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practice we do not perceive; nor its par- should not feel disgust in his ear, at the ticular beauty or advantage.
obsolete use of do, doth, did, &c. The first stanza we present :
The fierce-eyed owl did on them scout; Beneath a mnountain, whose stupendous head The bat play'd round on leadern wing, Defied the four winds of the firmament,
The coal-black wolf did at them howl, A gallant knight, glittring arms array'd, The coal-black raven did croak and sing His daring soul on bold adventure bent,
And o'er them flap his dusky wing. Check'd his proud steed, with smoking foam There is no fierceness in the eye of an
besprent; For lo!' a cavern in his way appear'd,
owl, nor scowling. We never knew a Near which a hermit told his beads intent
raven that could both sing and croak. A mystic sage, for magic pow'rs rever'd- The dusky wing of a coal-black raven ! Tall was his aged frame and white his waving Mahu returns, and relates the items of
his ill success. The hermit then opens za at the commencement of each canto, and two or three tales or songs, the verse
• Some spell he connd of cabalistic lore ;'
on which his lyre, self-moved, informs is our common English heroic. The knight, whose name is Rinaldo, informs
them that Crystalina has been carried off the hermit, Altagrand, that, in a distant by the king of the fairies island, far south and far in the sea, Armi
To golden climes of subterranean day. grand and Isabella, the king and
The hermit gives Rinaldo directions
qeeen, had an only child, Crystalina, with by which to find fairy land, and avoid whom he had fallen in love: that Crys- temptations : also a spear, buckler, and talina would not yield her hand till he had cross. Signalized himself in battle: that for this cends to fairy land, through a rent in the
In the second canto the knight des. purpose he followed the profession of arms, till he was entitled to receive the earth. The palace of Oberon is discoprize of his military valour and exploits.
vered on an island. Rinaldo meditates On reaching the isle he was informed by sult, determines first to try the effect of
an attack on the king, but, fearing the rethe king that nine days before, his daugh; artifice. He is invited to a banquet, but ter had disappeared, and no one could conjecture her fate. Rinaldo further re
refuses to partake. A nymph attempts lates that he had been for a long time and to seduce him; he shakes her from his in numberless places in search of her, errand. The king orders him to leave
arms. He makes known to Oberon his without suceess: at length, hearing of a seer who was endued with magic powers,
fairy land; or suffer a thousand years he had hither directed his course, and imprisonment in a dungeon, without met with success in finding Altagrand.
light, food, or sleep. Rinaldo defies hin. Rinaldo now entreats the hermit to in
A sylvan lake and elysian groves apform him where he shall find his mis pear: in the lake the most beautiful damtress. The hermit smites the earth three
sels are wantoning. Some of the destimes with his wand, and Maud, a hor- criptions here will remind the reader of rible phantom
“ from the brimstone similar ones in the Lusiad of Camoens, Jake,” makes his appearance. He is thus in the Isle of Venus. The knight redescribed.
sists every temptation. And in the midst a fiery demon came
In the third canto, Oberon and Titanja Hell-black he stood, and fearful to behold! appear in a chariot drawn by peacocks; Fiercely around his fiery eyeball roll'd, youths and damsels in attendance. Like shooting meteors in a dusky glen,
In robes of green, fresh youths the concert led, Or rushlights hovering o'er an oozy fen. Measuring, the while, with nice, emphatic tread Ghastly he grinn'd ; unsheath'd his talons bare, Writh'd his huge frame and shook his snaký Ofsmitten timbrels; some, with myrtles crown'd,
Or tinkling sandals, the melodious sound hair,
Pour the smooth current of sweet melody, Fapp'd his black wings, and brush'd the creep- Thro' ivory tubes ; soine blow the bugle free, From his grim face and salamander frame.
And some, at happy intervals, around, The hermit informs Mahu of the strange Some, bending raptur'd o'er their golden lyses,
With trumps sonorous swell the tide of sound; disappearance of Crystalina, and directs With cunning fingers fret the tuneful wires; him to find her, giving him at the same With rosy lips, some press the syren shell, time a magic ring, by which he might as
And, thro' its crimson labyrinths, impel certain her; as on her finger, and on hers Some blow the mellow, melancholy horn,
Mellifluous breath, with arıfal sink and swell only, the ring would become gold. Mahu Which, save the knight, no man of woman born, departs. The hermit relates a tale of a E’er heard and fell not senseless to the ground, knight and lady. We are surprised that With viewless fetters of enchantment bound. a poet whose verses, relative to metre And, spell-struck, drop their golden clusters and language, are generally so correct, down;
The forests quaver, and elysian bow'rs
each on the same foundation. Be it as it With pleasing tremors shed their fragrant flow'rs. may, the poet assures us that the hermit An awful silence, winds and waters keep;
had no infernal aid. And spell-chain'd brooks, that bound from steep to sleep,
The hermit gives a history of his life, On jutting rocks, delay their headlong leap. perhaps the best part of the poem, and it The cross alone, the holy cross disarms
is soon discovered that the knight is his The fairy fiends, and baffles all their charms. Titania unfolds to the knight the vio- dearest friend, whom he had long sup
son ; and Crystalina the daughter of his lence of her passion for him, and com- posed dead. After various difficulties, plains of Oberon's neglecting her. The surmounted by natural and supernatural knight confesses he cannot love her, but means, the hermit and the happy couple persuades her to yield her assistance, arrive at the Mermaid isle. through revenge to her husband, in dis
The sixth canto commences with the covering Crystalina. They depart 10- meeting of the parties. Armigrand regether, and the queen shows him the way signs his crown to Rinaldo, whose marto the cavern in which is a secret palace riage solemnities with Crystalina are of Oberon, where Crystalina is confined. given. Before accepting it, Rinaldo ofShe gives him directions for passing the fers a single combat with any one who green lake, subduing the dragon, &c. He destroys a giant and seizes his key,
may challenge it. None appearing, the
poem concludes with an account of the JVhich rather th' anchor seemed
festivities attendant on the marriage and Of a stout pinnace,
coronation. and with this opens a door, which opens
There is no obscurity in the relation to his sight
of this fable. Some of the descriptions A valley gay, of groves and waters fair. At length he discovers the green lake,
are beautiful ; and a few passages border
on the sublime. The author is often unand the private retreat of Oberon beyond it. He throws into the lake a shell pardonably careless in his rhymes: He given him by Titania for that purpose, and death—friend and hand-power and
employs as rhymes, sighs and joys-path and a pinnace immediately appears. springs upon the deck,
and is conveyed lore--myrrh and rare-again and flame across the lake, when the pinnace disap- and low-pursues and glows—and very
a sight and re-cite-snow and view-now pears. He destroys the giant, and by the assistance of the cross enters the palace many other words equally inappropriate. and puts the king to flight. Through an times a trissyllable : so diamond, heavenly
Chariot is some times a dissyllable, someivory door he descends into a secret chamber, where a bird with beautiful plumage
and other words. The stile is frequently sings an air, by which he knows that it changed from the familiar to the solemn: is his Crystalina thus transformed. The
one line may have your and the next thy. bird vanishes; a vapour takes its place,
Whatever in some places now, or forwhich soon is transformed into the real merly was considered the most beautiful Crystalina.
hair; or whatever may have been said The fourth canto is occupied with the in praise of golden locks, carroty hair is
not considered in America as the most Crystalina, through many difficulties, to beautiful. “ Auriferous trees” is a pedantic the upper air, and their journey to Sky;
expression. where they are met by the hermit; by
There are a few instances of bad gramwhom they are led into his cavern, where
mar arising from inattention.
Behold how freely my o'erflowing eyes a banquet is provided by necromantic
For thee the sweet restorative supplies ; spell. Servants are in waiting, and
- Is no one happy here but me? « viewless minstrels” chaunt the praises The poem has many little inaccuracies, of Rinaldo and Crystalina.
which we have not time to notice: yet, The fifth canto commences with ac- taken as a whole, we must confess that counting for the supernatural powers of we have experienced as much pleasure Altagrand, by a reference to the hag of in its purusal as in reading some British Endor, the resuscitation of Samuel and poems, at present holding a very high the power of Aaron's rod. This seems rank. too much like placing the credibility of
ART. 3. Florila BOSTONIENSIS. A Collection of Plants of Boston and its enri. rons, with their generic and specific characters, synonymes, descriptions, place of growth, and time of flowering, and occasional remarks. By Jacob Bigelow, .M. D. Boston, 1814. 8vo. pp. 280. If it is interesting to trace the progress proceed to the examination of this roof sciences in the United States, the first lume. We perceive in Dr. Bigelow an attempts in every branch are deserving of accurate and perspicuous botanist, who our notice, even when they happen to be better acquainted with the science of noof a local and limited nature, as in the menclative and descriptive botany than present instance. In a Flora, all the trees the worthy Dr. Cutler, enters boldly into and plants growing in a special region, the path of popular illustrations, by trans. must be described; but the author of a ferring into our language the character. Florula has no occasion to endeavour to istic definitions and descriptions of some acquaint us with the whole vegetation of of our plants: the former are generally a particular district: he may select such translated from late authors, they are share only as may best suit his purpose new in a few instances only; but are or leisure, and confine himself thereto, rather short, and not very elaborate wherefore many incomplete Floras are which is less objectionable in a local and merely enlarged Florulas. The author of limited work than in any other. Many this volume has accordingly adopted, with of the descriptions appears to be origió much propriety, its actual title, since he nal; but they are all too short and indoes not profess to describe all the plants complete, and it is impossible to distinof the neighbourhood of Boston; but at- guish them from those that are merely tempts merely to elucidate about one- translated: they appear calculated for fourth thereof, say over 500 species. His beginners rather than botanists. They object is avowedly to afford an auxiliary are followed with much propriety by aid to the study of botany, by giving sim- useful observations on the localities, ple descriptions of some American plants, flowering, duration, and properties of detected near Boston. We consider this each species. attempt as the first of its kind in our This work is classed according to the country, since heretofore no other similar Linnean sexual system, without any reEnglish tract had appeared, except, per- ference to natural classifications, affinities, haps, Marshall's imperfect descriptions and analogies. It is a general opinion at of the trees and shrubs of North America, present among the majority of actual and Cutler's account of the plants of American botanists, that this obsolete Boston, whose many errors have ren- system is calculated to offer facilities in dered it almost useless: yet we blame the study of botany; this erroneous exceedingly the author of this Florula for opinion arises probably from the ignohis utter neglect of this latter labour, rance of the real and preferable facilities which was exactly upon the same lo afforded by the knowledge of the analyti. cality; he has not quoted it in any in- cal analogies of plants ; when these are stance, and not even mentioned it: this better understood a different idea will happens to be the case likewise with certainly prevail. Pursh's Flora of North many more American authors, who America was published in England on might have been noticed occasionally. the same year with this Florula, and was The errors and mistakes of Cutler can- therefore unknown to its author, who not afford a shadow of excuse to our au- could not avail himself of the improve. thor for his utter neglect of him, since ments it contains : and it happens that they ought to have been detected and these two authors seldom, if ever, intet. pointed out. The labour of Cutler was fere together. published in the first volume of the Some new plants are introduced in Transactions of the American Academy this work, most of which are unknown of Arts and Sciences, and is certainly and unnoticed by Pursh: the greatest known to Dr. Bigelow; and though it is proportion_had been discovered and shamefully erroneous in nomenclature, named by Dr. Muhlenberg; but are here yet it is very good in other respects, and described for the first time. Only twa ought not only to have been consulted, new species appear to have been discobut accredited.
vered, named and described by Dr. Bigree Let us however consider the omission low. They are : in this regard, as a mere oversight, and Iris gracilis, Big. page 12. Flowers
beardless; leaves linear; stem round Myrica cerisera, L.
This Florula is not faultless in nomenBunias edentula, Big. p. 157. Leaves clature. We observe among the generic obovate, sinuate; silicles with two smooth, names, those of Centaurella adopted inone seeded, toothless joints.
stead of Bartonia, Spartina instead of Those two plants are completely des- Limnetis, Hydropeltis instead of Brasecribed by Dr. Bigelow: the following are nia ; this preference is obviously erronethose described by him, but adopted on ous, since the names preferred are either the authority of Dr. Muhlenberg. posterior or inadmissible. We notice
Gratiola aurea, Mg. Also adopted by with pleasure that the genera Diervilla Rafinesque and Pursh.
and Sarothra, which had been annulled Scirpus acutus, Mg. Culm round, leaf- by some botanists without any plausible Jess, equal; spikes several, below the top, pretext, are here again introduced ; but oblong somewhat umbelled. Big. p. 15. why are not the genera Ampelopsis and
Spartina glabra, Mg. Spikes nume- Hedeoma adopted likewise ? they are cerrous, sessile, somewhatimbricated; valves tainly equally good. of the calyx mostly glabrous. Big. p. 17. In the nomenclature of species, some It belongs to the genus Limnetis of Per
care appears to have been taken of col
lecting divergent synonymes; we will Ranunculus fascicularis, Mg: Leaves cite for instance the Lobelia pallida of ternate subpinnate; root fascicled. Big. Muhlenberg, which is noted as the Lobelia
spicata of Lamark, while the Galium braMany other plants discovered by Dr. chiatum, Mg. is the G. circezans of MiMuhlenberg had been described in the chaux. In the English names of plants, species plantarum of Wildenow, and many vulgar names peculiar to New adopted by Pursh, such as Epilobium England are happily introduced ; they coloratum, Carez varia, C. stipata, Hedy- are always useful in local works, and sarum divergens, Lathyrus venosus, Poly- serve to complete the natural history of gala paucifolia, &c.
nomenclative botany. Several rare species are mentioned by We must proceed to dwell upon a subDr. Bigelow, which have been detected ject, which calls for the immediate and near Boston; we shall notice some of peculiar attention of our botanists, we al. them, particularly those that had not yet lude to the prevailing custom of describbeen found so far north or south.
ing American species, under the names Monarda allophylla, Michaux. ' of different European species, upon the Xyris Jupicai, Michaux.
least appearance of similarity. This Elymus virginicus, L.
error has arisen from the superficial Hordeum jubatum, Aiton.
study of our plants, and has particularly Houstonia longifolia, Wildenow. been adopted by those who have not had Cornus canadensis, L.
the opportunity of comparing the plants Lysimachia hybrida, Michaux. of both continents, or who may have Lobelia dortmanna, L.
merely, glanced upon them, instead of Asclepias obtusifolia, Michaux,
describing them minutely and comparaverticillata, L.
tively. It is only among the plants of the Salsola caroliniana, Michaux. arctic zone or polar regions that a real Heracleum lanatum, Mich.
similarity exists, the same species being Angelica triquinata, Mich.
often spread over both continents, or in Viburnum nudum, Aiton.
Europe, Asia, and North America. When Trillium cernuum, L.
some of our plants appear consimilar to @nothera pumila, L.
the European plants unknown to the poRhododendron maximum, L. lar or boreal part of it, we must doubt of Cassia chamecrista, L.
their identity, unless we have proofs that Pyrola secunda, L.
they have been naturalized. It is not Silene pensylvanica, L.
sufficient to compare our specimens with Magnolia glauca, L. at Gloucester, drawings, plates, or specimens from EuCape Ann, its northern boundary. rope, which are often imperfect; but we Orchis psycodes, Wildenow. ought to consult complete and accurate fimbriata, Aiton.
descriptions made on living plants, before Arethusa bulbosa, L.
we dare to identify them. It is evidently Cypripedium acaule, Aiton. preferable to consider our plants as differEriocaulon pellucidum, Mich. ent, and give us consequently good des,
criptions of them, rather than unite them Staticelimonium, Big. is St. caroliniana, with unsimilar foreign species, blending Walt. Pursh. them upon slight atfinities, overlooking Berberis vulgaris, Big. is B. canadensis, their differences, and omitting to give us Raf. Pursh. their descriptive history. Yet this has Saxifraga vernalis, Big. is S. virginia- ' too often been done, since it is easier to na, Michaux. decide at random or upon a mere glance, Dianthus armeria, Big. is probably D. than to compare, discuss, and describe armerioides, Raf. with mature attention. By these unto- Stellaria graminea, Big. is St. tenella, ward means the progress of Botany has Raf. n. sp. been prevented, and the complete know- Geum rivale, Big. is G. nutans, Raf. ledge of our plants greatly impeded.
In the Floras of Michaux and Pursh, Ranunculus fluviatilis, Big. is R. flaseveral plants formerly considered as bellaris, Raf. n. sp. identical with European species have Xanthium strumarium, Big. is probably been distinguished; but many more de- X. maculatum, Raf. n. sp. mand a similar distinction. We find that Some other species, such as Potentilla. in this Florula, even some of those sepa- anserina, P. argentea, Epilobium angusrated by these authors and by Muhlen- tifolium, Atriplex patula, Agrimonia euberg, are again united under an errone- patoria, Alisma plantago, Myosotis Scor. ous European denomination, and very pioides, Lycopus europeus, &c. are probabadly described. We shall notice some bly in the same predicament; the plants of those mistaken attempts; we re- described by Dr. Bigelow not being idengret that we have not room to notice the tical with the European species bearing whole of them.
those names. The Salicornia herbacea, Big, is the S. Considering that this work is the first rirginica, L.
attempt of its author, we are satisfied that Callitriche aquatica, Smith, contains 5 it is not an unhappy one, and by no or 6 European species ; the species of means undeserving of the notice of our Bigelow is neither of them.
botanists: it evinces talents and knowVeronica scutellatı, Big. is the V. uli- ledge, which improved by experience and ginosa, Raf.
researches, may mature into real perspiCircea lutetiana, Big. is C. canadensis, cuity and solid science. We recommend Raf. Pursh.
to its author a peculiar attention to natural Plantago maritima, Big. is perhaps Pl. affinities, critical nomenclature, liberality, gibbosa, Raf. n. sp.
assiduity, and minute observations; by Galium aparine, Big. is G.aparinoides, those aids he will certainly improve himRaf. The G. verum, Big. is certainly not self, and his future works; which may that species, perhaps a new one. thereby become extensively useful and
Potamogeton natans, Big. is P. epihy- valuable. drum, Rat.
C. S. R. Impatiens nolitangere, Big. is I. maculat um, Mg.
Art. 4. An Essay on Musical Harmony, according to the nature of that science, and - the principles of the greatest musical authors. By Augustus Frederic Christopher
Kollmann, Organist of his Majesty's German Chapel, St. James'. First American
edition, with notes. Utica, Seward & Williams. 1817. WERE
ERE a judgment to be formed of a singing school has learned to practice
from the number of musical wri- already? The best reply to this inquiry ters that have appeared in the United is a reference to the contents of our musi? States, and the quantity of original music cal publications. Those who are most fa
that has issued from the press, within fif. miliar with them will be convinced that ty years past, one would almost regard our countrymen are not yet too far adthe appearance of a work which profess- vanced in the theory of musical composies to teach the elements of composition, tion to derive benefit even from an eleas a reflection on the musical science of mentary treatise ; and will have only to the country. Where is the use, he might regret that such a work has not earlier ask, of printing a book at this late period, appeared, and been more generally disto teach that which almost every master sused.