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the bill to be engrossed to a third reading the The house took up the report of the convotes were ayes 65, noes 79. So the bill was

ferees on the part of this house, on the subrejected. Thursılay, Feb. 12. Mr. Lowndes from ject of the disagreeing votes' of the two

and the committee of conference upon the dis

On motion of Mr. Lowndes, the house reagreeing votes of the two houses, in relation solved to adhere to its disagreemcht to said to the senates amendment to the military amendment. appropriation bill, made a detailed report from wbich it appeared that the managers GENERAL BANKRUPT BILL. had parted without coming to any compromise. On motion of Mr. Mercer the report kinson. resolved itself into a committee of the

The house then, on motion of Mr. Hopwas laid on the table.

The House resolved itself into a commit- whole, Mr. Smith of Md. in the chair, on the tee of the whole, on a series of resolutions bill to establish an uniform system of bankproposed by Mr. Johnson of Kentucky, at an ruptcy throughout the U. Stales. early period of the session. Out of the nine

The reading of this bill (which contains, resolutions proposed, only the

following was fifty-four printed folio pages) occupied the adopted.

remainder of the sitting-after the reading, Resolved, That it is expedient to provide was finished, by law, for the repeal of so much of the act

The committee rose, obtained leave to sit of Congress of the 6th of July, 1812, as au- again; and thorizes additional pay and emoluments to

The House adjourned to Monday. brevet rank, in the army of the United

Monday, Feb. 16. After disposing of much States. Other resolutions on military affairs, private business, the House resolved itself inoffered by Mr. Walker, of North Carolina, to a committee of the whole, on the bill to and Mr. Comstock, of N. Y. and referred to establish an uniform bankrupt law. the same committee, were taken up and ne

Mr. Hopkinson supported the measure in galived.

an elaborate and argumentative speech of The committee rose and reported its pro- great length. ceedings to the House. The votes in the

The Committee rose, reported progress, comuittee of the whole were severally con

and the house adjourned. curred in.

Tuesday, Feb. 17. A message was reeeir.' Mr. Robertson offered a resolution to pro- ed from the President of the United States, vide for educating, at the military school of inclosing two communications of the British the United States, the sons of all officers, non

Minister to the Department of State, on tbe commissioned officers and privates who have subject of the equalization of duties, conformfallen in fighting for their country.

ably to the treaty of Ghent. The message Friday, Feb. 13. Mr. Johnson from the recommends provision by law for refunding committee on military affairs, reported a bill discriminative duties which were exacted in repealing so inuch of the law of July 6, 1812, this country, after the provisions of the as allows extra pay and emoluments to treaty had been carried into effect in Great brevet rank, which was committed to a Britain. The message was read and refercommittee of the whole House.

red. Mr. Harrison rose, according to notice

The remainder of the day was spent in yesterday given, to ask leave to bring in a

Committee of the whole, on the bill to estab bill to extend half-pay pensions for five years, lish an uniform system of bankruptcy throughto the widows of soldiers who died in the out the United States. public service during the late war.

Mr. Tyler, Mr. Holmes, and Mr. Pindall, The leave asked was given, by a vote of spoke at length against the bill. The Com55 to 52, and a committee appointed to pre- mittee rose, reported progress, and obtained pare a bill accordingly.

leave to sit again.




three to five bushels per hour, according as A

MACHINE has recently been invented the grain may be for quality.

by Messrs. James and Joseph Gregg, of Londonderry, for the purpose of thresbing A bill has passed both branches of the Leand cleaning English grain, which is found gislature, increasing the governor's salary to by actual experiwent to excel any thing that 4000 dollars. has been introduced for that purpose. The A committee has been appointed in the machine is so constructed that it separates House of Representatives, to consider of the the grain perfectly clean from the straw, and expediency of repealing the statute against cuts the straw fit for fodder; the grain is usury: received into a chest in the under part of the A large wolf has lately been killed at machine, fit for market. The machine is Granville which bad for some time annoyturned by a horse, and may be put in motion ed that vicinage. by water or steam : it requires but one person The building belonging to Phillips' Acadeto attend it, and it will thresh and clean from my, in Andover, has been consumed by fire.




The whole number of deaths in Boston and only 577 of females 571 were of chil. during the year 1817, was 907–in the year dren under two years of age. preceeding 904. Of these 173 were in the Several robberies have been recently com. Alms House, 5 at Rainsford's Island—291 mitted in the vicinity of Baltimore. were children under two years old. The An association has been formed in Balti. deaths in January, were 71; February, 67; more to establish a Savings Bank. March, 71; April, 67; May, 62; June, 60; July, 64; August, 151 ; September, 93 ; Oc- The Virginia House of Delegates have aptober, 99; November, 50; December, 47. pointed a committee to inquire into the ex. The deaths by consumption were 231; Ty- pediency of removing the seat of government phus Fever, 157; Dysentery, 23; Dropsy, from Richmond to the centre of the State. 36; Old Age, 50.

The deaths in Richmond in 1817 were

192. At a late visitation of the public schools in

NORTH CAROLINA. Providence, R. I. the number of scholars in At the late annual communication of the the five schools, each of which has a Precer- Grand Lodge of this State, Maj. Gen. Calvin tor and Usher, was 943.

Jones, of Raleigh, was chosen Grand Master. CONNECTICUT.

GEORGIA The 20th day of March has been appoint. The war with the Seminole Indians coned by the Governor of this State to be kept tinups to harrass the inbabitants of this State, as a Christian Fast.

by draughts from the militia, wbich contriVERMONT.

bute but little to the reduction of the enemy. The Corporation of the University of Vermont, at Burlington, have put forth an expo. A thousand mounted volunteers from this sition of the condition and prospects of that State, accompanied Gen. Jackson in his exinstitution, which must afford satisfaction to pidition against the Seminoles. They are the friends of literature.

commanded by Col. A. P. Hayne.

KENTUCKY. The Legislature of this State is now in ses- A bill has passed both branches of the Le. sion, and occupied in many important delibe- gislature for the incorporation of thirty-nine rations on subjects suggested in the commu. new banks. There are already in existence nication of the executive.

in the State, a State Bank, with fourteen A branch of the Bank of the United States branches, besides two branches of the Bank is to be established in Albany.

of the United States. If these new Banks Cadwallader D. Colden, Esq. has been ap- are all constituted according to the charter pointed Mayor of the City of New-York. granted, (of which, however, there is no pro

A party of thirteen persons turned out in bability,) there will be a grand total of fifty Chatauque county, for a hunt, and in two five Banks in Kentucky. The new Banks days killed-1 bear, 17 deer, 102 racoons, are to give no bonus nor advantage to the 212 squirrels, 1 skunk, and 16 rabbits, besides State, and a specie capital is not required to considerable small game.

authorize them to commence operations.

A company of Volunteers from Russelville The number of vessels absent from the bas marched to join Gen. Jackson. port of Philadelphia, for India, China, and ihe North West Coast is 33—tonnage 10,685. Dec. 20, gives the following statement of pri

A paper printed at Brookville, Indiana,

ces of produce and merchandise. Beef, 'ib, A bill is before the Legislature to change 4 a 5 cis. Candles, Ib. 25 cts Corn, bush. 25 the mode of electing Governor—the election cts. Wheat 62. Fowls. per doz. $1. Eggs doz. to be made by counties instead of the two 6 cts. Sugar, Ib. 25 cts. Whiskey, gal. 75 cts. branches of the Legislature in convention, Pork, Ib. 3 a 4 cls. Butter 19 cis. Flour 100

The number of deaths in Baltimore, dur. lbs. 82 50. ing the year 1817, was 1323; of which 239 were by consumption, 214 by Cholera Mor. A bill has been reported in Congress for bus, 111 by Fevers, and 57 of old age. Two admitting Minois into the Union on infernales died over 100 years old. Of the dependent State. This addition will make whole nunber of deaths, 746 were of males, the number of States 21.









surances, but for the delay caused by the My

voking calm, the more so from the useful, if not illustrious quality, which acproximity of the American shore. The lears quired the Chaldean patriarch so edifying & of the pa sengers respecting the integrity of renown: each was cast upon his own rethe captain were quieted by his renewed as. sources to while away the hours that hung

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beavily upon all. To me books and conver- tinued to be the sport of wind and wave-at sation had always supplied sources of pire length a favourable breeze sprang up, and in and vivifying enjoyment, and with these I a few days we bad the satisfaction of beholdnow succeeded, as in similar circumstances ing the beacons of Capes Cod and Ann, now I had previously done, in warding off the at- gleaming through the obscurity of a clouded tacks of " the fiend Ennui.At night, it was horizon, and now lighting up the shores and my custom to have a few blankets spread waters of Columbia with ite vivid and friendupon deck, and either slumber in the open ly radiance. Alihe enirance of the harbour air, or pass the hours of repose in contem- the pilot came on board, and conducted us plating the starry beauty of the heavens, and as far as Hospital Island, where the bealıb. watching tbe unfolding splendour of the east. officers paid us a visit, and informed us that As tbe sun ascended the horizon, the skirting in consequence of the death of a child during vapours reflected his beams with the most the passage, the ship was optered into que picturesque and happy effect. The deep rantine This, you may well suppose, was obscurity of the shade was first tinged with no pleasant intimation to persons who had a dark livid blusb, that gradua ly brightened so lung endured the confiniment and privainto a lighter tint : then the mis' separated tious of a sca-voyage-and on our represes. into horizonia divisions, whose edges, illu- tation of the general health of the ship, and mined with inten:er radiance, glowed like assurance of the decrosed not having died of the bars of a furnace. One by one, the stais a contagious distemer. the oficer band. passed from the beavens; and the small somely consented to stridge the term of clouds that had gaihered in the atmosphere quarantins, and after a day at the island of during he night looked like roses stre four days, the vessel w 3 ordered up to Bos. upon a plain of azure. The intervals between ton, and a general per a ission given to land. the mists seemed lined with fire, and as the The Bay of Boston is, I understand, one of sun advanced in his career, a brighter purer the noblest in the world; certainly it surpasses crimson involved the atmosphere, dissolving every thing of the kind i bad previously witthe vapours, and diffusing through the air a nessed. Its entrance is narrow, but the water soft yet animated hue :-It glows it bright- soon expands to an extent sufficient to conens-und the level and lengthening splen- tain, I should think, the whole navy of Eng dours that shoot over the face of the deep land. Numerous islets are interepersed, aannounce the speedy bursting forth of the mong which the most considerable and concause of all this mingled magnificence and spicuous are Governor's island, (where a sort, beauty. The last cloud has vanished-and called Warren, has been erected,) Castle ispouring round bim floods of living glory, he land. (upon which another fort called Inderushes up the ascendant, and the heavens p nde ce, has been built) Noddle's I land, and the waters are joyous in his presence. proti cied by some powerful works, to which

To me this was a scene ever rmplete with have been given the name of Fort Strong, and novelty as well as splendour--for though I Hospital, formerly Rainsford island, where have noticed the general appearances, there there is a handsse medica establishment for are a thousand variations it would be impos- The reception of sick seamen, and others insible to describe. The freshness of the air, fec ed with contagious distempers These ard the stillness of the hour-for excepting my- the other islands, are scaliered over the har. self and the helmsman, all were wrapped in bour in pleasing and picturesque confusion; the profoundest repose-rendered the mo. but the most attractive coup d'ail is presented ments thus snatched from sleep peculiariy to you when passing between Gurernor's delightful; and though, when watching the and Castle i-lands:-ihe forismibe shipping same glorious luminary at his selling, as he and small crast, gliding in a hundred various slowly retired behind clouds of the richest directions, over the ample but winding and mosi lux riant hues, I did not forget that waters of the bay-be cultivated land eur. he descended over,

rounding the numerous dwellings on the ad" The home of the free, and the land of the jacent shores--and, before you, the metrobrave,"

polis of Niassachusetts expanding its hospiyet his rising gave birth to feelings and as.

table arms to the stranger and the exile-all sociations of a more touching and exalting combine to form a scene that cannot fail to nature, and as

inspire the most pleasing and soothing sen.

sations; and as he sailed up that magnificeot “ He rose o'er my own native isle of the ocean,"

harbour, and beheld ibe spires and roofs of home and its sacred delights shone on my Boston glowing and glittering in the soft memory with all the force of a pure and rich light of sunset, and marked the lofty tender enchantment. Not for all the jos dome of the State House swelling in graceand gayeties of a crowded and mirthful so- ful beauty over the subjacent city-1 Wres ciety would I have bartered that hour of wrapped in an involuntary admiration of the silent and solitary meditation.

free-born spirit and energy that had given The night of ihe 8th of October was ush- birth to this delightful scene, and provided ered in by a storm, which thorigh not quite so stately au asylum for the persecuted of. so furious as that the first, was sufficiently spring of an elder and distracted continent. violent to make it prudent to close-reef ail Bartholomew Gosnold was the first Enthe sails. The next morning we found that glishnan who visited directly this section of the ship had drifted thirty miles to the north The American Union. On March 26, 1602, he ward. For nearly another fortnight we con- sailed from Falmouth, and on the 14th touch

ed on some undetermined part of the eastern was one. From his writings, he may deserv. coast. Before his voyage, it had been cus. edly claim the praise of wit, and elegance of tomary for navigators to take the circuitous conception and language ; but his devotion route of the Canaries and West Indies. To to protivacy soon induced the ruin of the the promontary opposite Cape ønn he gave settlemunt, of which he had persuaded bis asthe name of Cos, in consequence of the large sociales to appoint bim captain. Penury, the quantities of that fish which he look in its consequence of idleness and vice, speedily vicinity. He was succeeded by the famous spread itself among the settlers; and, to suptraveller end navigator, Capt. Juho Smith, ply their wants, they began to plunder the who in 1814 examined the coast from Mon- indians, whom they treated, in mere caprice, bigan, an island near Penobscot river, to with circumstances of atrocity that called Cape Cod. On his return, Prince Charles down upon them a severe reprobation from was so struck with his description of the the Governor of Plymouth Their repeated country, that he gave it the name of New offences, at length, determined that excelEngland, an appellation which it still retains, lent man to inflict upon them more signal notwithstanding the provincial and state di- marks of his displeasure ; and “ to satisfy the visions, Vew-England being the generic desig. savages," sys an old writer,* “divers of the nation of that extensive region which stretches thieves were stockt and whipt, and one at froin the northern frontier of New York to last put to death.” Morton was forcibly takCanada and New-Brunswick, and from the en prisoner, and despatched to take his trial ocean to the south eastern shore of Lake in England. His book, “ The New-English Champlain, and comprehending five of the Canaan," is rare. It abounds with evidences twenty states now constituting the Union, viz. of a lively fertile fancy,and acute wit, while the Blassachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hamp- diction, ibough stampt with the quaintness of shire, Vermont, and Connecticut, besides the the age, is remarkably sweet and melodious. district of Maine, which is under the jurisdic. The following description of the country tion of Massachusetts. In 1620 a permanent round Mount Wolliston, will enable you to settlement was made at Plymouth. In the form a tolerably accurate conceptiou of his succeeding year, Capt. Standish was sent out style. in a sinall vessel to survey the coast north- While onr houses were building,” he ward of that barbour, and to cultivate friend writes, “I did endeavour 10 take a survey of ly relations with the Indians. A trading. the country, &c. For so many goodly grouves bouse was erected at Nantasket, and in 1628 of trees, dainty five rising hillocks, delicate Mr. Roger Conant, with Mr. Lyford, a clergy. fair large plains, sweete chrystal and clear man, and Mr. Oldhain, whom religious hos- running streams that twine in fine meanders gilily bad " discharged from baving any thing throughout the meads, making so sweete a more to do at Plymouth,” was appointed murmuring voice to hear, as would even lull superintendent of the infant factory. Conant, the senses, with delight, asleep, so pleasantly however, being subsequently invited by the do they glide upon the pebble stones, jetting merchants of Dorchester to manage their af- most jocundly where they doe meei, and fairs at Cape Ann, removed there in 1625, bandin hand, runne downe to Neptune's cour, and was speedily followed by the settlers at to pay the yearly tribute which they owe to Nantasket. Impressed with the natural ad- him, as lord of all the springs." yantages of a place a little to the westward, “ Contained witbin the volume of the land, called Naumkeag, (now Salem,) and desirous fowls in abundance, fish in multitudes, milof establishing a settlement there, he corres- lions of turtle-doves on the green boughs, ponded on the subject with his friends in which sat picking off the full ripe pleasant England, and so flattering were his repre- grapes, that were supported by the lusty sentations, that a project was forined in Lin- frees, whose fruitful loade did cause the arıns colnshire of procuring from the council of to bend, while here and there dispersed (you Plymouth permission to found a colony in might see) lilies, and of a Daphnean tree, Massachusetts' Bay; and in 1627 a grant was which makes the land, to me, seeme paradise; made to Sir Henry Rossivell, Sir John for in mine eye 'twas nature's maste-piece, Young, &c. conveying to them a tract be- her cheerful magazine of all, where lives her tween three miles to the northward of the store; if this land be not rich, then is the Merrimack, the same distance from Charles whole world poor."— The cedars of the low river southward, and extending westward grounds are, according to Morton, superior from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean. In to those of Lebanon. He tells us " That there the following year this was confirmed by a are firre trees, and other materials for build. royal charter, investing the proprietors with ing many temples, if there were any Solojuridical authority over the new territory. mons to be at the cost of them.”—Thus wrote In 1625 a plantation was established in

Thomas Morton, but the sufferings of the Quincy, Braintree, by a capt. Wolliston, to succeeding settlers seem to in licate that the which his followers, in honour of their lead. form and colours of his landscape, were such, er, gave the name of Mount Wolliston. Soon, rather as a lively imagination may easily suphowever, becoming discontented with this ply, than ibose which are the offspring of unspot, Wolliston abandoned it, and departed for prejudiced observation; and the distresses Virginia, leaving behind him orders for those endured in his “ Paradise" by those conscienof his company who remained, to follow him. Of these, Thos. Morton, of Furnival's Inn,

* Mather.

tious and voluntary exiles, form a revolting courts, consisting of the freemen and reprecontrest to tho scenes of pastoral abundance sentatives of the townships, and of which the and luxury which he bebeld through the lens Goverror and bis assistants are always to of his fancy.

form members, are convoked at the con-' About this time the non-conformists were clusion of Hilary, Easter, Trinity, and Mi. exposed to an odious and incessant persecu- cbaelmas terms, and an annual meeting of tion, and to escape from the fangs of clerical the general Assembly is convened for the oppression, a considerable number of the more election of public officers. The charter likeadventurous and hardy resolved to abandon wise permits the free transportation (for the land of their fathers, and seek in the New seven years) of personal and mercantile proWorld a refuge from the rage of domestic perty, outward and inward, and on the ele bigotry. The privileges in the patent of piration of that period, an exemption from all Roswell, &c. were, in consequence, pur. duty, excepting that of five per cent in Eng. chased (1628) by John Winthrop, Isaac land on all imported merchandise. All perJohnson, Thomas Goffe, Mr. Dudley, Mr. sons born in, or in passage to and from, the Craddock, Sir Richard Saltonstall, &c. These colony to be considered subjects of the Eng. persons formed themsele es into a company, lish crown. The General Court is empow. and the respectability and opulence of the ered to make orders and laws, constitute principal members appeared to promise ul- officers, impose fines, imprisonment, or other timate success in the enterprise in which lawful correction, after the course of Eng. they had embarked their fortunes. Several lish corporations—and is also authorized of the dissenting ministers in England, to oppose by force of arms, and by land and among whom Mr. White, of Dorchester, is sea, any and all persons wbo shall invade particularly mentioned, were zealous in pro- tbe said plantation. moting their plans, they were soon joined Seventeen vessels were employed in the by many wealthy individuals, considerable conveyance of the colony—they sailed at funds were created by subscription, and a different times, but all arrived safely at Salem new patent was granted by the king, con- and Charlestown, the greater part in July, stituting them a body corporate and politic 1630. under the title of The Governor and Com- In my next I will trace with yon the bis. pany of the Massachusetts Bay, in New-Eng. tory and progress of Boston from this its land.”. By this instrument the Governor is first and interesting establishment to its preauthorized to call a general Assembly at sent eminence among the cities of the com pleasure, and to hold monthly meetings for lumbian Federacy. the despatch of business'; for the enactment

I remain, of laws, not departing from the principles of

Yours respectfully, British statutes, four great and general

G. F. B.


To the Editors of the American Monthly er, as may be most convenient; but I am Magazine.

of opinion that animal power will in most GENTLEMEN,

instances be preferable to steam, and THROUGH the medium of your wide- have discovered a method by which the

ly circulating miscellany, 'I beg per- draught of horses may be applied in mission to submit to public consideration straight lines, with the utmost economy the particulars of a new invention, which and simplicity, and without a single cog. I call the “ Navigable Raft-Boat.” This wheel; thereby avoiding much friction, contrivance will, I flatter myself, appear saving a great space, obviating the inconof national importance, inasmuch as it venience of the circular erections heretowill assist the intercourse between, and fore covering the decks of horse-boats, therefore in its effects, bring nearer to- and bringing the strength of the animals gether, the remotest parts of this great employed into operation in the most adcountry.

vantageous manner. My plan is to construct single or dou- I find that in most of the steam and ble rafts, externally of squared, and in- horse-boats hitherto constructed, half, ternally of round timber logs, making and often more than half, the power emthem of such forms as are known to be ployed is expended, and to every useful best adapted to easy progress through purpose lost, in opposing the perpen-licuwater. These are to be put in mo- lar resistance of back-water, and from tion by water-wheels with perpendicular the escape of water on each side, and paddles, operating within a gutter or beneath, the float-boards as they imrace-way, as in mills. The water-wheel pinge. The first is avoided by the wheel is to be moved by steam or animal pow. with upright paddles; the second by the

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