. 3. Astacus ciliaris. Antens length of Similar to the Portumus menas of Euthe thorax, rostrum short acute, without rope, which has, however, only one tooth teeth; three pairs of pinciferous ciliated to each wrist, the hands not prismatic, feet; hands of the first, short thick dotted; the forehead equally trilobed, and the wrist furrowed, with two unequal teeth. back with large spots. Size from one Obs. Length three to four inches, entirely to three inches, common in New York, olivaceous brown, lives in brooks near Long-Island, New-Jersey, &c. Fishkill, Newbury, &c.
9. Daphinia dorsalis. Antens une4. Astacus pusillus. Antens length of qually bifid, shorter than the body, the thorax, rostrum oval acute, a thorn brariched one sided anterior, body oval, and a longitudinal angle behind each eye; acute at both ends, whitish, with a brown three pairs of pinciferous feet, hands of streak on the back, eye black.-Obs. the first oblong dotted, wrist smooth. My genus Daphinia is the Daphnia of Obs. A very small species, living in the Latreille, which name was too much brooks near Saratoga, Lake George, alike Daphne, an anterior genus. This Lake Champlain, Utica, Oswego, &c. species is common in the sea on the shores length one or two inches; vulgár name, of Long Island, &e. The whole length brook prawn, shrimp, or lobster, entirely is less than one line. fulveus brown.
10. Cymothoa pallida. Pale cinereous 5. Pagurus truncatulus. Right hand above, with two longitudinal whitisha the longest, reaching the two following streaks, the three last segments of the pairs of lon feet; hands granular; fingers abdomen broader, the three last pair of with two obtuse teeth; wrists prismatic; legs double the length of the others, bo. thorax smooth, nearly square; forehead dy elliptic, head attenuated obtuse. broad, truncated.--Obs. A very small spe- Obs. It lives by suction on the gills of cies, scarcely one inch long; it lives on Fishes, Shads, Herrings, Perches, Minthe shores of Long Island in the shells of nows, &c. Observed by Messrs. Clemens the snall species of Buccinum and Murer. and Torrey, near New-York : length halt
6. Grapsus limosus. Forehead broad an inch, white beneath, tail broad and entire, sinus of the eyes lunular, with flat, appendages not much longer. sharp angles, sides angular entire, back Note. I am partly acquainted with convex smooth, with some transverse many other new species of the Genera wrinkles: feet compressed, angular, ncar- Cancer, Inachus, Porlunys, Ocypoda, ly smooth, hands small, smooth.--Obs. Astacus, Palemon, Squilla, Idolea, &c.
but it must be hoped they will be fully ken. It produces a few white flowers, described by Mr. Say; if they are not, I the fruits are smooth, and shaped as in shall endeavour to bring them to light the Draba arabisans and D. hispidula, I recommend particularly to him and which must evidently belong to this geother observers, two species of fresh wa- nus; it has also some affinity with Arater Crabs, (probably of the genus Grap- bis reptans. sus,) inhabiting the interior of our conti- 3. Arabis parviflora. (1. thaliana nent, which are certainly new, one of Pursh, Bart, &c. not Lin.) Entirely them was discovered in 1816 by Mr. hispid, stein upright, branched upwards; Debar near Sandyhill, but the specimens leaves entire acute sub-trinervated, the were mislaid: likewise the fresh water radical petiolate oblong, the stem-ones Lobsters and Shrimps of the great lakes, oblong-lanceolate sessile: petals narrow the Ohio, the Mississippi, &c. I believe notched, scarcely longer than the calix, that there are at least two species, per- siliques upright smooth, nearly cylindrihaps three, blended under the name of cal. -Obs. Aimual, common in sandy Limulus polyphemus.
soils in Pennsylvania, New-Jersey, and New-Jork, 10th October, 1817. New-York;itblossoms in April and May:
totally different from the A. thuliana of 10. First decade of undescribed American Europe, which I know well, and for
Plants, or Synopsis of new species, from which it has been mistaken. Flowers the United States.
white, very small, calis hispid, upper Within two years I have discovered, or leaves ciliated. observed again, in the States of New- 4. Arabis inollis. Stem upright, leaves York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, sessile lanceolate acute, hairy, with renearly one hundred new species of plants, mote teeth : flowers on long raceme and undescribed in the late Flora of North long peduncles, calix hispid, petals cuneAmerica, by Pursh, or noticed under false ate obtuse, entire, longer than the calix, names; and several others have been siliques drooping sickle shaped comcommunicated to me hy my botaŋical pressed.-Obs. This species has perfriends. In order to make them known, haps been overlooked, being taken for and to secure our claims to their disco- a variety of the A.canadensis or A. falvery, I mean to publish them gradually cata, of which it has the habit and the in the synoptical shape, which I have fruit, but it differs widely by the leaves, adopted, and I offer herewith their first which are not smooth nor hastated. It decade.
is more scarce, and grows in rocky woods 1. Acnida salicifolia. Stem upright on the Highlands, the Catskill mounbranched solid angular upwards, branch- tains, and near Athens, Hudson, Fishes erect; leares narrow-lanceolate mu- kill, &c. Mr. Torrey has found it also on cronate, and on long petiols : spikes leafy the Island of New-York; it blossoms in and interrupted at the base, glomerules June and July. The stem rises without many-flowered, capsuls unequal, com- branches, from one to three feet, the monly with five unequal sides, angles leaves are thin and soft. Perennial. It obtuse and warty. Obs. grows on varies with smooth and hairy stem, Long-Island and in New-Jersey, on the sometimes branched, and a variety has sea shores, pear marshes and ditches; oblong leaves. The flowers have the it blossoms in September and October: glands as in A. alpina. height two or three feet, capsuls black- 5. Lenina dimidiata. Dinidiated ish purple, very slightly granular. An- nearly reniform notchel, 2-6 furrowed, nual. Intermediary between 1. canna- 5-7 lobed, lobes unequal ; the iniddle bina and U. rusocarpa, but distinct from one larger obcordate, underneath many both.
rooted and dark purple as well as the up2. Arabis rotundifolia. Stem upright, per margin.--Obs. A very distinct spehispid below, leaves rounded thick, cies, found in the Spring, in the shady semle entire hisped, the radical oborate ponds of Lonz-Island. Diameter three spathulate obtuse, stem leaves approxi- to eight lines, solitary or aggregated, but mate nearly ternated ovate round suba- not adhering, roois scaly linear comcute : petals obcordate, double the pressed and acute. length of the calix, siliques linear oblong, 6. Cellis caning. Arborescent, little compressed, erect.-Obs. A very small branches angular, dotted ; leaves ovate annual plant, from one to three, inches acuminate unequally uncinate-serrate high, which only lasts a few months ; it trinervate, base acuto, entire, unequal, blossoms in March and April, grows in above wrinkled smooth, nerved beneath New-Jersey, near Cambdev and Hobo. with pubescent axils : drupes red globu. lar solitary on axillar peduncles, longer upper, no canine teeth, grinders truncatthan the petiols.-Obs. A small tree ed; head with solid, simple, straight, from twelve to twenty-five feet high, round, and permanent horns, uncovered growing on the margin of rivers, at Fish- by a skin; neck and legs not very long, kill, Newburgh, and near New-York; cloven hoof, tail short.-Obs. This vulgar name Dog's cherry; it blossoms genus differs from the genus Cervus, by in April and May, the branches are having simple permanent horns, from spreading, and covered with glandular the genus Giraffa, by not having a skin dots.
over the horns, nor a long neck, and from 7. Celtis maritima. Frutescent, little the genus Gazella, by its horns not being branches round tortuose and pubescent, hollow, it belongs to the family Rumineleaves ovate acuminate trinerved rough, lia, sub family Stereoceria next to the with large equal serratures, base nearly genus Giratia. It appears to be peculiar cordate unequal, petiols and nerves to America, and it contains many species pubescent.-Obs. A small crooked shrub which had been taken for Deer, Sheep, three or four feet high, growing on the or Antelopes:-Three or four species are downs of the sea shore in Long-Island: found in North America ; but the three it blossoms in May, the branches are following are the best known as yet. cinereous and slightly dotted.
1. Mazama tema Raf. Fallow brom 8. Copolium orynemum. Stem creep- abore, white underneath, horns cylindric ing branched, leaves embricate scattered cal, straight, and smooth.-Obs. This is oblique incurved linear-subulate flat en- the Tomumazame of Mexico, it differs tire awned, awns long filiform fiexuose. from the M. pita by being smaller, darker -Obs. Differing from annotinum (Ly- above, whiter below, and with larger copodium L. too similar to Lycopus) by horns. the entire scattered leaves, &c. "Found 2. Mazıma dorsata Raf. Entirely with Mr. Knevels on the Catskill moun- white and woolly, a mane along the neck tains : we did not find it in blossom. and the back, horns conical subulate,
9. Turritis oblongata. Hispid below, acute, slightly curved backwards, base radical leaves oblong cuneate sessile, rough.-Obs. This animal has been call. nearly obtuse toothed, stem leaves semi- ed Ovis montana, by Ord, but the genus amplexicaule oblong acute, nearly entire; Ovis, or rather Aries, has hollow and flat raceme elongated, petals scarcely notch- horns: this species, with the following, ed, siliques very long, straight, compress- and the Vazana puda, will form a parti. ed.-05. Next to T. ovrta of Pursh: cular subgenus, (or perhaps cenus,) which common on the banks of the Bludson I shall cail Oreamnos, distinguished by near Newburgh; blossoms in May and the horns slightly curved backwards or June. Annual.
outwards, often rough or anulated, and 10. Turrilis lyrata. Smooth, stem long hair, besides living in mountains: if straited very simple ; radical leaves the horns should prove hollow, it will have spreading lyrate obluse, and with obtuse much affinity with the genus Rupicapa. teeth, stem leaves erect sessile acute, the 8. Mazama sericea. Raf. Entirely lower ones oblong with acute teeth, the white, with long silky hairs; no mane: upper ones lanceolate entire ; peduncles horns conicalobtuse, slightly curved backshorter than the flowers, petals entire, wards, and annulated.-Obs. This is the siliques narrow, co.npressed, and sickle Rupicapra americana of Blainville; but shaped.-Obs. Annual. A very distinct he has not ascertained the horns to be species, found in blossom in June, at the hollow. foot of the Catskill mountains, in woods. II. DipzostOXA. (Order Gliria.) Logo
Mouth double, the exterior formed by 11. Descrip:ions of seven new genera of two large pouches, connivent anteriorly
North American Quadrupeds. with two long juiting and furrowed front The follo:ving new genera are extract- teeth above and beneath, and reaching ed from my North American Mastodology, to the collar bone, the interior mouth or Natural History of the Quadrupe with a round opening and sixteen grind. and Cetaceous Animals of N. A. which ers, four on each side of each jaw:. contains about two hundred and twenty body cylindrical, no tail, no ears, eyes species, nearly one hundred of which covered by the fur; four toes to all the are new, or undescribed in methodical feet. Obs. The generic name means works. The new species will be describ- double mouth, it has much likeness with ed in another essay.
the genus Spalar, but differs by having 1. Mazama. (Order Stereoplia.) Eight pouches, only four toes, &c. it belongs to front weth in the lower jaw, none in the the family Crisstie, and difers from all