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who found it. This stone is exactly such same kind of people, why did they not a one as the Emperor of China and the raise forts and mounds similar to ours ? highest grades of bis officers now wear Did they do so ? No, sir, the few mounds suspended around their necks, as we are which are found on the other side of the informed by a person belonging to the Alleghany, are as dissimilar to ours, as our suit of the British Ambassador. The Em- Indian cabin is to the President's house peror we are told wears three, officers at Washington. next in grade two, and those of a lower Regular forts like ours, the Indians had grade one, which are there called "Yu none. That nations who are acquainted stones.” It will be recollected that the with the fine arts, may, hy being involvpresent reigning family in China are of ed in long and destructive wars, be led Tartar extraction. What further proof to forget them to a certain extent, I do does a candid inquirer after truth require not deny; but, that they will entirely forat my hands, as to the origin of these get those arts on the cultivation of which, people? Were they not some of those their preservation, nay, their existence vast hordes of wandering Scythians who depends, I cannot admit. And here, let continually roamed about with their fa- me ask, why shall we resort to conjecmilies in carts, as Horace tells us, with tures the most improbable, while those their bows and arrows, driving before are rejected which are highly probable, them their numerous flocks?
nay, almost certain to the contrary? My Having gone into the inquiry, from opinion is, that the people who built our thence did this people emigrate hither, forts, migrated from hence to the Mexilet us next inquire, whither did they mi- can gulph, crossed it, and were the first grate, and what became of them? This settlers of the West Indian Isles, and the inquiry will be less pleasing than the pre- whole of South America-that our Inceding, because I am met at the very dians came here long before them, crossvestibule, by an opinion, which has been ed the Alleghanies and settled all along advanced, hy a gentleman of erudition, the Atlantic coast in the present United piety, and patriotism, whose character I States; that when at a far later period, revere, and whose virtues I esteem-I those who erected our old forts came mean Dr. Hugh Williamson, formerly, here, they were pressed upon every side and for a long time, a member of congress. by the first settlers—that, finding the In his valuable work on climate, in sub- navigable waters all leading south, few or stance he gives it as his opinion, that no inhabitants to oppose their going in these ancient works were raised by the that direction-finding also the climate ancestors of our present race of Indians much milder, the soil generally better, that the continual civil wars in which and of course the greater ease in supportthey were engaged, thinned their num- ing themselves, they followed the water bers and so scattered them abroad, that courses downward, and settled them. they lost those arts which once they selves in Mexico and Perir, long before knew, and they reverted back from the Columbus found their posterity in those shepherd, to the hunter state of society. countries. This opinion of mine is foundHis book is not by me, but I believe, that ed on what I will now proceed to state. the above is the substance, the multum in Some year or two since, in exploring a parvo, of what he has said on this subject; great saltpetre cave in Kentucky, com. if not, I hope he will correct me. In jus- monly called the mammoth cave, the tice to Dr. Williamson, permit me here skeleton of a female was found, which to premise, that he never saw these the nitrous quality of the earth where it works himself, but derived all his infor- lay had preserved, so that it appeared mation on the subject from others, and somewhat like an Egyptian mummy. She that nearly every circumstance on which was dressed with what no doubt, in herlife.' I found my opinion must have been en- time, was considered in the very height tirely unknown to him at the time he of the fashion, in clothes manufactured wrote. These ancient works, we must out of the bark of either trees or vegetaremember as we go along, are not found bles, and adorned with a profusion of gay east of the Alleghany mountains; but the feathers. Sometime since, three mumIndians were not only found on that side mies were found in a similar cave in Tenof those mountains, but were as much nessee, dressed in a similar manner. Now, more numerous along the very shore of sir, how did the Mexicans and Peruvians the Atlantic Ocean, in proportion to their dress when the Europeans first found settlements in the country back from the them? and how do the aborigines of sea, as our present population is now. If those countries now dress ? Almost exthose inhabiting the sea coast, were the actly as these were here. They manue: factured not only a great part of their the statuary has polished ? An owl cartclothing from several kinds of bark, but ed in stone to be sure was found in a even bridged their streams with a kind of mound at Columbus, and we sometimes matting made from the same materials. find stone axes. We find occasionally Montezuma and his splendid retinue what had once been iron, and a very little were thus dressed and adorned with a silverand brass, and cloathes manufacturprofusion of birds' feathers of a gay plu- ed from bark and feathers. We find a light mage. The dress then of our people kind of ware made of shells, but where being like that of the South Americans, do we find a mill site, which had once let us not forget another circumstance, been occupied ? Factories of wool, of and that is the Indian ware, as it is called. fax, of hemp they had none. If they It is very light, and manufactured out of had any of glass why use ising-glass for a kind of shells, and is frequently found mirrors? Babel, Tyre, Zidon, and Palin nitrous caves in Kentucky and Tennes. myra were built in the early ages of the see, and in many places in this western world, and is it probable that the des. country, but no where else in the United cendants of those who built such cities States. This too is exactly such ware would have forgotten arts so necessary as the Mexicans and Peruvians formerly as those employed in erecting them ? and still manufacture and use. I refer to think not ; but the Scythians had no Robertson and Clavigero, as to what I cities, they lived in a shepherd state long have said concerning the Mexicans and Pe- after those cities were built, and their ruvians; the facts I have stated as to what eastern border is divided from our wes. has been discovered in this country, I can tern one by merely a narrow strait. They establish in any court of justice. I might therefore have come here ignoshall endeavour to answer one more in- rant, as they evidently must have been, quiry which naturally presents itself, and only two thousand years ago. But let .conclude, my already, perhaps too lengthy us as often as possible recur to facts. I epistle: and that is, at what time did counted the annulars of a large oak these people migrate hither ? That it standing on a mound in this place, and was at an early age of the world I infer they amounted to upwards of four hunfrom the rude and imperfect state of the dred and fifty, and from appearances, this arts among them. If we go to Italy or tree was, at least, the third growth on Greece, we behold in every direction the the spot since it had been deserted. splendid ruins of a once polished and Should this communication be favouramighty people. We see the remains of bly received, I shall devote a few hours
, roads on which millions have trodden: at a season of more leisure, to the geoloy of aqueducts which once supplied popu- of this country, and in so doing, combat Jous cities with water ; of amphitheatres, some opinions thrown out by Monsieur where thousands of admiring spectators Volney in his travels. I am sir
, with once listened to the voice, and beheld the sentiments of the highest consideration, graceful gestures of some favourite actor. your very humble servant. Among the ruins of some unhappy town,
CALEB ATWATER. we find the bust of the hero or the god, which the chisel of some Praxitiles has to the Editors of the American Monthly polished ; and the canvass which the
Niagazine. painter has made to glow with almost REMARKS ON MILITIA LAWS. real life. There too we find the parch- The safety of our Republic, and the ment on which the poet, the orator, personal interest of every citizen demands or the historian has written, conveying a careful and sober investigation of the down to us exalted ideas of their genius, question-what is the best means of discitheir eloquence, their learning, theirgran- plining, and maintaining a Militia? It deur, and their glory. But where, in is a fact that notwithstanding the bumithese vast regions of the west, do we find liating disasters which grew out of the the remains of an “Emilian way,” or ill-regulated militia, both of the revoluroads dus through hills ? where find tionary and the late war-all the exer: the moss.grown column, the ruins of tions and influence of Washington, and baths, or even cellars and wells? Where of the statesmen who have followed him, do we find the mouldering ruins of stately have not as yet succeeded even so far as edifices, of lofty domes, or even the small to organize a tolerable system of national est vestiges of any building of stone ? defence. The constitution, with all the Where do we find the canvass whereon solemnity and dignity due to so interestthe painter has exercised his inimitable ing a subject, declares that “a weil regtlart?' Where the bust which the chisel of lated militia is the safeguard of a free
State." Our United States presidents, on their incapacities, which permit them and our state governors, with the same to stand by and see the hale and the kind of gravity, have echoed the truth young hag-ridden by our militia law. from Georgia to Maine, but, notwithstand- But we will proceed to prove our first ing, we are still without that “safe- position that "the militia law fails in its guard.” And it may be said, with great objects.” We live in an age when the art apparent truth, that for the want of that of war has ceased to be simple. In the
safeguard,” we did not take the two first ages of society, and perhaps until Canadas in 1812, but for the same reason the time when gunpowder was invented, our national capitol was taken and burnt our present militia exercises might have in 1814, whereby our country lost mil- been so far useful as to have fitted men lions of money, and the national charac- for the ordinary purposes of war. At the ter was greatly disgraced. Let us sup- present day, when other nations have pose for an instant that our militia in the regular standing armies—with officers and moment when war was last declared soldiers deeply skilled in all the various against England had been "well regu- arts of modern war—and also have exlated"—that every general had learnt his tensive navies to hover about our coast, lesson of skill—and every soldier his duty and land their armies; no sound statesof obedience and valour—they would have man can believe that our militia should swept through the enemies' country with be relied on as a “national safeguard”out opposition, and the end of the first because any militia, however well discicampaign would have found them in plined, must necessarily be inferior to a front of the walls, perhaps in the actual regular army. The soldier who is exerpossession of Quebec. The novel and cised every day must have more skill expensive OF SHIP-BUILDING,” than the militia man who is exercised on Ontario might have been spared—and only five times a year. Nor is our prethe bloody but useless battles of Fort sent militia any protection against even Erie and Bridgewater could never have the Indians on our frontiers—for it is an happened.
admitted fact, that, until the militia have But as the advantages of a “ well regu- been so much exercised as to become lated” militia are not denied, no more regular soldiers, they cannot stand against need be said on this head; the past is any thing like an equal number of Indians gone-let us gather a lesson from it for in battle. The reason is plain. The daily the improvement of the future—and do occupation of an Indian is that of a warwhat we can to awaken statesmen to a rior. He is inured to hardship, and faconsideration of the subject in question. miliar with danger. The militia.man is
There are two good reasons why the unused to privations, incapable of bearing whole militia system as it now is should fatigue, and shy of encountering death. be abolished for ever. The first is—that In all wars between barbarous and civilizit wholly fails in its objects, and the law ed nations, history proves that wherever relating to it is, indeed, the most useless the civilized nation has relied on its mililaw that ever was ingrafted into a national tia ii has been conquered. The frequent code. And the seeond is, that instead conquests of the Tartars over the civilized of being a “national defence,” it is a nations of Asia demonstrate this truth. 36 national curse.”
If then the regular troops of all nations Of all the disasters that befall the hus- may be placed on our coast by means of bandman, the mechanic, or the gentleman, navies, in time of war, and our militia under the administrations of the Federal cannot oppose them, and if the Indian and State government in the “piping militia is superior to ours in the field, and times of peace”-there is nothing so hu- both these suppositions can be demonmiliating to the pride of the latter, and strated not only by logic-but hy all hisso distressing to the interests of the other tory and experience, is our government two classes, as the dreadful "training wise in placing any reliance on that milidays.” In town and in country they may tia, which must surely fail in the day of properly be called days of little vexations trial? Is it not certain that in all wars and little miseries—when the poor are our first campaigns must be expensive, distressed and the rich disgusted-when deadly—and disgraceful? The repubthe militia man wastes a precious season of lics of Greece fell before Philip of Macctime, gives much labour and trouble for don by relying on militia-from the nothing, and perhaps spends the earnings same cause Carthage fell before Roman of a week in drowning his chagrip. They soldiers ;--and when the regular armies
of are the only days in the year when old . Rome dwindled into undisciplined milimen and cripples congratulate themselves tia—they were subdued by Germans and Vol. II.--Noiv.
Scythians. Suppose the holy league of be gratified, or not exalted enough to be European crowned heads should pour in cut to the soul by the best appearance of Russian, Prussian, French, English and our best regulated militia, may not fear Austrian troops upon our land with a fix- contempt, but be assured he will run away ed determination to destroy the only from a cannon. He is not made for the republic which they dread, might not times in which we live; he does not me history in recording the fall of the Ame- rit the honour of a commission-he is a rican government have to relate another man of epaulets and facings, whose most instance of the fatal error of relying on exalted hope of glory-is, to wear a militia ? And what do we need of any feather. “ national defence," unless it is one able Yet by the natural course of our mai. to cope with those very standing armies litia laws, such are the very men who of Russia, England, Prussia, and Germa- by the fatal principle of military priority, ny-and with the Indians! Whoever will command our militia in the emergenwishes to understand the rexations and the cies of war. And is not this an evil? Look plagues, the faithlessness and cowardice, back only three years, and you will rethe hopelessness and curses of a militia, member instances in which men were led should read the letters of Washington to to disgrace and death—in which national our war congress. After that patient and honour and happiness were jeopardized, immortai hero had made the most tho- by militia commanders saddled upon the rough, fair, and perfect experiment that nation's back in consequence of our miliever was or ever will be inade in any tia system. Nor was it in the power of State, to test the metal of militia, he pro- our war department to shake off these nounced it Dross; and officially declared dangerous pests; because while all me that it is not in the power of statesmen cursed them in their hearts, all men adand warriors to discipline militia suffi- mitted their right to their station on the ciently well to be relied on in the hour of principle of routine. trial with modern armies. One would When the militia of some of the states suppose that the experience of past ages, during the late war, were called into the the lessons of history, and the final testing field against British invasion, it was al experiment of Washington, ought to shut once laughable and appalling, to behold the mouth of that man who should deny what odd geniusses and queer figures had that our militia is and will be useless — crept into command, and under the bless and that reliance on it is hopeless—dan- ed influence of militia laws, were about gerous—fatal.
to march to discomfiture and disgrace. My second position is, that our militia Filth, disease and mutiny followed law, taking into consideration its effects their banner, while valour and patriotism and consequences, is a national evil. I have shuddered at their very physiognomy. already described its vexations and ap- It was not, until such bear-herds were palling power on those " training days," whipped out of the field at the expense of when it drives away all the little felicities much good blood and treasure, that the of every class of the community-when militia was lessoned into the shape of any it comes, not in the shape of any affliction thing like a defence. that demands and calls forth the dignity The ghosts of murdered citizens, and of fortitudebut, like bed-bugs and mos. ravaged towns, should haunt the dresas chettos, to worry and pester man, woman, of every statesman, who in these days and child out of all possible patience and preaches in favour of one particle of con to make every one ask, in a pet, “ where fidence in any militia. Nomit is not an is the use of such plagues—and what are them that a nation should rest its defence, they made for ?" What officer or soldier nor is there any use in them in the present in the militia feels his pride in any way refined mode of warfare.-We must have gratified, by the awkward, beggarly, and numerous and extensive military school, mortifying display which an unequal law where our youth shall be bred to the scicalls upon it to make? What man ofence and the art of war and the only sense does not despise-and what woman purpose of a militia law should be to num. does not laugh at it? There are some ber and regiment our strength and ta little mean men, who, to gratify the vanity supply it with arms. of putting on uniform, and of being called Nor is it just or fair that the class of a major in the militia, would wade through people who compose our militia should all troubles, and run the gauntlet of con- be oppressed as they are by our militia tempt itself. God never designed such laws. The tax falls on them heavily, and men for patriots or heroes, and that offi- it is the more heavy because it is unequal. cer who has an ambition low enough to Allowing the militia system to be use
ful, what gives government the right to tax They are called into the field, say, five a labourer five or ten days in a year, and, times in every year. Estimating the serat the same time, to exempt all civil offi- vices and sacrifices of each man at the cers from that tax, although it is intended labour prices of a dollar a day, the militia for the common defence? And where is in ten years pay a tax of 40 millions of the fairness of taxing persons under 45 dollars, besides their equipments, which and over 18 all alike—the poor as much amount, at 20 dollars per man, to 16 milas the rich, and exempting all other de- lions more, which is supposed to be for scriptions of people without regard to the common desence, although no other their revenues ?
class pays any thing for it. It would be By the oppressive inequality of these well for the people to know, and for militia taxes, he who has not any proper statesmen to retlect, that this tax is a monty whatever pays as much for the com- ster-raising a fund for defence to throw mon defence, as he whose possessions are it away, and levying from militia men an of the value of millions.
enormous contribution over and above It was agony to every benevolent heart, their other taxes, and actually amounting in the late war, to see poor men torn from to more than all the rest. their homes, and dragged from a great dis- If, therefore, in the face of wisdom and tance down to the city of New-York, to experience, the inilitia must still be dedefend the vast property of our bank di- pended upon for the common defence, rectors and land-holders—who for a fine let no man be called on to spend a day of of 50 dollars, (amounting to nothing com- his time in this degrading service, withpared with their possessions) remained at out being paid for it out of the common home at ease.
revenue by the property of the nation. This inequality of taxation cannot be As it now is, the poor are made miseraJustified. The common defence should in ble by a system of defence towards all cases, as well in the militia, as in the which the rich pay comparatively noarmy, be paid for by the commonwealth; thing—and that system is the subject of and every man, whether civil or military, universal ridicule. A good statesman canand every society or corporation, whether not be its advocate. He will boldly avow religious or commercial, should be taxed that in as much as it fails in its object, and in proportion to its revenues. Every tax is a national curse, it ought to be swept of an unequal character, being oppressive, from the national code, with its squalid must in a republican government be ad- train of calamities, and a glorious system mitted to be a national evil.
of military schools adopted in its place. The militia of the United States is said
Vox COMMUNIS. to amount to the number of 800,000.
ART. 2. Crystalina. A Fairy Tale. By an American, THOUGH we believe, with Hurd, that Amidst all the various and great beau
the precepts of Horace, in the Ars ties of Spenser, there is a want of interest Poetica, were intended to be applied to and excitement. The moral of his fables the drama, certain it is that the greater is not readily understood. We are pleaspart of the precepts of this Epistle to ed, and often greatly so; but the questhe Pisos applies, with equal aptitude, to ton; what then? or, what is the consemost other poetic performances.
quence ? so frequently occurs, and so Aut famam sequere, aut sibi convenientia finge frequently is unanswered, that we beScriptor.
come wearied of the descriptions of events, Let the poet construct his fable from the objects of which remain unrevealed, events generally believed ; or feign such Hence, how few in Britain or America a story as shall be consistent with itself. are the readers of his Fairy Queen. The author of Crystalina has conformed The Fable of Crystalina is founded to the latter part of the precept; not- in Spenserian imagery. To give a brief withstanding which, we should have been outline of it, and to afford the reader ocmuch more pleased, had he obeyed the casional evidence of the poetical talent of former; or feigned a tale that comes the author, we shall make our remarks home “to men's bosoms and business :" as we proceed with the poem. for it is difficult to feel much interest in The poem is divided into six cantos ; the improbable; and none can be felt in each of which begins with a stanza in the the jucredible:
manner of Spenser. The object of this