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the Eyes,) 3; Cynanche Tonsillaris, (Inflam- experienced in December for a number of mation of the Throat,) 3; Cynanche Trachea. years occurred on the 21st and 22d. In this lis, (Hives or Croup) 1; Cynanche Parotidæa, city on the 21st, the mercury in Fahrenbeit's (Mumps.) 1; Catarrhus. (Catarrh,)7; Bron- thermometer ranged between go and 120 chitis, (inflammation of the Bronchiæ,) 2; throughout the day, and in Chilicothe, it was Pneumonia, (Inflammation of the Chest) 11; as low as Zero. Poerimonia l'yphodes, (Typhous Pneumory,) The month of December has not been 1; Rheumatismus, (Rheumatism,) 3; Erysipe- marked by an unusual predominence of any las, (St. Anthony's Fire.) 1 ; Rubeola, (Meas particular disease. Typhous fever, which les) 2 ; Variola, (Small Pox,) 3; Vaccinia, has been so prevalent during the last three or (Kine Pock.) 120.

four months, is gradually declining; whilst CHRONIC AND LOCAL DISEASES.

Catarrh, Pneumonia, and other diseases parAsthenia, (Debility,) 2; Vertigo, 5; Cephalal. taking of the inflammatory character are begia, (Head-Ach,)5; Dyspepsia, (Indigestion.) coming more frequent. The Pneumonic in8; Gastrodynia. (Pain in the Slomach.) 2; En. Aammations of this month were often markterodynia, (Pain in the Intestines,). 2; Coliea, ed by bigh excitement, and required large (Colic.) 2 ; Obstipatio, 8 ; Hysteria, (Hystere repeated bleedings, with strict adherence to ics,) 3 ; Paralysis. (Palsy.) 1; Ophthalmia tbe antiphlogistic plan. Great advantage Chronica, (Chronic Inflammation of the Eyes,) was experienced from the administration of 2; Catarrhus Chronicus, (Chronic Catarrh,) Tartrite of Antimony combined with Sul3; Bronchitis Chronica, 8; Asthma, 1; phate of Şoda. Phthisis Pulmonalis, (Pulmonary Consump- The Small-Pos has not extended, owing, tion.) 5; Atheumatismus Chronicus, (Chronic probably, to the increased diffusion of Rheumatism,) 9; Pleurodynia, 2; Lumbago, Kine.Pock inoculation. In some instances 2; Dysenteria Chronica, 2; Diarrhæa, 6; however, it has assumed a bigbly aggravated Dyslochia, 1; Amenorrhea, 2 ; Ischuria, (Bup- form, being of the confluent kind, and atpression of Urine,) 1; Nephralgia, 1; Hydar. terded with delirium, high inflammatory thrus, (White Swelling:) 2; Vermes, (Worms.) fever, and distressing infarction of the lungs. 3; Syphilis, 14; Urethritis Virulenta, 3; Tu. Some cases, which fell under the observation mor,' 1; Contusio, (Bruise,) 1; Vulnus, of Dr. Townsend, were succeeded by deep (Wound,) 2 ; Ustio, (Burn.) 2; Abscessus, foul ulcers in the mouth, and other parts (Abscess,) 2 ; Ulcus, (Ulcer,) 10; Urticaria, emitting an intolerable fetor, by great de Nettle Rash,) 1; Erythema, 1; Scabies et bility, and extreme emaciation. To these, Prurigo, 20; Porrigo. (Scald Head,) 3; Her- much advantage was experienced from the pes, 1 ; Apthæ, 1; Eruptiones Variæ, 4. liberal employment of bark, wine, and mu

*An unusual absence of snow has charac. riatic acid. terized this month. The weather, with the Several instances might here be mentioned exception of a few days, has been mild and in which the efficacy of Vaccinia, as a prepleasant. N. W. S. W. and N. E. winds

ventae of Small-Pox, was indubitably manihave generally prevailed, and the last was fested. for the inost part accompanied by rain, the A few cases of Rubeola have been obquantity of which during the month, amount. served. ed to nearly three inches. The Barometri- A case occurred in which the indiscreet cal Range, according to the observations of use of chalk, as an antiacid during pregnanC. Bogert, Esq* extended from 30. 06 to cy, was followed by profuse diarrhea, sick30. 66.-The bighest temperature of the ness at the stomach, and violent pain in the mornings has been 47°, lowest 100, mean Jeft liac region and notwithstanding the 290 5;-highest temperature of the after- most active treatment was resorted to, prenoon 560, lowest 120, mean 34.0 7; highest mature labour came on upon the third day. temperature at 6 o'clock in the evenings The mischief that may arise from the me 520, lowest 90, mean 37:—greatest di- chanical action of this extraneous insoluble urnal variation 149. Average temperature substance is easy to be perceived, and is of the month 330 5. There has been a remark- stances are not wanting to prove the prejudiable coincidence of the weather during this cial effects of the babitual and too liberal use month, in this city, Geneva, N. Y. and in

of chalk, and likewise of magnesia. Chilicothe, (Ohio.) The number of fair and The New York Bill of Mortality for this cloudy or overcast days was the same, viz. month amounts to 195. Of this number, 36 20 of the former, and 11 of the latter. Snow deaths have occurred from Consumption ; 11 fell on the 3d at all the above mentioned pla- from Typhous Fever; 1 from Scarlet Fever ; ces; and such cold as bas not probably been 16 from Pneuinonia ; 6 from Hives; 2 from

Measles ; 10 from Small Pox. * This gentlenian has carefully attended to the The entire Bill will be given in the nert atmospheric constitution of New-York for seve

report. ral years; and we are happy to add, intends to present his Meteorological Observations to the

JACOB DICKMAN, N.D. New-York Historical Society. Such observa

New-York, December 31, 1817. tions are invaluable to future inquirers

Several articles in type are unavoidably deferred till next month.

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MEMOIR ON ICHTHYOLOGY.

new genus ; although in common conversaDr. Mitchill's Memoir on the Fishes of shad-salmon of North-America. He inhabits

tion he may well enongh be denominated the New-York. Continued from p. 248.

the lakes of New-York. HITE FISH OF THE LAKES.-Salmo In his general form and colour he is more most delicious of all the inhabitants of the pale, and not of the high yellow or orange of lakes, growing to the size of two feet and the common salmon. The head is small and more in length, hy six or seven inches in depth, scaleless; the belly, especially of the gravid feand weighing from four to six pounds and male, swells and swags; the scales are bright, upwards: the male fish not so deep as the large, stout and adherent. The tail is broad and female.

forked; the lateral line straight; and there is For a good specimen of this fish I own something very peculiar about the lips and in with pleasure my obligation to Col. Samuel the opening and shutting of the mouth. CoHawkins, agent to the commissioners on the lour of the roe or spawn, a bright light yellow, part of the United States, for settling boun- inclining to orange, like the highest colour of daries with the British government; who, anatto, and somewhat larger than those of the with an enterprise worthy of his enlarged shad. In October, they appear as mature as mind, brought it from the falls of St. Mary, at those of the sbad in April. The contents of the the northern extremity of Lake Huron. I stomach are of a dark sap green, as if the make a similar acknowledgment to Simeon food had been grass. It would have been neDe Witt, Esq. Surveyor-general of New- cessary to have invented a new name for York, who, influenced by a similar spirit, him, had not that been rendered superfluous furnished me with a correct sketch, done by by the amendment which the incomparable his own hand, from the natural subject caught Dr. Bloch has made to the generic character near Ithica, in the Cayuga Lake. And for a of the salmo. It now means merely the abdofinished delineation, take the present op- minal fishes that have "bodies covered with portunity of expressing my sense of the taste scales, and an adipose fin upon the back.” The and liberality of Hamilton Smith, Esq. toothless salmon of Surinam is already includ

From these sources I have been enabled to ed within this improved definition. Yet from gather the particulars of the present history: Governor Frederici's account, I am inclined

The mouth is wholly destitute of teetli: to think our white fish, of New-York, is a difa, they can no more be seen or felt than in the ferent species. herring

Bony-scaled PIRE.--Esox Osseus ; with There are two dorsal fins, the foremost of rostrated jaws filled with acuminated teeth of which is radiated, and the hindmost rayless different sizes; the upper mandible widenand adipose. The character in other respects, ed at the extremity, and perforated by two exactly resembles that of the Salmo. holes quite through, and by two more resem-'

It was a part of the Linnæan definition of bling nostrils ; with hard rhomboidal scales this genus, that there are teeth in both jaws disposed in oblique rows. and on the tongue.” Consequently the white The length of the specimen before me is fish, though so nearly allied, could not, ac- three feet and four inches. The body cylincording to that rule, be considered a member drically roundish like other species of the of the family. Nor could he with propriety be genus. The girth increases to the region of placed in any otber of the genera in that sys- the ventral fins, and thence tapers away toicm. He must therefore have constituted a ward the tail. Was taken in the Oneida Lake. VOL. II.-No. v.

41

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Is a stout, heavy, and formidable fish. MACKAREL-PIKE.-Esox Scomberius ; an The head is rather small and very bony, inhabitant of the fresh streams of New-York. tapering away to a pair of forcipated jaws, A figure of this fish was forwarded to me that are nine or ten inches long. Their gape by John Bradbury, Esq. It was executed is exceedingly wide. They are armed with from the creature as taken from Murderer's teeth disposed as thick as they can stand Creek Besides other strong features of the These may be divided into three sets or clas- pike, it was distinguished for a large and proses; the largest about a quarter of an inch jecting lower jaw; for the length of the bead long, and very sharp pointed; the next less and gill-covers; for the dark green of the than half that size, and Gilling up the spaces of back gradually disappearing in the white of from an eighth :o a quarter of an inch be- the belly, and the two hues connected by tween ibe former; and the third, yet smaller cloudy patches alniost resembling bands, and finer, overspreading almost the whole in- slanting forward and downward from the ner surface of the jaws. They are all re- back ; by a ruddy tinge of the large and markably white.

roundish pectoral abdominal and ventral fias; The upper jaw is longer than the lower, and by a broad concave or lunated tail. and is expanded like the blade of a forceps. Mr. B. states the rays of the pectoral fins to Beneath the thickened extremity there are be thirteen, of the ventral nine, of the dorsal two strong teeth pointing downward and in- fourteer, of the anal thirteen, and of the cauward. Near the extremity of this mandible dal twenty. are two ample orifices which appear to be LONG-JAWED FRESH WATER PIKE – Esor nostrils; and just bebind them two complete Longirostris ; with round body, long sharpperforations like pin-holes. The extremity of toothed jaw's, and dorsal and anal fins very the lower jaw is more abrupt and square far toward the tail. than the upper, and shuis within it.

Found in the waters of the Hudson, near The distance from the end of the upper Albany. Length of the specimen now before jaw to the eye is about ten inches, and from me, about twenty inches; and girih almost the same point to the posterior edge of the three and an half. The body, cylindrically gill membrane fourteen inches; making ra- round, and tapering very gradually toward ther more of snout and head dan a third of the tail. the length of the fish. The posterior gill-plate The distance from the extremity of the is radiated in various directions.

bill to the eye four inches, and from the cele The skull forins a flatish arch of bone, and point to the posterior edge of the gill-menis connecied by sutures all round to the ad- brane six inches; making the head and jaws joining parts. The distance along the broad nearly equal to one third of the length. and rounded back, from the occipital part of The teeth are charp and distinct, very thi suture, to the commencement of the dor- much like those of the marine bill-fish, or sal fia is about twenty inches

esox belone ; and they, with their elongated The scales are hard and bony, and formed jaws, have a resemblance to the bill of the somewhat like a rhomboid. There is no pro- sheldrake, (mergus merganser.) The gape is per ridge or elevation on the top of the back; very wide. The distance from the gill openbut by examination, a row of rhombic scales ing to the ventral fins is six inches, and to be can be traced from the occiput to the dorsal dorsal fen. A carinated line runs low along fin, and thence to the tail. From each of these the belly, and rises over the insertion of the dorsal scales proceeds a row of other scales ventral fin. There is a seam or ridge along proceeding downward and backward at an the middle of the back from the frar of the angle of about forty-five degrees, and incru-t- head to the commencement of the dorsal fin. ing and enwrapping the whole body.

This is of a darker colour ihan the rest. A The ventral fins are situated seven inches little below it is the lateral line, in the form behind the posterior edge of the gill cover, of obligue and interrupted dasbes, that bethat is, twenty-one from the end of the bill. coupe faint and even vanish in their progress So that they are almost equally distant from backward before they reach the dorsal in. the two extremities of the body. They are Back greenish, with some variegations; composed of six coarse and double rays. beily white, with a tinye of yellowish ; scales

The anal and dorsal fins are far back on the small and adhering tenaciously to the skin. body, and almost opposite ; though the anal is Is said to grow to the length of from three to rather more forward than the dorsal. The four feel; and is always an inhabitant of number of rays in each is seven or eight; and fresh water. (Trowbridge's Museum.) the first ray of the dorsal tin gives rise on its

SILCRUS. upper and anterior margin to a double row Long-tailed CATFISH. — Silirus gyrinus, of ten or a dozen smaller rays, growing ob- Catfish, without a second dorsal fin, and with liquely ont of it.

a lengthened tail resembling that of the full The tail is stout even to the cornmence- grown tadpole. Brought by Dr. B. A. Akery ment of the caudal rays. These are remark- from the.Wallkill, where the species is naably strong and stiff. They are twelve in merous, and : individual seldom equals the number, and are nearly even at their estre- length of four inches. mities. From the upper side of the upper- His general figure is that of a broad head, most caudal ray, and the lower side of the horizontally extended; of a thin tail perpen. Jowermost, all along to their extremities, dicularly Aattened ; and of a belly giving grow rows of smaller rays slanting backward. bin a roundish appearance toward ihe mid (Trowbridge's Museum.)

dle of the body.

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There are four cirrhi beneath the chin, two An intelligent gentleman from Scotland, to to the upper jaw, and two larger ones at the whom I showed several of this fish, said corners of the mouth. The gape is wide; they resembled the Loch-Fine herring. mouth large ; lips fortified with a row of That I might frm a better opinion, I prosmall teeth; tongue broad and distinct. cured soine herrings said to have been pick

There is but a single dorsal tin, and that led at the Isle of Skye. The herrings from the consists of seven rays, of which the first is Hebrides appeared to be shorter and deeper, spinious. About an inch behind it commen- and iu retain their scales more firmly. For ces the caudal fin, which is continued quite the Stonington berrinys had lost the greater round the tail, and almost to the anal fin. part of theirs. On eating them, I thought the The form is lancevlate and pointed; and the Scotch more savoury than ours; though this rays are so flexible and delicate, that in the night bi owing to the quality of the salt and specimen now before me, the caudal tin puis the manner of preparing them. me in mind of a brush. It may be coinpared As far as I can learn the Clupea harengus is to the tail of the eel; the resemblance is a species that contains many varieties. A nearer to that of a tadpole, when it approach- good description of tbem, with the localities es the period of conversion to a frog. The and peculiarities of each, will have a favourvent is nearly midway of the body. The anal able tendency towards the extrication of this fin, consisting of about sixteen rays, is situa- subject from the difficulties with which it is ted between it and the caudal ; for though eniangled. the caudal is continued almost to it, there is New-YORK FLYING Fish.—Exocolus no. no union

the pectoral fins bave seven rays, veboracensis, with toothiess mouth, belly of which the foremnost is spinous.

whitish and carinated on each side, squarish The spines of the several fins, though sharp, body, very long ventral fins, and dark green are not serrated. I could not discover any back. jagged or barbed configuration whatever in The specimen under consideration is either of them. The abdominal fins are small, about 12 inches long, 11 deep, and 4: in girth. approximated, and almost as far back as the Was taken in a seine near New-York. vent.

The aspect is somewhat like that of a herThe lateral line, after passing the thoracic ring, but squarish ; belly white and silvery ; parts, passes along to the middle of the tail, back dark and greenish; scales thick and dehaving the appearance of a dark stripe. The ciduous. tail exhibits other faint marks of lines or The pectoral fins are five and an half instripes, while the trunk and head have a sort ches in length, and consist of fifteen branchof clouded or mottled appearance. The belly ing rays. is whitish or cream-coloured.

The ventrals have sis rays, and are situated The want of serræ to the spines, and of a further back than the middle of the belly. second dorsal fin, might lead some to remove They are capable of spreading wide, and are this fish from the Silure family; but to avoid three inches long. A carinated edge passes needless innovation, I retain him here. just above them on its way from the lower CLUPEA, OR HERRING.

part of the gill opening toward the tail. THE HERRING OF COMMERCE.-Clupea He- The belly is tlaltish and broad; the dorsal rengus; with a rough tongue, jutting lower fin is very far back, and has fourteen rays ; jaw, bluish back and anal fin with seventeen the anal has eight; both are small. rays.

The branchial membrane has nine or ten In March, 1817, some fish were exhibited rays. for sale in the New-York market, under the The tail is forked, and the lower section is name of the true European herring. They almost twice as long as the upper. were reported to have been catched near The eyes are large, vertical, and of a Stonington, and to bave followed the Eng silvery yellow. lish squadron thither in the attack upon that The head is smooth and triangular or place during the year 1814. They bad been wedge shaped, both forward and downward. preserved uninjured in brine, and were unlike Between the eyes there is a moderate depresany herrings that had ever been taken there sion, and three small holes on each side of it. before.

There are also small channelled lines lengthI procured a parcel these fishes. Their wise along the back. bellies were not serrated. They were from Sıx RAYED POLYNEME.-Polynemus ser ten to thirteen inches long. Their backs were radialus, with a huge head, whose rough cover bluish ; tongues rough ; edges of the cheek- runs back about one third of the length of the plates or lips sensibly serrated; tails deeply body, and terminates in two strong spines, forked; the dorsal fin behind the centre of and whose bony gill-covers end in two more gravity, so that when the fish was suspended stout bony processes, and with skin beset by it the head was depressed ; and seventeen by rows of prickiy scales. rays to the anal fin. There was thus an agree- The specimen I now have was brought ment in so many important particulars, that from some place to me unknown, in toleraaccording to all the rules of judging, this fish ble preservation. Not being satisfied that it possessed the characters that have been sup- bas been discovered before, I undertake to posed to discriminate the Clupea harengus from give some account of it. The length of the all the other species.

body is nineteen inches. The breadth across the head, in the widest part is three. From and to the scales over the sides; and with the head backwards the body is slender and small spinous processes along the lower jaw, tapering.

and over the upper jar', cheeks and crown. The head is covered by a bony plate like Called by some, rough beaded dace. shagreen, which extends as a shield more Length about four or five inches; depth than six inches backwards, ending in a pair nearly one; head rather blunt; tail deeply of thorny processes. The bony-gill covers forked; body stout for a fish of bis size. also terminate in two strong processes, one Lives in the streams and brooks of fresh on each side.

water in West Chester County. The present The skin of the back and sides is furnished description from nature was made May 31, with about a dozen rows of distinct scales

1816. aculeated backward. They are disposed He is an elegant little animal, having brown longitudinally in parallel courses, and one of and whitish stripes lengthwise along his them, the nearest but one or two to the belly, back ; and a fine scarlet hue over the sides has more prominent scales and prickles than and belly: but particularly bright at the es. the rest, and seems to be the lateral line. tremities and edges of all the fins. The throat and belly are smooth.

The lateral line crooks downwards, in the The colour of the helmet or head-plate is form of a seam obliquely dotted. The sides light brown, interspersed with large round- have a dark lunated mark, curved toward the ish and dusky spots : that of the back and head, directly opposite to the convexity of sides is more dark, with whitish spots, espe- the scales, which, according to the common cially of the scales. The throat and belly are structure of fish, project toward the tail. The whitish or cream-coloured.

nose is rather blunt, and beset with roandish There are two dorsal fins. The foremost little cartilaginous masses armed in their eenconsists of four rays that settle into a groove. tre with short bony spines. These are seated Immediately in front of the first ray is a in the skin, and when removed leave behiad double ray, resembling a pair of long horns, them small boles resembling scars. They which might almost be reckoned as a distinct extend over the cheeks, the head and the fin. The hindmost is composed of seven sides of the lower jaw; so that he is prorays supported on the convex back. Di- perly called rough bead. The nostrils are rectly in front of the first ray is a stiff spiny large and distinct, and the eyes lateral. stump.

The branchial membrane has three rays. The pectoral fins are about seven inches in In the pectoral fins there are fifteen rays, in length where the rays are longest. They are the dorsal nine, in the ventral eight, in the also broad and expanded, and contain twen- anal nine, and the caudal twenty-three. ty-three rays. These rays have a wide space CORPORAL.-Cyprinus Corporalis. This of web or membrane between them, as is fish is called by the Dutch, Corporalen, or the case in all the other fins of this fish. Corporal; and inhabits the Hudson in the

Both the head and fins have a great resem- neighbourhood of Albany, the Wallkill blance to the gurnards.

through its whole extent, and the western Almost from the same origin with the pec- streams and lakes, from Woodcreek to the toral fins, and directly in front of them arise Oneida Lake, and so on. The length of a two distinct finny and radiated appendages, middle sized individual is about thirteen incbone on each side. They are nearly three inch- es, and the girth five: though he frequently es long, and possess each of them six rays. grows larger. The pectorals and appendages on the side The head is smooth, roundish, thick, and next the body are dark, with whitish without scales. The body is thickly covered spots and variegations. On the other side with scales; on the back, more especially be also dark, except near the base, and along tween the head and the dorsal fin, the hue is many of the rays, where the colour is dusky; on the belly it is uniformly white, wbitish.

and on the sides, the forepart of each scale The upper lip is distinct from the bony is covered with a blackish film or pigment. head-case. Both that and the lower are fur- Mouth toothless, and of a moderate gape. nished with a set of small, but compact and Tongue distinct, but not free. Gill-corers regular teeth. The mouth is of but moderate smooth. size.

The tail is forked. The lateral line bends The branchial membrane has four rays; downward, and ends in the middle of the tail, the ventral fins four, and the anal sis.

The dorsal fin is near the iniddle of the The caudal fin has seventeen rays: and is back, and consists of seven rays; the caudal armed on each side by two oblique bony fin is composed of nineteen rays or therea. scales or processes with knife like edges, and bout. The anal has seven; the veatral seven; extending along and across the rays for full the pectorals have thirteen; the branchio three quarters of an inch.

stegous membrane bas three rays; tbe dorsal The eyes are large and vertically situated and caudal fius are tipped with a blackish with prominent overhanging orbits. The tail tinge. is forked, and on and near it the scales be- Takes the hook, if baited with dough, wben come more large, prominent, and prickly. let down through holes in the ice, at midCYPRINUS.

winter, in the Hadson at Albany ; lesà RED FIN, OR ROUGH-HEAD.-Cyprinus cor- eatable, but rather soft and coarse. nutus : with ruddy tips to the lips and tail, MUD-FISH.-Cyprinus alromaculatas,

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