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with the corrosive sublimate, are more ever, that a decomposition only took virulent poisons than the sublimate,- place at a boiling temperature, and that that the only antidote to this substance is sugar could not, therefore, be considered albumen ; which decomposes the muriate as an antidote, though it may be directed of mercury, and converts it into calomel, as a useful auxiliary in calming the irritaan oxyde of mercury, at minimum. The tion of the stomach after the poison treatment recommended, therefore, in shall have been ejected. He has also poisoning by corrosive sublimate, is to demonstrated, that the proper antidotes encourage vomiting by copious and fre- to this poison are albumen, and the prusquent draughts of mucilaginous drinks, siates of potash and iron; all of which reaand to give large quantities of whites of dily decompose the copper at a low temeggs. Upon the same principle the au- perature, though the former, the best thor might have recommended, where preparation of which is the whites of eggs could not be obtained, the use of eggs, is represented as the most eligible. milk.

Muriate of Tin. From numerous exArsenious Acid. The medicines which periments, the author has proved that had been recommended as counter-poi- this substance is an active poison, and that sons to this substance were the alkaline its best antidote is milk. Milk with sweet sulphurets, the sulphurated hydrogen, mucilaginous drinks, in large quantities and acetic acid. . These, the author has he also recommends as the best counterproved, are all useless or deleterious, poisons to the Nitrate and Sub-Nitrate when taken into the stomach with the of Bismuth. To the Caustic Alkalis, the arsenic, and that the only true antidote is proper antidote is vinegar. The Caustic the Hydrosulphureted Water; nevertheless, Acids are most effectually counteracted as this remedy is not easily and readily by the immediate use of Magnesia. obtained, be advises the use of mild Nitrate of Silver-Lunar Caustic. The emetics, aided by large quantities of warm author has made many experiments to water and mucilaginous drinks;which by discover an antidote to this active poison, disseminating the poison over a greater and concludes by saying, that he does extent of surface, will prevent the delete- not hesitate to recommend as such, the rious effects from the residue in the sto- muriate of soda or common salt in solumach, after vomiting. Lime water may tion. We are not prepared to say that be given with benefit when the arsenious this substance is not the best counteracid has been taken in solution. The poison to the lunar caustic, or that it will bitter infusions are only useful in conse- not, if given under the most favourable quence of the vehicle which forms a part circumstances, decompose it in the stoof them. All cily substances he believes mach and thereby prevent its deleterious to be rather injurious than beneficial. effect. But keeping in view the general

As an antidote to the corrosive subli- axioms of the author in specifying the esmate and arsenious acid, great virtues sential qualities of a perfect antidote, we have recently been ascribed to charcoal. are of opinion that he has not, in this case, The experiments made with this sub- given satisfactory proof of the correctstance by Dr. Bertrand, who has most ness of his conclusion. From a series of confidently recommended its use, have experiments to ascertain the modus opebeen repeated by Dr. Orfila, and he af- randi of the lunar caustic, he says that he · firms that “neither charcoal nor the wa- is of opinion that " when introduced into ter of charcoal are (is) antidotes (an an- the stomach, it induces death by corrotidote) to corrosive sublimate or arsenious ding the texture where it may come into acid."

“ Any results respecting anti- contact ; and by producing an inflammadotes,” he observes, “can be of no avail, tion more or less considerable." From unless the esophagus of the animal, that the readiness with which lunar caustic is the subject of the experiment, be decomposes animal matter, this theory of tied ;” and in consequence of this neglect its physiological action appears plausible, he concludes the experiments of Ber- and is probably correct. Now, in all the ertrand to have been fallacious.

periments which he has recorded to show Acetate of Copper, or Verdigris. The the efficacy of the marine salt in preventimpropriety of administering the hydro- ing corrosion, the caustio was conveyed genated sulphurets, which theory had so into the stomach in solution, and with it, highly extolled as antidotes to this poi- or immediately after it, was given a soluson, was pointed out by M. Drouard. tion of the muriate of soda. The aniThe substance which was held in the high- mals died in four or five days without est estimation, before our author's experi- showing any other symptoms than dements, was sugar. He discovered, hov- jection, and without discovering the small

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est eschar in the stomach and intestines. ployed without danger; and the infusion, It is obvious, that in these cases the salt when well prepared, will sometimes prodecomposed the poison ; but the author duce the most salutary effects. Thefluid has told us, that an antidote must act up- oxygenated muriatic acid is proved to on the poison, whether it be in a fluid or possess no decided advantages over vinesolid state, and that it must act prompt- gar,and as the preparation is complicated, ly. We know the caustic to be a salt the author gives the preference to the which is readily soluble, but we know al- vegetable acid. Of camphor, he affirms, so, that its action on animal matter is in- that it does not decompose opium, nor stantaneous : therefore the experiments hinder its acting as a poison, and consedo not prove that death would have been quently that it is not its antidote ; neverprevented had the poison been adminis- theless it may be given in small quantities tered in a solid form.

with benefit, to counteract narcotic effects. Opium. The various remedies which The result of the author's experiments by had been recommended as antidotes to blood letting is, that bleeding never exthis poison were, the vegetable acids, cof- aggerates the symptoms of poisoning by fee, Huid oxygenated muriatic acid, cam- opium, nor accelerates the moment of phor, mucilaginous drinks and bleeding. death--that in some instances it was highAfter a laborious investigation of the effi- ly useful—that it ought to be performed cacy of each, the author says, that “froma in robust persons who are under the invery great number of facts collected with Aueuce of opium, and that it is most adcare," he is able to affirm“ that the vege- visable to bleed from the jugular vein. table acids aggravate the symptoms of

From all his observations and expepoisoning by opium whenever they are riments on the treatment of poisoning not vomited;" that in case the poisonous by this substance, the author concludes substance has been expelled by vomiting, that the best means to be pursued, are to ex" vinegar and water, and other vegetable pel the poison from the stomach, if possiacids, possess the property of diminish- ble, by active emetics, and if these medijng the symptoms of poisoning, and even cines will not produce their effect when of putting an end to them altogether." taken into the stomach, he suggests the

The writer of this article formerly propriety of injecting a few grains of tarmade some experiments, which appear to tar emetic into the veins. Bleeding should corroborate this opinion ; though from be performed from the jugular vein imthe high reputation of the vegetable acids mediately after the expulsion of the poi. as counter-poisons to opium, it was then sonous substance, and repeated accordThought, that the unexpected result of ing to the temperament of the patient. the experiments was to be imputed to After the expulsion of the poison, water the dissimilar operation of the poison on acidulated with vinegar and lemon juice, the brute, and the human subjeet. A cat tartaric acid, and a strong infusion of cof was made to swallow two and a half fee, should be alternately administered grains of opium, with half an ounce of in small doses every ten minutes. Dilulime juice with which it had been mixed ent drinks, in large quantities, are objectwo hours; little effeet was produced in tionable, as they dissolve the poison and one hour, when the dose was repeated. disseminate it over a greater extent of surThe experiment was made on another face, and thereby facilitate its absorption. cot, of the same age and size, water The observations on the treatment being substituted for the lime juice. No of poisoning by opium, are applicable to symptoms of stupisaction followed in the whole class of narcotic poisons, exeither ease, but, on the contrary, both cept the Prussic acid, to which no antithe animals were obviously excited. The dote has yet been discovered. The oil one which was the subject of the last of olives, milk, ammonia, theriaca, and experiment was furious for a short time chlorine, have all been found feeble or and recovered; the immediate effects on inefficacious remedies. The oil of terthe other were less violent, but the animal pentine is recommended as useful after declined for a few days and died. the operation of strong emetics.

From the author's experiments with the Not the least interesting and importinsusion and decoction of coffee, he infers, ant part of this volume, is that which rethat they are not to be considered as an- lates to the physiological action of poistidotes to opium, because they neither ons. On this subject we conceive the decompose it in the stomach por convert writer to have done more towards exit into a harmless substance ; but as they plaining the true phenomena, and recondo not, like the vegetable -acids, increase ciling the discordant opinions, and appaits deleterious action, they may be en- rent contradictions of authors, than all Vol. 11.--No. v.


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those who have preceded him. It has light—the lower jaw fallen, and the mus been maintained, by some, that the action cles of the limbs and trunk completely of poisons was entirely mechanical ; by relaxed, loss of deglutition, slow and so others, that it was cheinical; by a third norous breathing, diminished heat of the class that it was exerted exclusively on body, and death-like coldness of the exthe circulating system; while others have tremities ;-who we ask, after having supposed their effects to be produced, witnessed the symptoms of poisoning by either by a direct or indirect impression these two substances, will doubt, that upon the nervous systema. This diversity there is a difference in their physiological of opinion has probably arisen from the action? A still more striking contrast is limited observations of the respective exhibited in the deadly stupifaction prowriters, each having directed his atten- duced by the hellebore, and the furious tion to the operation of a few poisons, excitement, the horrible contortions and taking it for granted that the action was grimaces which are the effects of large the same, or analagous in all.

quantities of camphor. From the experiments of our author, Before we conclude, we must obwho seems to have noticed the symp- serve, that though we duly appreciate the toms and organic lesion produced by labour and perseverance of the author in each of the poisons, without fear of bring the prosecution of his great work, and acing discredit upon any preconceived knowledge the preeminent value of those theory, it appears that the variety of ac- deductions, which are the fruit of experition of the different poisons is sufficiently ment, compared with the fallacious ar. great to accommodate a yet larger number guments, and fair-formed theories of dead of opposing theorists. He has shown letter logic, and creative imagination : yet that some substances, such for instance there are, notwithstanding, two apparent as verdegris, operate on the alimantary objections, which, though they may have canal, producing inflammation and gan- been unavoidable in the author's inquiry, grene; that the operation of others is va- would seem to us worthy of further conrious and complicated; as is that of the sideration before we implicitly subscribe preparations of lead, affecting at one time to his conclusions. 1st. His experimenta the stomach and bowels, at another the were performed on brutes ; and it is well nervous system only, whereas in a third known, that many substances which opecase it will show its immediate effects rate as active poisons on man, do not afupon all these organs. Some poisons fect at all some other species of animals, seem to exert their influence directly on and vice versa. ed. The operation or the nerves of the stomach, and sympa- tying the æsophagus, the inflammatio i thetically on the brain ; while others are which unavoidably follows it, and the absorbed into the blood-vessels ; as is constant irritation kept up in the stomach, manifested by a coagulation, or partial not only by substances introduced, but destruction of the natural texture of the by the inverted action of that organ, must blood. All these different effects might necessarily produce serious effects, inde be inferred from the diversified phenome- pendent of the operation of the poison. na of poisoning. Who that has witness- These objections the author has anticied the symptoms of poisoning by arsenic, pated. To the 1st, he replies : “We ai such as fiery redness of the eyes, copious firm, after having made more than twi ptyalism, continual spitting, painful con- thousand experiments upon dogs, and striction of the pharynx and esophagus, compared them with what is observed in grinding of the teeth, hiccup, nausea, the human species, that the difference violent vomiting, perhaps of blood, great is null with regard to the nature of the anxiety, frequent faintings, burning heat symptoms which poisons produce, and in the region of the stomach, with an ina- the manner in which they ought to be bility to retain the mildest fluids, horrible combatted: that it exists only in the fotor, contrasted and irregular pulse, doses necessary for producing the disease palpitation of the heart, unquenchable in the same degree, in the influence of thirst, a sensation over the whole body the moral powers, and in the relative as of a devouring fire ; followed by cold strength of the animals-circumstances sweats, swelling of the body, with livid which can produce an influence only on spots, and finally delirium, convulsions the violence of the symptoms, and on and death ;-and again has seen the per- the duration of the disease.” This obson poisoned by opium in a state of com- servation may be correct, if limited te plete stupifaction, perfectly immoveable the effects of poisons on dogs,we and unconscious, with dilated pupils of have made no experiments on that anithe eyes, insensible to the impression of mal to verify or disprove it; but there

is not the analogy which the author has out frequently performing this operarepresented, in the effects of medicines on tion—that if performed with address, it many other species of animals.

scarcely lasts more than a minute or a To the 2d objection, it is answered, that minute and a half—that from twelve exfrom vigorous experiments, it is ascer- periments of this kind, performed on tained, that the conclusions to be drawn dogs, no other effect was produced than from the experiments with poisons, are slight fever, and a little dejection ; and, in no way modified by the ligature of the that animals killed soine time after unesophagus—that it is impossible to dergoing the operation, presented no apwrite a complete work on poisons with- parent lesion.

Z 2.

Art. 9. An Essay on American Poetry, with Miscellaneous Pieces on a variety of

subjects, Sentimental, Descriptive, Moral, and Patriotic. By Solyman Brown, A.

4. New-Haven. Hezekiah Howe. 12mo. pp. 188. THERE is a Spanish proverb, the rican poetry as transcendent as it is in

import of which we well remember, ferior to the poetry of Great Britain, since though not the precise words in which the distinction between them has existed, it is couched; it is to this effect: “God it would be mean and contemptible to preserve me from my friends, I will deny its just tribute to the latter. But protect myself from my enemies." Never the position which our author has taken have we felt more deeply the force of this in this regard, as well as in respect to deprecation than on the present occasion. literature generally, is as untenable as it The attacks of mercenary or envenomed is audacious. Every one who knows slanderers of our country's fame, we any thing, knows that there are ten pubknow how to contemn, or to repel-butlications of value in England, where there the advances of oilicious auxiliaries, is one in the United States; and consewhere we respect the motive, but must quently if we would, in conformity with reject the aid, place us in a situation of the advice of our author, confine our extreme embarrassment. The author of reading to the works of our compatriots, the poems contained in the volume be- we must be ten times more ignorant than fore us, certainly appears to be a well those whom we are instigated to rival. But meaning man, and, with due allowances, a we cannot stoop to this controversy. decent scholar. But certainly a more The learned of all nations form one comunhappy conceit could not have entered munity, and he who renders a service to his fancy, than that he was destined to vin- this community, is entitled to a gratitude dicate the honours of the American muse. exactly proportionate to the benefit conWecannot, indeed, imagine a faireroppor- ferred, and to an admiration commensutunity for one of those malignant English rate with the talent exhibited. Enlightcritics, whose illiberality our author so ened minds entertain philanthropic views; keenly resents, to give vent to his spleen and philanthropy recognizes no distince and pungency to his paragraphs, than this tion of lineage or language. very production affords. Were it to be To avoid collisions of an unpleasant taken for a specimen of that genius, nature we will, without further comment, whose claims it presumes to assert, what pass by the preface, in which the author might be said of it with truth would be a has given loose to his patriotism to the severer satire on the objects of its solici- great disparagement either of his judo tude, than any of which it complains. ment or his candour. But the work Such mistaken zeal as is displayed in this opens with a dedication, and however book, is to be deplored. It aggravates sweeping a stride we may be disposed to the mischief which it affects to remedy. It take, after we shall have passed the Jowers the standard of our literature in threshold, we must be permitted to pause the estimation of foreigners, and invali- for a moment in the vestibule. The dates the argumenis of those who are volume is dedicated to “ James Morris, disposed to maintain the literary preteu- Esq.” a magnus ignotus, or embushelled sions of their native land.

luminary, the rays of whose renown have Even the ground which the writer as- not yet spread beyond the perimeter of sumes, admitting the merits of those a Winchester standard. But, says our whom he eulogizes, is one on which no author,"

“ With the utmost confidence, legitimate son of science or of song would I commit this little volume to the Amewish to intrench himself. Were Ame- rican public, shielded by a name which


Envy and Detraction must ever assail in Parnassian Nine! who give poetic fire ! vain.” We know nothing of the efficacy Can slaves alone awake the tuneful lyre? of this name, being quite beyond the Are freemen banishd from the minstrel-throng, sphere of its influence; yet we can imagine Did Homer sing beneath a tyrant's frown, a very satisfactory reason why Envy and And pluck his clustering honours from a crown? Detraction should assail it in vain. It is Did Maro owe his numbers or his story a received maxim, that de non appa

To Kings or Thrones-or share with them his

glory? rentibus et de non existentibus eadem est

And Milion! Prince of Poets ! didst thou soar, ratio.- Envy and Detraction would be By royal aid, to fields untrod before? amazingly perplexed to find the object Say, Bard! wast thou, by some great monarck,

huri'd which they are defied to assault. We

Far from the orhit of this rolling world? may conceive, however, from this accepsion, of what corruscations the poet's That spurn'd a tyrant and a tyrant's chain :

Say not:- know full well thy proud disdain, imagination is capable. He has conjured Thy soul abhorrid oppression's curst abode; up to his apprehension a tremendous ap- Thy generous breast with patriol virtue glowid: parition of Envy and Detraction, those Twas this that tauglit thy faintless soul to rise, fell blood-hounds, in full scent of Esquire 'Twas this that bore thee free, on fancy's wing,

And sing of earth, and air, and hell, and skies Morris! He doubtless experienced a To drink at Nature's unpolluted spring. vision not less vivid and intense than was Or Pope! didst thou obey a monarch's nod, Cicero's when he exclaimed—“Versatur And cringe beneath a tyrani's lified rod ?mihi ante oculos aspectus Cethegi,” &c. Detested thought! thoughi Scotch reviewers rave, But his fervour suddenly subsides, and Apollo swears-whoe'er Apollo be,

And swear a poet must be born a slave, timidity succeeds to assurance. “ That A God or not the poct must be free. it" (the work,) says our poet,“ should in- No forest laws degrade the muses' groves; herit the immortality of my Patron's He freely ranges who sincerely loves : (videlicet Esquire Morris's) virtues, it

No guarded fountain cheers that chosen few,

Who sponge their honours from a Scotch rsa would be presumption to hope.” Now view. this seems to us an excess of diffidence; for were we to vaticinate, we should pre

We will make one further selection dict precisely the same immortality both from this poem. of the poem and its patron-an immor

Slow up the west the cloud of summer rolls ; tality of six weeks in a circuit of twelve The distant thunder rocks the trembling poles; miles.

Bright arrowy Names enkindle night to day, But it is time to say something of the And round the heavens on forky pinions play: poems which are ushered in with so much Bur hark! the thunders cease!' the deafning pomp. The principal performance is en- And vivid flashes, fright the soul no more. titled an Essay on American Poetry, The cloud dissoives ! --Bebold that blazing ball though it might as well have taken any Descend to earth, at FRANKLIN's magic call, other appellation. It is written in the he- And, like a meteor, harmless lightings fall. roic measure, and is divided into three On Carolina's plain, and Bunker's height, parts. The first canto is a diatribe What are those sounds ? that flash of sudden against British reviewers, with friendly light? hints to American critics-the second is What mean those flaming arms and foaming a monologue in the character of the steeds ? Genius of Columbia--and the third is a Alas! 'tis war—a friend, a brother bleeds !

Around the foe a feeble band unites, picturesque, geographical, physical, sta- To guard their country, home, and sacred rights, tistical, and political survey of this con- Untaught in lesson’d art of hostile arms, tinent. There is some good sense, and And uninurd to war's malign alarms. there is much smooth versification in this What form is that that strides along the line? essay. The author's prejudices are

Is it a mortal--or some pow'r divine ?

Some guardian Angel of a Nation's peace, honest, and his frankness is commenda- Some seraph, sent to bid the slaughter cease ? ple. He does not, however, evince the No !-'tis Columbia's son—the heir of fame, poet either in the wildness or grandeur Creation's hero! WASHINGTON his name. of his conceptions, or in the force or dig. What voice resounds in yonder crowded hall? nity of his diction. He possesses little What lips are those from which such accents fall? vigour of fancy, or vivacity of expression. That form-Demosthenes! is that thine own? But if he does not often rise above medio- Or Chatham's, thundering at oppression's throne ? crity, he seldom falls below it.

Not thine, Demosthenes ! - nor Chatham! thine; We will extract a few lines from the In AMES, alone, your bleuded virtues shine. introduction to this poetical essay as a specimen of Mr. Brown's best manner, Adorn Atlantic's western-slander'd shore :

Sueh gifts, indulgent nature ! from thy store, and as containing the burden of his with lavish hand thy blessings round are sirowa whole song.

As if thou here hadsi fixt thine everlasting throue.

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