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was deaf to the voice of misery. To the with his name, his nature seemed changdictates of self-interest he lent an exclu- ed; and while they experienced the besive attention, and he was never drawn neficence of Augustus, the Romans might aside by the temptations which beset be tempted to forget the proscriptions of more generous natures. That he was Octavius. The general complexion of not addicted to intemperance, or dissolv- his administration was such as is produced ed in the enchantments of courtezans, by the union of justice and humanity; was owing to the natural frigidity of his yet, as it is the fate of all artificial characbabit. A proficient in the arts of intrigue, ters to be not more detested for the vires he was destitute of every nobler quality which are their own, than despised for of the mind, as well as the heart. Im- the virtues they affect, the conduct which moderately ambitious, the constitutional in Trajan or the Antonines would have timidity of Octavius shrunk from those engendered unmingled veneration, esdaring measures by which superior spirits cited only horror and derision when excommand their fortune. Every act of his hibited by the assassin of Ciccro. The life was the result of craft or cowardice; benevolence of egotism and hypocrisy but it was to his hypocrisy, chiefly, which must be content with its own panegyric. enabled him to delude the world with Of the immense dominions now under the show of virtues which nature had the sway of Augustus, Athens was the denied him, that this consummate de- single spot in which the name of liberty ceiver was indebted for his elevation. had not either become obsolete, or lost

These are but faint and imperfect its wonted attraction. The siege of Sylla, sketches of the characters of men who and the oppressions of Octavius would now divided between them the power have unnerved the courage of any peoand resources of the Roman empire. Con- ple in whom the love of independence tented with his share, and absorbed in did not burn with the fervour of a beJuxury, the lover of Cleopatra was desi- reditary passion. The unresisted ty. rous only of inglorious repose : but the ranny of Augustus had produced among intrigues of Octavius would not allow his the inhabitants of the Roman empire a colleague to abandon himself wholly to a spiritless uniformity of character : but the life so unworthy of his station, and a insurrection of the Athenians against that Roman. Antony speedily perceived usurper, four years before his death, the designs of Octavius, whose unsocial proves with what impatience the descenambition detested the equality of a rival. dants of Cimon and Miltiades bore the The sparks of secret enmity were fanned yoke of a foreign tyrant. Into a fierce and open flame by the sug- The reign of Tiberius succeeded, and gestions of flattery or fear: a mutual de- Athens remained tranquil and undisturbclaration of was was immediately succeed- ed in the enjoyment of her domestic laws ed by actual hostilities; and the nations and institutions. The chief event relatof the earth were involved in a private ing to this celebrated city during a period quarrel, which might have been more so unfortunate to Rome, was the visit of quickly and happily settled by the sword the nephew of Tiberius to a spot that was of a patriot.

still reverenced as the abode of leaning Atlicns is enumerated among those and the arts. The deportment of Gerstates which espoused the cause of An- manicus was mild and unassuming, and tony, and the conviction that his success during his residence at Athens, to evince would be less dangerous to freedom than his respect for her former glories, he die the triumph of his crafty antagonist, af- vested himself of the ensigns of his dig. fords a clear and honourable explanation mity, and walked through the streets, and of her conduct. The same policy that inspected the public edifices, preceded by bad governed the Lacedeinonian coun- a single lictor. Sparta—the proud, inflexi. cils during the late civil war, attached ble Sparta-experienced in the same Sparta to Octavius. The battle of Ac- reign, a signal mortification. Involved tium decided the fate of Antony, and the in a dispute with the Messenians, she rehigh-spirited Athenians were exposed to ferred her cause to the arbitration of Rothe malignity of the conqueror, whose re- man judges, whose sentence was provenge; when his victory had subdued his nounced in favour of her rivals. It is apprehensions, proved that he was not a little remarkable, that the right of incapable of rivaling the magnanimity, as possession in the temple of Limnæan of emulating the genius or prowess of Diana, a goddess, the celebration of whose his adopted father. His triumph estab- festival gave birth to the first Messenian lished the dynasty of Cæsar; the tri- war, should bave been the subject of conumvir was transformed into the emperor; tention.


The reigns of Nero, Galba, Otho, and Vi- vated than that which is born of a fertellius, ofter nothing remarkable respect- vent and disinterested patriotism. ing either Athens or Sparta. The luxuries The cares of Atticus were divided be. of Rome could not satiate the extrava- tween his country and his son, whose gant profligacy of Nero. That aban- education he superintended with the tendoned miscreant visited Greece for the derness of a wise and affectionate father. purpose of bringing away with him some The most celebrated teachers of Greece of the singers, cooks, and buffoons, for and Asia were allured by his generosity which a country once renowned for the to direct the studies of the young Hesimplicity of her manners, had lately ac- rodes. The progress of their pupil corquired an infamous celebrity. Corinth responded with the most sanguine expec-' might not esteem his residence a disho- tations of his parents and preceptors; so nour ; but his refusal to enter the walls fair and auspicious a morning gave proof Athens and Sparta, is a striking eulo- mise of a glorious noon: and Atticus gium on the countrymen of Solon and might contemplate with calinness his own Lycurgus.

approaching dissolution in the certainty Under Vespasian and Titus, Achaia was of leaving behind bim so accomplished formally constituted a Roman province, a representative. As an orator, Herodes and the elder Pliny, in the course of his surpassed his contemporaries : he pracNatural History, speaks of many monu,

tised without effort or ostentation the ments either of use or ornament erected rules of virtue and philosophy; and when in Greece during the government of those the young Athenian discharged the duties wise and beneficent princes.

of a magistrate, his countrymen might Of Sparta, in the same period, we cease to regret the days of Aristides or hear nothing; but Apollonius of Tyana, Phocion. who visited that city in the reign of Do- The liberality of Atticus was a heremitian is reported to have found the laws ditary virtue. Promoted by Hadrian to of Lycurgus in full vigour.

the prefecture of the free cities of Asia, The death of Domitian terminated the Herodes displayed in that subordinate race, real or fictitious, of Cæsar; and station a munificence that would have Nerva his successor, presented, in every been remarkable even in the sovereign of respect, a pleasing contrast to the wretches a wealthy kingdom. The town of Troas who had disgraced the name of Julius. was ill supplied with water. A repreGrcece was happy in the favourable re- sentation of the fact was made to Hagards of that gentle prince, whose respect drian, and for the erection of a new

aquefor justice was strikingly displayed in the duct, the emperor granted a sum equivacase of a noble Athenian. Atticus was lent to a hundred thousand pounds. The connected with the most illustrious fami- actual cost, however, amounted to more lies of his state; nor were the virtues of than double the sum, and the officers of Cimon and Miltiades sullied by the cha- the revenue murmured at the excess, racter of their descendant. His wealth, when the youthful prefect silenced their however, was inconsiderable ; and he complaints by the declaration that he must have been reduced to poverty, had would undertake the discharge of all exnot his exigencies been relieved by the penses beyond the estimate. The cities seasonable discovery of an immense store of Asia were embellished by his liberality, of hidden wealth. The law adjudged all and the people of Epirus and Thessaly treasure-trove to the emperor, and Atti- confessed their obligations to his munikcus was so magnanimous as to become Greece, generally, experienced. an informer against himself. Nerva re- the effects of his bounty : the temple of plied to his communication by desiring Neptune in the Isthmus he decorated him to use the riches with which chance with the most sumptuous ornaments; had presented him. The prudent Athe- while a theatre at Corinth, a stadium at nian urged the greatness of the treasure Delphi, a bath at Thermopylæ, and an as incompatible with the modesty of a aqueduct at Canusium in lialy, proved private station ; he knew “not how to that Herodes regarded his fortune rather use it."

“ Abuse it then," retorted the as the property of the public than his equitable monarch, “it is your own." own. Yet the lustre of these extraordiThe justice of Nerva was nobly emulated nary works was eclipsed by the splenby the generosity of Atticus; the gifts of dour of the edifices with which he adornfortune were principally applied to the ed his native city. The stadium which service and embellishment of bis native he built at Athens, whilst he was preșicity, nor can we ascribe his constant dent of the Attic Games,' was six bun.. beneficence to a motive less pure or ele. dred feet in length; and constructed of


the whitest marble. A theatre, dedicated of public utility or magnificence, that a to the memory of his wife Regilla, was second Athens seemed to have arisen innraised at his sole expense; and of this der his auspices; and the antique splenstructure alone, the charges must have dour of the capital of Theseus was risurpassed the ordinary limits of private valed by the youthful beauty of the city wealth, since in the frame-work no wood of Hadrian. was employed except the precious and From the ascension of Nerva to the incorruptible cedar, whose value, besides, death of Marcus Antoninus, nearly a cenwas enhanced by the laborious ingenuity tury elapsed, during which the Roman of the carver. The Odeum, or theatre world might felicitate itself in the posses. of music, where also it was customary to sion of princes, the patrons of genius and behearse new tragedies, had been erected virtue. The lineal inheritance of the under the administration of Pericles. The purple had been a uniform source of the masts of Persian gallies, captured at Sa- miseries and degradation of Rome. Nurs. tamis and Mycale, were employed as ed in the luxury and corruption of the beams in whatever part of the edifice palace, the ruinous administration of the they were required ; its design and ele- Cæsars had exhibited the genuine results vation were entrusted to the most skilful of their education. The union of rice architects; the chisel of Phidias, the pen- and imbecility was rapidly dissolving the cil of Panenus, had peopled its walls vigour of the commonwealth, when colwith the animated forms of gods and he lecting the remains of her espiring roes; and for centuries it had subsisted strength, she assaulted and destroyed her a monument of Athenian genius,-a tormentors. The virtues and talents of trophy of Athenian valour. Time at five successive sovereigns,* unconnected length, and perhaps the accidents of war, with each other by the ties of kindred, had injured its original beauty, and not- restored the blessings of regular governwithstanding the repairs bestowed by a ment, and the brilliant tranquillity of their Cappadocian prince, the venerable struc- reigns is a severe and immortal satire ! ture no longer exhibited its ancient

per- on the doctrine of hereditary succession. fection. In this state it was beheld by If we except the regret of former indeHerodes; he lamented its decay, he re- pendence, we may sincerely believe that stored its splendour ; and the re-edifica- the felicity of Athens and Greece, in this tion of the Odeum was the work of a pa- fortunate period, was perfect and uniotriot who, scattering benefits wherever terrupted. Indeed, the happiness enjoyed he appeared, reserved the largest mea- by the whole empire might be accepted sure of his generosity for a city whose no- as a triumphant defence of arbitrary powblest ornament was himself.

er, could the succession to the throne be But it was not only to the family of so regulated as to secure the perpetual Atticus that Athens was indebted for her dominion of genius and integrity. renovation in the reign of Hadrian. The

G. F. B. successor of Trajan was distinguished

(To be continued.) from the crowd of princes by a genius various and profound, a learning compre- Observations on the remains of civilization hensive and minute. From his earliest and population, extant on the vast plains youth he had cherished a partial fond- situated south of the North-American ness for the language, the history, the Lakes ; communicated by CALEB ATantiquities of Greece; and if in his WATER, Esq. of Circleville, Ohio, to the maturer years, the ridicule of the Ro- Hon. Samuel L. Mitchell, of Newmans was excited by the Greek studies of York, in a letter, dated January 16, the emperor,* the love borne by Hadrian

1818. to the literature of an illustrious nation, SIR, called forth the grateful applause of When the President of the United Athens and the Peloponesus." The solid States was here, last summer, he viewed benefactions which he bestowed upon our ancient forts and mounds at this Greece were worthy of her ancient re- place, and proposed certain questions to nown, and the discreet munificence of an

me concerning them, which I then anenlightened monarch. Under his reign swered in substance as I have done in the and direction the boundaries of the Athe communication which accompanies this nian city were so considerably enlarged, note. The President's remarks were acand adorned with so many new edificest companied by a request that I would put Vide Spartian.

my ideas on paper in the form of a letter 1 A temple dedicated to Olympian Jupiter is particularly wenciones

Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, and the Autorines

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to him, and he kindly offered to send it smallest infant. The beads of these sketo you for publication. I have so far com- letons all lie towards the centre of the plied with the request as to write my sen- mound, and in a horizontal position. But timents and the facts on which they were a small part of this mound has been refounded; but instead of accepting the moved. Near the centre of the circular kind offer of the President, I send it di- fort was a small mound, which has been rectly to you for the eye of the reading entirely removed and the ground levelled. world.

Near the bottom of this mound Maj. Gen. Yours, &c.

Denny, now no more, and myself, found Caleb ATWATER. a plate of isinglass, about half an inch in

thickness, eighteen or twenty inches in , Aboriginal Antiquities in the West.-Ad- width, and from two and a half to three

dressed to his Excellency James Mor- feet in length. It was perfectly smooth ROE, President of the United States. on one side, and from all appearances,

Circleville, Pickaway County, had been used as a mirror. As it had been

Ohio, Jan. 1, 1818. the constant companion of its fair possesSIR,

sor in life, so it accompanied her here in In compliance with your request, I death. To this mirror was probably atnow sit down, in order to give you my tached, when it was buried, an iron plate ideas concerning the antiquities which are an inch in thickness, because a substance found in this state. They consist mostly resembling ore, exactly of its size, lay on of two kinds, ancient fortifications and it. In this mound was found a large quanmounds. Circleville, where I now sit wri- tity of fiints for arrows lying in heaps to. ting these lines, as you will recollect, in- gether, and a large knife. The handle of cludes the whole of a circular fort and the the knife was manufactured from an elk's one half of a square one. The former had horn, around which, where the blade had but one gateway which led into the lat been inserted, was a ferule of silver which ter, while the square fort had eight, one was uninjured or nearly so, but the at each angle, and one on each side, half- blade had returned again to iron ore, but way between the angular openings. Ex- the shape and size was, before it was reactly in front of each gateway, on the in- moved, plainly discernible. The handle of side of the fort and a few rods from it, this knife was sent by Mr. Peter Douglas, was a small mound of earth, on which, it the gentleman who found it, to Peale's is supposed, once stood a watch-tower, museum, in Philadelphia. Similar fortififor the defence of the gate. In other cations to these here described, are found mounds we find human bones, in these all over the vast regions west of the Alleare none. The square fort is surrounded ghany mountains; and the more fertile the by only one wall, ihe circular one by two, soil, and the greater the local advantages having a deep ditch between them. The in their vicinity, the more numerous are wall around the former is about twenty the forts and mounds. feet in heighth, while those of the latter For what purpose were these ancient are several feet higher. These forts are forts erected? Some writers residing on connected, and, from appearances, the the east side of the Alleghany, and who square fort was intended for the men and have never seen them, have strangely cattle, the circular fort for the women imagined that these ancient works, comand children, and whatever else was con- monly called forts, were not real fortificasidered most valuable and sacred. In ad- tions, but merely places of diversion. To dition to circumstances which either have, a military man who has actually seen er might be mentioned tending to corro- them, I need say nothing to prove the reborate the opinion last advanced, I will verse. Yourself and the military gentleonly mention what you noticed, and men who accompanied you here, enterwhich also Governors Worthington and tained no doubts on this subject, any more Cass, and Generals Brown and Macomb than you did whether the sun then shined. noticed, that on the outside of the inner You saw where the pickets had once wall of the circular fort, and half way up stood on the outside of the inner wall of it, was a place all around the wall, from the circular fort, as well as the small indications not to be mistaken, where had mounds, where the watch-towers had once stood a row of pickets. On the once been erected in front of each avenue south-west of the circular fort and ad- leading into the square fort. You also nojoining it, is a mound nearly 100 feet ticed the trench on the south side of the higher than the surrounding plain, con- great mound. But I will now proceed to tuining human bones of all sizes, from lay before you other proofs of these bethose of the largest man iv those of the ing real fortifications.

First, then, the situations in which we those who raised them, admits not the uniformly find them, corroborates the shadow of a doubt. Mankind, in the earidea that they were real fortifications. ly ages of the world, in some way or They are generally found on high ground, other imbibed, what we deem the prein commanding situations, and at the con- posterous idea, that in order to worship fluence of navigable waters. Take the the Deity acceptably, a bigh place was following as examples :-Very remarka- the most suitable spot on which to cele ble ones are found at the junction of se- brate it, and the higher the place the veral streams on Licking creek, near more acceptable the worship: lience BaNewark; on the high grounds in and bel was built, and mount Moriah was seabout Columbus, near the junction of the lected as the place for Solomon's temWhetstone branch of the Scioto river; ple. The Jews for ages worshipped in near the place where Hargus' creek en- high places, and there they transacted ters the same river at Circleville; and I their most important public business. In might add, at all such-like places where so doing, are they not frequently rethe surrounding country is fertile. These proached by the sacred penmen, as folforts are frequently found where one side lowing the universally vicious example of at least is inaccessible, as the large one on all their heathen neighbours ? But let us the Little Miami, where one side of the hasten to another important inquiry:fort is a very high perpendicular bank of From whence did these people originate? rock. Besides, there were some places, For reasons which I shall proceed to lay which we not unfrequently find, in the vi- before you, I am led to believe their oricinity of these forts, and which evidently gin was Asiatic. It will be recollected were mere places of amusement. There that Asia and America are separated by are several such places near the forts at Behring's Strait, in width only eighteen Circleville, and one very remarkable one miles, which Captain Cook informs us is on the road from the place last mentioned crossed daily by the natives in their cato Chillicothe. It is perhaps twenty-five noes. Dr. Clark, in his travels from Mosor thirty rods in length, and about four cow to the Crimea, informs us that he say rods in width, with a ridge about two feet at one time nearly one hundred mounds, in height all around it. It is perfectly which we, who have seen ours, must smooth, and gently ascends towards the at once be convinced, from his descripsouth. Here the ancient inhabitants ran tion of them, are exactly such as ours. foot-races, wrestled, boxed, and practised To the travels of that learned tourist, in other athletic exercises. The arena of the Russia, permit me to refer the President

. Romans, and Olympic games of the From the Jordan to the Euphrates, and Greeks, on seeing the place I have de- from thence to the Don, California, the scribed, present themselves to the recol- western foot of the Atlantic and the Mer. lection of the reader of history. Again, ican Gulf, it is believed that mounds like the great labour these works must have ours are every where to be found. The cost in their erection, forms a strong ar- external appearance of the mounds in gument in favour of the opinion here ad- Tartary is similar to ours. Were they not vanced. What but dire necessity would raised by the same race of men? Let us ever have induced any people to erect examine the contents of these mounds

, such works? The walls of the forts at this and scepticism itself must yield its willing place, are as high and the ditch as deep assent to our proposition. James M'Douas those of fort Oswego, on the south gal, of Chillicothe, a gentleman of the side of lake Ontario, which were in use strictest veracity, some eighteen months in 1755; nay, the walls are as high and since, in removing a large mound which the ditch as deep as those of fort Stan- stood in that town, discovered a cavity wis, at Rome, in New York, and which near the bottom of the mound, in which we all know was in use only forty years was deposited the mortal remains of since; what then must have been the some distinguished chieftain. Around his enormous height of the walls of these old neck was a string of ivory beads, and on forts, and what the depth of these ditches his breast lay a stone about three inch. two thousand years ago ? And were peo- es in length, with a hole near each end ple more inclined to labour in ancient in order to fásten it to the wearer's neck. times than they are now? Let history It was rather thicker in the centre than it give the answer.

was at the extremities; was flat on the For what purpose were those lofty side next the breast, and the remainder of mounds erected, which on every side it round, and made of a species of black strike the eye of the beholder with a so- marble. The beads I saw, and the stone lemn awe? That they contain the bones of was described to me by Mr. M'Dougal

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