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cuse this, however, in an Englishman, oyster and anomia, by supposing at least who may imagine that his own island that the oyster became petrified before it can give him a clear conception of the had digested the anomia, and thus we whole world ; like the girl, who a few find the one within the other. If Dr. years since, in the western part of the Kidd had not abandoned the pursuit of State of New York, put a certain stone mineralogy, we might offer him somo into a hat, and placing her face in front additional facts and considerations for his so as entirely to exclude the light, pre- next edition;, but these are rendered untended, and made some credulous people necessary by his conclusion to retreat believe, that by so looking into it she from the science. could see the whole world and what was The next chapter “On mineral veins" there going on. Hence she told of the is short and unsatisfactory. The eleven safety of absent friends and many other succeeding ones, though short on each incredible things. Now Dr. Kidd's book head, appear to be more systematic and is very much like this magic stone, for better written, though we could not draw it turned out that no one else could see in the same conclusions from the premises it as the girl could, and therefore the peo- as our author has done. These chapters ple concluded that there was no truth in it. treat of “ Werner's classification of the

Although we confess that there are strata; of granite; of syenite ; of hornmany circumstances connected with geo- blend rocks ; of serpentine ; of porlogy that appear inexplicable, yet we phyry ; of slaty rocks or shists ; of consider it improper and uncandid to metalliferous compact lime stone ; of select a few insulated facts not sufficiently the rock marle of English geologists ; inquired into from which to draw con- of rock salt; and of coal."

The reclusions against a theory of the earth. maining part of the work appears more They go to prove that we know nothing like an appendix, consisting of thirteen about the earth we inhabit, and that all chapters. Among these are one on coral attempts to theorize are vain. Hence reefs, and one on volcanos and earthour author has determined to abandon a quakes, intended to show the “ operapursuit in which he could arrive at no tion of existing causes.” One of these profitable result. We could not avoid contains eleven pages, and the other smiling at the quotation (page 38) from fourteen. The changes produced by Faujas St. Fond, (Essai de Geologie,) volcanos and earthquakes are so extenspeaking of organic remains, and the in- sive, their number and effects are so great, explicability of certain petrisactions, he that we are astonished that any author says, " that among the specimens that should write 14 pages on the subject, and have been preserved are one fish in the draw an argument from such consideraact of seizing another, and small fossile tion in favour of the imperfect evidence Ish found in the stomachs of larger fos- in support of a theory of the earth.” The sile fish.” Hence our author thinks that same may be said of the chapter on coral the process of petrifaction in these cases reefs, which does not embrace a full ac, must have been instantaneous, and there- count of the numerous islands of coral fore inconsistent with the consideration formed in tropical climates by those of a superincumbent volcanic mass and animals which are called polypes. other surrou ding geological facts, ob- Our author does not appear to possess served in that part of Italy, where the the faculty of compressing his matter specimens were found, and of course into a condensed or argumentative form. corroborative of his main argument of We find observations on organic remains imperfect evidence in favour of a theory scattered through the second and nineof the earth. We do not believe, nor teenth chapters, and some on horblend can we imagine that the appearance of rocks, in the seventh and tenth. a fossile fish with its jaws open ready to We read the work before us a second devour another, was produced in any time lest we might be too hasty in drawother way than by compression of the ing conclusions ; but whoever takes it up surrounding materials upon the fish that will not be surprised at the author's de. had become petrified. We have seen a ficiency, since he informs us (page 108 petrified oyster in the museum of New- and 137) that he has had few opportuYork, taken from the marle banks of nities of observation, and he appears by Shrewsbury river, in New-Jersey, con- his own confession never to have made taining a petrified anomia attached to but one mineralogical excursion, (page the inside of it. If we allow Dr. Kidd's 99,) unless we take his travelling from one explanation of the fossile fish of Faujas part of Scotland to another, as a second. St. Fond, we might in the same manner (page 174.) explain (though equally ridiculous) the Upon the whole, we must consider Dr. Kidd as a closet mineralogist and geolo- himself too much to a view of his owa gist, not at all acquainted with the broad country-unless he style his work a Geoexpanse of nature, but a lecturer only logical view of Great Britain ; in which upon a geological cabinet prepared to case it may be entitled to greater conbis hand. As a geologist he confines sideration.


ART. 7. The Prophetic History of the Christian Religion explained ; or a brief Er.

position of the Revelation of St. John ; according to a new discovery of prophetical time, by which the whole chain of prophecies is arranged, and their certain completion proved from history down to the present period-with summary views of those not yet accomplished. By the Rev. I. George Schmucker, Pastor of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, York-Town, Penn. Vol. I.- Tempora distingue et concordat Domini Verbum. Baltimore: printed and published by Schaeffer and Maund.

1817. 8vo. pp. 265. THIS CHIS work was announced in a form- in particular. In the Introduction con

er number of the Magazine. We cerning the calculation of prophetic have since given it an attentive perusal. times, he points out abuses of these cal

The contents of it are comprised under culations, and answers objections. Arguthe following heads: I. Dedicatory Epis- ments are advanced against that common tle. II. Preliminary Observations. III. opinion, that a day in the Revelation sig. Introduction concerning the calculation nifies a year. He maintains that in this of prophetic times. Iỹ. Exposition of book there are two kinds of prophetic the Revelation.

times. He presents "the pious prelate The Dedicatory Epistle is addressed Bengelius's system of computing the exto the Rev. I. Henry Ch. Helmuth, D. D. traordinary prophetic times." Next Senior Reverendi Ministerii of the Evan- comes " a new system of ordinary progelic Lutheran Church (i. e. in Penn- phetic times, by which Bengelius's syssylvania and Maryland) and Minister of tem is rectified and confirmed. We have the Gospel at Philadelphia. The com- also a prospective view of the whole sysmencement of the “ Epistle” naturally tem of the prophecies in the Revelation, leads the reader to anticipate something with historical notes of their completion; more than a superficial view of the pro- Remarks on the system; and then the phecies.

Exposition of the Revelation. " To live retired from the bustle of the

The author has availed himself of the world,” says the author, “has always been researches of Bengelius and Jung. To my delight, and the study of the holy scrip- the essential services of the former, and tures my greatest pleasure, ever since I had to the Sieges geschichte, geschrieben ron the honour of studying divinity under your Dr. Jung genannt Stilling, he is largely eare, and of being inducted a fellow labourer indebted. Though we have the highest by you, into the vineyard of our Lord. Many of my leisure hours from official duty, have regard for the learned and pions Bengeparticularly been devoted to a more close in lius, as well as for other excellent and vestigation of the prophecies and their com

eminent divines whom the author menpletion. The Apocalypse of St. John bad tions in the following portion of his chrolong been impenetrable to my view, and the nological table, yet we must acknow. authors which I read on that subject, left me ledge that it strikes us as somewhat in doubt and perplexity. But at last I ob- whimsical in itself. fained an insight, which to me appears fully "II. The three angels flying in the midst satisfactory, &c. &c.”

of heaven, are three patriarchs of the Notwithstanding this erentual illumi. church, each of whom has a peculiar nation of the reverend author's mind, fundamental principle of doctrine, by which we shall not question, some parts which he stands distinguished, and may of his work appear to us extremely dark, be known from the rest of his brethren, particularly those points of calculation and those belonging to his roice. which he professes to be sources of the “ A. Angel-preaches an eternal gosgreatest comfort to himself.

pel-constraining fear of God, as creator, Under the second head, the author to give him glory. The midst of heaven takes a view of the present state of the is no doubt Germany here, and John world; proves the study of the prophe- Arndt and his colleagues in that great resjes to be a christian and necessary duty; vival of practical and experimental reliand makes observations on the revelation gion, in his time, this angel. He has been

more or less the means of all revivals of estranged by nature; and conscience is religion in Europe since, by Spener, the mere child of education. This is the Frankius, Tersteegen, Tinzendorf, and comment on the above sentence: I am rich ; Wesley, &c. His writings have been

which seems to refer solely to their general immensely blessed, and translated into

course or drift of doctrine concerning the naseven languages.

tural capacities and dignity of man. “ B. Angel. His main point of doctrine sufficient to make himself virtuous—it only

" I am increased with goods. Man is fully is : Babylon is fallen ! He will bear

requires a firm and steady resolution of be1. a strong testimony against Popery, ing so; and of this resolution he himself is and her corruptions ;

master, at bis own pleasure. As all our dis2. but particularly point out her down- orders are not the effects of sin, but consefall, as to time, manner and instruments, quences of our limited nature, all evil incliwith great force and penetration.

nations may be over done by reason, withThis angel is the

out the grace and assistance of God. Our happious Bengelius and all those great men in England, France, piness is in our own power

, and we may and Germany, who have made the Reve- change our habits and disposition, by a mere lation their particular study, and followed pbilosophic use of the natural and christian

means in hand. Wbat great progress have his steps. It was little understood before

we not made in arts and sciences, in civilizahis time.'

tion and politeness! To what a great degree Many parts of this treatise are uncom- of illumination has the human mind arrived monly bold and peremptory. In his ex

since the days of the reformation ! Superstiposition of Rev. 3. 17, page 131 and seq. tion is turned out of doors—the wings of fathe author speaks to the disparagement sufficiently clipped. We soon will have a ra

riaticism and enthusiasm will now soon be of the " arts and sciences ;” and his holy tional body of exegetic rules, for a more zeal seems to lead him beyond his sub- reasonable explanation of the Bible, and are ject. The positive terms which he uses already furnished with means sufficient to are too general. And, we apprehend that determine the flowers of Hebrew poetry, many of his readers, who coincide with and the bold lights and fire of oriental gehim in main points, will protest against nius. Blessed be God! we now say little the strong and imperious assertion:"these more of Creeds, or Confessions of Faith ; our are just inferences and a true explana- province is the practice and moral part of tion, &c."

religion. Whether the people beliere one God part of which we will insert as a speci- ferences and a true explanation of the words; In the same exposition or paraphrase, or twenty Gods, that will neither pick my

pockel, nor break my leg. These are just inmen of his skill, the author cites Jeffer- I am increased with goods, and have need son's Notes! The maner in which it is of nothing; by which the Lord refers to their done appears so close on the borders of boasting of acquired abilities in science, repolitical prejudice, that some would con- ligion, and virtue. sider it invidious.

"And knowest not that thou art wretched, " Verse 17. Because Thou sayest, I am

and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked. rich, and increased with goods, and have need You are most egregiously deceived--full of

self-conceit and vain presumption, says the of nothing. ne yw here should be rendered to teach, to preach, Matt. 23. 9. to declare Lord; your real condition is quite the re

verse of what you conceive yourself to be, publicly, 2 Cor. 9.3. Heb. 9. 11. Math. 4. 14. Rev. 3. 9. Math. 13. 14. These three sen

or to possess. Your boasted metaphysics,

and tences contain those peculiar points of doc

essays on human understanding are like trine, which the ministry of the Laodiceans which in every generation assumed a new

a transmigrating soul' among the ancients, inculcate, and by which they stand distin- body, and in essence always remained the guished from the Philadelphians, as a separate church.

same. Your endeavours to model the priuI am rich : Man is not in a depraved and ciples of exegetical theology after this meteor fallen condition by nature-there is no such of so transitory a nature, can only serve to thing as original sin. The image of God has confuse and perplex divinity, in order that never heen defaced in the human soul-be from heterogeneous wisdom, which is foolislı

others may again disentangle and simplify it is suited to his state and place, as perfect as be ought to be in the gradation of the whole mination in divine things by the help of

ness before God. You boast of superior illuchain of rational beings. All the vices and corruptions in the world derive their origin sight. The empire of reason can never


reason and philosophy, like a blind man of from education and the necessary circum- extended beyond the limits of the material stances of our existence bere. Our modern world ; and that inward illumination from metaphysicians have now explored the ocean of the human soul, and probed all its facul. above, by which spiritual things can be disties to the bottom. Reason is a pure and un cerned, is not your present portion. 1 Cor.

2. 14." sullied light; the will of man is not alienated from the life of God; our affections are not The expositorevidzatly underrates and contemns the endeavours of metaphy- complies only with half his commission to sicians and philosophers to unravel the the world-he builds the fabric of a mill, but mysteries of their own mind. If then his neglects to bring the water to run opon the principle is correct; and if he is not pos- wheel, which is to put the whole machine in sessed of peculiar privileges, and endued motion: Practical holiness is the great end with transcendent faculties, his conduct

of religion, and faith is the means it would in the present instance, is grossly incon- of means in a proper manner. Not mere

be folly to expect this end, without the use sistent, and culpable ; his attempt to un- morality, but vital religion is the chief good ravel Divine Prophecy is not only pre- of man, and this also is the principal aim of sumptuous, but approaches to impiety. an evangelical preacher in all his sertoons.

The remaining part of the paraphrase These only are the sermons which the Lord is more consonant with reason and reli- has ever blessed to rescue immortal souls gion, though it contains too much cant to from perdition into the arms of Jesus, and be perfectly in accordance with either.

to nourish them unto eternal life. For man “ All your fine moral discourses upon vir

is radically corrupted, and bis restoration

must begin from the beart. A minister, tues and vices, without scripture motives; therefore, without vital, personal religion, and the whole system of redemption, will never win oile soul to Christ and his hea.

sermons, thus void of the genuine spirit and venly kingdoin. You act the part of a foolish lic conversation of such a moralist, in the

savour of Christianity-the private and pubphysician at the side of a sick-ned, who garb of a pastor of Christ's flock, without the would, without administering wholesome unction from above, are indeed wretched, and eifective medicines, prescribe exercise to a dying man, professional employment to ked."

and miserable, and poor, and blind, and nethe sick, and diet where all appetite is lost. Would not an intelligent patient in that case answer: Doctor, this is reversing your pro

On the whole this volume, though not per order of proceeding; first cure my dis- to be held up as a model of style, or logic, ease, and your prescriptions shall be impli- or doctrine, contains some sensible re citly obeyed. Such a preacher of mere mo- marks, and many pious reflections. rals, separates what God has united, and

K. N. R,

ART. 8. A general system of Toxicology: or, a Treatise on Poisons, founded in the

mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, considered in their relations with Phyo siology, Pathology, and Medical Jurisprudence. Abridged, and partly translated from the French of M. P. Orfila, M. D. P. By Joseph G. Nancrede, M. D. honorary member of the Philadelphia Medical Society, and of the New-York Historical Society, foreign corresponding member of the Medical Society of Emulation of Paris

&c. Philadelphia : M. Carey & Son. 1817. THO THOUGH the fact may perhaps be fila has been more wise than the rest, in

regarded as an anomaly in modern availing himself of the same means to book-making, we venture to assert that search out and pursue the correct one. this is a work which promises favourable We are grateful to his representative, Dr. results to its readers, when its benefits Nancrede, for this useful abridgment of shall be divided between them and the so excellent a work. It is earnestly author.

hoped and confidently believed, that he In the numerous departments of medi- will be liberally rewarded for his labour. cal science, there is not one which In the treatment of his subject, the more frequently requires the prompt and author has followed the arrangement accurate exercise of scientific skill

, not proposed by Vicat and adopted by M. one which more deeply involves the feel- Fodéré, dividing poisons into the 6 classes ings and reputation of the physician, and of corrosive, astringent, acrid, narcotic, not one which is more imperfectly under- narcotico-acrid, and the stupifying. Af stood by the great body of the profession, ter explaining the mode of action, and than the subject of poisons. It is a sub- organic lesion produced by each of the ject, in the prosecution of which, modern six classes, and establishing some general chemists seem to have been more am principles applicable to the nature and bitious to subvert the ill-founded theories treatment of each, he proceeds to treat of ages gone by, than to establish correct of poisons in particular. In this attempt ones for the benefit of the present and the he pursues the following systematical future. All have discovered by the light order. Ist. he gives an explanation of of science, the mistaken track of their their chemical properties and of their more ignorant predecessors, but Dr. Or- external character.” In doing this, be


selects the most prominent and constant those which he has proved to be most characteristics of the substance, des. successful. cribes the precipitates furnished by the In the second section of his work, the mineral poisons, when mixed with the author comprises all that relates to poidifferent chemical agents, and lays down soning generally considered ;-detailing the botanical and zoological character of the proper means for ascertaining the exthe different vegetable and animal poi- istence of poison in a person while living, sons, according to the principles of the the symptoms which distinguish acute two sciences to which they belong. He poisoning from several other diseases ; shows 2dly, by experiments on living the means of determining to what class animals, • their physiological action,” of poisons it belongs, and the mode the phenomena produced by the poison- of discovering by analysis, and by proous substance when introduced into the ceeding from known to unknown points, stomach, injected into the veins, or ap- its composition, or identity. He also plied externally ; and undertakes to ex- gives the history of slow poisons; the plain its specificaction in producing death; manner in which the physician should Sdly,“ their general symptoms," the des- proceed in opening dead bodies, and the cription of which is preceded by instruc- importance which should be attached to tive cases from the most eminent medi- the organic lesions which he may discal writers, with their observations and the author's; 4thly,“ the lesion of texture We will proceed to notice a few of the which they produce; the nature of the most important deductions from the aualterations produced by the poison; their thor's experiments as respects the treatsituation, extent, intensity, &c;" 5thly, ment of poisoning. From the difficulty he considers “the application of the of obtaining a more correct and definite facts in the four preceding paragraphs knowledge by experiments on living anito the different cases of medical jurispru- mals, physicians have hitherto principally dence," under the following heads- relied upon such medicines as antidotes, as

1st. “ The course which the person call- were known, from chemical experiments, ed upon ought to pursue, when the patient to decompose the poisonous substance, unpoisoned is living, and the rest of the poi- der circumstances the most favourable to son whether solid or liquid is found, chemical action. Thus the alkaline salts whether alone or mixed with aliments and earths, the sulphurets of potash and and medicines."

lime, have been recommended and given 2d. “The means he ought to employ as counter-poisons to corrosive sublishould the patient be alive; the whole of mate, because they were known to posthe poison swallowed, and the matter sess the power to decompose that subvomited can be examined.”

stance. The experiments of Doctor Or3d. "The conduct he ought to pursue fila conclusively prove, that this theory in case the whole of the poison has been must be but limited in its application to swallowed, and it is impossible to procure practice, and that there are common qualthe matter vomited, the patient being ities which every chemical agent ought still alive."

to possess, to be considered as an antidote. 4th. “ The mode of analysis which ist.“ It ought to be such as may be must be had recourse to, when the patient taken in a large dose without any danis dead."

6thly. In the “ treatment of poisoning," 2d.“ It ought to act upon the poison, he proceeds to inquire whether “there whether it be in a fluid or solid state.” is any substance which possesses the 3d. “ Its action ought to be prompt." properties required to act as an antidote;" 4th. “ It ought to be capable of comin which he shows, by experiments on bining with the poison in the midst of the living animals, that many things which gastric liquor, mucous, bilious, and other have hitherto been considered as coun- fluids which may be contained in the terpoisons, because they possessed the stomach." power of decomposing the poisonous 5th. “Lastly, in acting upon the poisubstance, are extremely dangerous, as son, it ought to deprive it of all its delethe new compounds which result from terious properties.” their chemical action are frequently more Guided by these principles the author virulent poisons than the substances proceeds to investigate by experiment, which thựy were given to destroy. He the proper antidotes to the different poishows also, by numerous experiments, the sons. He has demonstrated that the new effects of various means employed in combinations resulting from the chemitheir stead; and points out particularly cal action of the alkalies and sulphurets


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