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per ton, which is within the cost, including number of beautiful tunes. But the mot out-fits, it will amount to $701,000, the value wonderful part is, that on setting a spring, a of the cargoes will probably average $60,000 picture on the top of the box rises slowly, but to make the estimate within bounds, we and discovers a bird ascending from belon. will call them $50,000 each-$2.700,000, The bird is of about an inch in length; of total, $3.101,000.

plumage the most rich, and yet the most

natural. It sings with astonishing sweetness, During the year 1817, there were in Hart, and accompanies its voice with all those moford, 93 deaths; in New-Haven 77.

tions common to a living bird-its head turns NEW-YORK.

from side to side—its lit de bill opens and its By a report of the Commissioners of the throat swells at every note, and its wings and Sinking Fund of the City of New-York, it ap- tail spread and contract duriog its song. Af pears that on the 10th of November, 1817, by ter finishing and repeating its strain, it dropis the accounts of Commissioners, there was upon its golden nest, descends to its retreat, a balance in their hands of $125 12.

and the lid gently closes to its place. The fishing in Lake Ontario bas been Died.-At Philadelphia, Doctor Caspar more than commonly successful this season. Wistar, aged 56. He was long distinguished The quantity of Salmon, Trout, White-fish, as a medical practitioner, and as a professor and Ciscoes taken in Chaumont Bay, and in of anatomy. He was a man of general science, the vicinity of Sackelt's Harbour is estimated polished manners, and generous sentiments; at 6000 barrels.

and he died deeply lamented.

DELAWARE. The Legislature during their recent Session A suggestion has been lately thrown out, appointed a committee to report on the expe- in the State of Delaware, that it would be diency of adopting measures to procure a for the interest of the prople, that the State revision of the State Constitution.

should be annexed to the contiguous States, PENNSYLVANIA.

rather than that a small territory and populaThe Common Council of Philadelphia has tion should sustain the entire expence of a presented Commodore Oliver H. Perry with State establishment. an elegant sword, as a mark of respect for his skill and gallantry as a naval commander,

Thursday, the 12th February, is recomand which was so conspicuously evidenced mended by the Governor of Maryland us in his victory on Lake Erie in the late war. a day of public thanksgiving and prayer

Mr. Oliver Evans has built a steam engine throughout that State. for the purpose of raising water to supply the A resolution has passed the Legislature of city of Philadelphia. The contract was that Maryland to appoint a comunittee of five to it should raise 3,500,000 gallons of water, inquire into the expediency of taxing the of ninety-eight feet, in 24 bours. On the 26th fice of discount and deposit of the Bank of and 27th ult. it was worked without inter- the United States, established in the city of ruption 20 hours, during which it was esti- Baltimore. mated that 3,556,401 galls. were raised, in

One hundred and filleen thousand hardoing which only 10 cords of oak wood were rels, and four thousand three hundred and consumed. It seems that about 100 galls. ten halt barrels of four have been inspected were raised at every stroke, and that the in the city of Baltimore, during the quarter average working was 244 strokes in a minute, ending. Dec. 31, 1817. The experiment was so satisfactory to the

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. watering committee that they have reported On the 1st January, 1818, the American the contract as fully completed by Mr. Colonization Society held its first anniversary Evans.

at the city of Washington. In the opening The United States mail coaches that run speech, by Judge Washington, it was stated between Philadelphia and New-York are that two agents, Messrs. Mills and Burgess, provided with a guard well armned, who will had been engaged to explore the Western ride on the box with the driver; so that it will coast of Africa, and to assist the United not only afford security to the mail, but also Slates in selecting a suitable district on that to the passenger. The way-mail is put in continent for the proposed settlement. The separate bags, after the European style, and annual meetings of this society are hereafter is so arranged as not to detain the coach to be held on the last Saturday in December. more than three minutes at each post-otlice The otticers for the present year are ; the on the road.

Hon. Bushrod Washington, President : Vice The proportion of paupers in Philadelphia, Presidents, Hon. William H. Crawford, of during 1817, as estimated at one in every Georgia. Hon. Henry Clay, of Kentucky.

Hon. Williniy Phillips, of Massachusetts. Col. A Mr. Smith has been recently exhibiting Henry Rutgers, of New York. Hon. John E. in this State a curious piece of mechanism, Howard, of Maryland. Hon. Samuel Sinill, said to be the work of an Italian artist. It of do. Hon. John.C. Herbert, of do. Jolini consists of a box four inches long, three wide, Taylor, of Caroline, Esq. of Virginia. Gen. and two deepof fine gold. On one end is Andrew Jackson, of Tennessee. Robert a snuff-box--on the other, a lid opens and Ralston, Esq. of Pennsylvania. Richard Rush, discloses an eight day time piece, which be. Esq. of do. Gen. John Mason, District of sides striking the hoars and quarters, plays a Columbia. Samuel Bayard, New Jersey.

114 persons.



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Managers : Francis S. Key. Walter Jones. tlemen, acquainted with the culture and
John Laird. Rev. Dr. James Laun. Rev. growth of the article, that there can be no
Stephen B. Baldby. Rev. Obad B. Brown. doubt of its complete success in the lower
Benjamin G. Orr. John Peter. Edmund J. parts of the State.
Lee. William Thornton. Wm. H. Fitzhugh.

SOUTH CAROLINA. Henry Carroll : E. B. Caldwell, Esq. Secre. The Legislature of South Carolina bave aptary. John G. M:Donald, Recording Secre- pointed Maj. John Wilson, a civil and military. David English, Treasurer.

iary engineer for that State, and appropriated

50,000 dollars to open the Saluda, and other The House of Delegates of Virginia has rivers. adopted a resolution requesting the executive The salary of the governor of this State to procure a marble staiue to be erected in has been fixed at $4000, and that of the honour of Patrick Henry.

judges advanced from $2,372 to 3,500. 'Phe following statement of the receipts The president of the State Bank receives and disbursements of the treasury of Virginia $3000. from the 1st of Oct. 1815, lo Sept. 30th 1817, About eleven o'clock on the night of the is official.

101h of December a smart shock of an earth.

quake was felt, at the same instant, in nearly Literary fund

653,536 66, all the towns and settlements in the upper Board of public works

82,987 75 part of South Carolina and Georgia. Washington monument

400 00

GEORGIA. Permanent revenue, land office,

There have been some skirmishes between sales of land, fines, &c. 614.082 19 detachments of the United States troops and

the Indians, in one of which, a party of 300 $1,331,206 60 men under Col. Arbuckle, falling in with a

small body of ambushed lidians, killed 8 or On literary fund

646,233 33 10, and wounded several more, with the loss Permanent revenue, &c. 575,267 34 of 1 killed and 2 or 3 wounded ; and in

another, a small party under Lieut. Scott, 1,221,505 67 passing in a boat ascending the Appalachicola

were fired upon by a large number of Indians Balance in favour of the revenue 159,600 93 ambushed along the shore, and Lieut. Scott

A meeting of the persons interested in the and most of his men were killed. Gen. fisheries on the Potomac river, has been held Gaines, in a dispatch under date of Dec. 24, for the purpose of petitioning the legislatures 1817, says that the friendly chiess inform bin of Maryland and Virginia tu forbid the use that the hostile indians on the banks of the of Tide or Gill nets, which obstruct the pas. Chatahoobie have gone down to join the sage of the fish, and kill and destroy a great Seminules and that all now remaining in many of them to no purpose. The memo- that quarter are amicably disposed. A few rial also remonstrates against the passage of days subsequent to the above date Geo. steam-boats during the time of the spring Gaines proceeded to fort Hawkins. fisheries—from the first of April to the mid- The Legislature of this State, during its last dle of May.

session, appropriated $71,000 for improving NORTH CAROLINA.

the navigation of several rivers, besides conThe Legislature of North Carolina has stituting a permanent fund of $250,000 for passed a resolution directing an elegant similar uses, and a like fund of the same sword to be presented to the infant and only amonnt for the support of Free Schools. An son of the late Col. Benj. Forsyth, who fell act also passed, subjecting the Branch of the at Odletown, Canada, June 22, 1814; and United States in that State, to the same tas appropriating $250 annually, for seven years, paid by the Banks chariered by the Legislafor his education.

ture, viz: thirty one and a quarter cents on A late Raleigh paper contains the follow. every hundred dollars of the capital stock. ing article. Among the numerous productions to which the soil and climate of North Many of the families residing in the new Carolina are favourable, it is found that the settlements in America, to the south of the sugar cane may now be added-Several fine Gennessee country, on the bank of the great stalks, raised in Brunswick county, not far river Ohio, are supplied with shop goods from Wilmington, are now in the possession from vessels which wavigate it, and are fitted of Col. Wm. Polk, of this city. They are up with counters, shelves, drawers, in the from seven to eight feet in height, and al- sime manner as are shops on land, and as though considerably dried, remained about well stored as many of them with all kinds two inches in diameter. The present is the of goods that are in demand. On approach. second year of the experiment-only a few ing a plantation, while they sail along the plantings having been at first obtained; but river, a horn or conch shell is blown to give ihe enterprising gentleman who has made notice of their arrival, when the planters, the attempt, calculates on making sugar his with their wives and daughters, repair to staple crop for the approaching year. The these floating shops, and select such things as stalks that I have seen are certainly very they require; and make payment in the proBluxuriant; and I bave understood from gen- duce of their plantations, such as four, col




ton, tobacco, dried venison, the skins of wild
animals, &c. The shop keeper having disposed A Millegeville paper says, that negroes on
of his goods in this way, returns home with the

the sugar estates of Louisiana are worth from produce he has collected, and again renews 600 to 1000 dollars yearly; and the sugar crops his stock, and proceeds on another voyage. are worth from 20 to 150,000 dollars a year.

Sugar land close to the city, sells for $5000 By a Report of the Treasurer, it appears the acre; and no sugar land sells for less than that the receipts into the Treasury of this

800 ihe acre. Mechanics of all descriptions State, for the year ending Dec. 8th. 1817,

soon grow rich. Decent board is from 40 to amounted to $28,234.463; and the disburse. ments, for the same period, to $20,605,33}; to be used with discretion without any extra

60 dollars per month; but claret is allowed leaving a balance of $7,629.13.

charge; house rent is bigh, and even naked At a late meeting in Vevay, there were lots on ibe front street, 60 feet rear, rent for present gentlemen, who spoke the following 3 dollars a foot per month. The American languages: viz. English, French, German, population is increasing, and already balanItalian, Spanish. Gælic, Irish, Scotch, besides

ces the French in the legislature, there is a several Indian languages.

vast field open for persons foud of public life ; MICHIGAN TERRITORY.

the Creoles are averse to it, and the state A military road nearly fifty miles long, estending from Detroit to within ten miles

of pays her offices better than any of her sister

states. The governor has 7500 dollars a year; the Black Swamp, bas been made since judge of the supreme court 5000 dollars; inAugust last, by the troops stationed at Detroit. ferior judges in the city 4000, and those in the

Å Detroit paper estimates that $15,000 country 1500 and 2000: yet these salaries were paid for the passages of individuals between that city and Boffalo, from the 10th of profits of a cultivated farm.

are insignificant when compared to the May to the 10th of Novomber last. A steam boat is to run on the lake next spring. MISSOURI TERRITORY.

The legislature of this state have passed an At the late election, 4420 votes were taken act for the improvement of the navigation of for a delegate to Congress from this Territory. its rivers, and an act, in addition to a voto ALABAMA.

disapproving the introduction of a branch of Accounts from Mobile, under date of Nov. the United States Bank, imposing a penalty 8. state that the port of Mobile was crowded of 50,000 dollars on the establishment of any with vessels from the northern Cities, and such branch in the State. that one was there from Liverpool. They By a decision also, of the legislature, the had brought large quantities of merchandise, seat of government is to be removed from and the town was crowded with strangers. Knoxville to Murfreesborough.



portion of

Solution to the Prize Question of No. V. ty of the wind to that of the sail. It is

Vol. I. by X. of New-Haven. manifest that the whole tendency of the I. Let

wind on the oblique plane ab is to move A B, ab

it in the direction Ch, perpendicular to be succes

ab. Hence resolving the force CH.into sive posi

CG, GH, whatever be the force of the tions of a

wind on ab in the direction CH, its force

in turning it round the axis in the directhe sail

tion FC, will be to it in the ratio of CG, at a cer

GH. But it appears from the experitain dis

ments of Dr. Hutton, (see Hutton's Dicty. : tance from

Art. Resistance) that when an oblique : the axis,

plane, as ab, is confined to move in the { FC the di

direction of the wind DC, the resistance : rection of

with a given velocity, varies nearly as its motion, 1 DG, that

x 1,842 V1 – 2 ?

making t equal to the

the sinc of the angle of incidence Dea. wind; and be

Hence the effect in the direction GH, or let DC be

FC (as the angle CHG=DCa,) will vary to FC in

1,842 VI--I?

1--22 ratio of

GC the veloci.

1,842 VI

I here consider the re

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sistance of the air to an oblique plane moving with any velocity, to be equiva- its differential, or 2 wdwr Iv 3 (dy lent to the force which it exerts when it strikes with the same velocity on the log. r +T)=0; Or by dividing by place at rest. This is agreeable to the

4 universal law of reaction ; and although wr , 2 dw + 2 (dy.hl. I +


If it appears from the experiments of Vince not to hold accurately in regard to a limit- now we substitute for u, y. and their difed quantity of water, it may be taken as ferentials their values in terms of 1, we strictly true when applied to an indefinite fluid, like the at:nosphere. The relative shall find—V. 1-7217de-Va?



'dit or the fluid that is in absolute motion.



1IM The foregoing formula would represent the effect of the wind, if its velo


1-2 by varying the angle DCa. But if the sail were placed in the direction FD, it is manifest that the wind would glide along the sail without producing any effect upon rdr.hl.s)=0. This equation, by mulit. And in any other

position, as FA, if F A be produced to E, it is plain that the tiplying all the terms by 1 - 121

, relative velocity of the wind towards the

do sail in the direction DC will be to its cancelling equal quantities, &c. is reduced whole velocity as DE: DC. In other words, the effect is the same as if the sail to the following: 30

:+(V. were at rest, and the wind moved with

V1-19 the velocity DE. But DE=DC-C

Vi-x?)a(1-1-1 hl.I)=0. E=DC-V1-- X2CF. or if the ratio This equation may be reduced by ap

proximation, when particular numerical of the velocities of the wind and sail be values are assigned to V & v. IfV:::: denoted by V and v, DE is as V - 1:2, by anuming 6 as the value of vy1-39. It appears from experiment

the tangent of the angleof posi

V1that in velocities not greater than those tion, (which will be more convenient than of windmill sails, the resistance is very to assume for r directly,) the error nearly as the square of the velocity. (See comes out +,0488. If it be anumed Gregory's Mechanics, Vol. 1 p. 554.)

= 6,1, the error is –,02086. Hence by Hence the effect when all considerations the common rule, we have 6,07 for are taken into view, (putting 1,842=a) the first approximation of the vale of is very nearly as (V

VV1- x

and by a second operation, it ja

V1- x 2 VI-3 2

comes out 6,055 nearly. When the tana viza ; and this expres- gents are so large it is amply sufficient to

have the second place of decimals accusion, if made a maximum, will give the rate ; as no error in the 3d place can effect sine of the angle at which the sail, mov- the angle so much as 1 minute. This ing with a given velocity, suffers the value of the tangent gives 800 37' for the greatest resistance from the air, or will proper angle of position DCa when the bear to be most loaded with machinery. velocity of the sail is twice that of the

To avoid unnecessary trouble in find- wind. A similar process for the ratio V: ing the differential of this expression, let v:: 1:3, gives DCa=830 104. the quantity under the viuculum after In cases where the velocity of the sail VI-I ? is reduced to the same index these, the foregoing process derived from

is so great compared with the wind as in

experiment scarcely differs sensibly from and multiplied into it, be put=w, and a the theory, which supposes the effect of

the wind to be as the square of the sinc VI-32=y. Then w i =max, and into the cosine of the angle of incidence.

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(See Maclaurin's Fluxions, Vol. 2, or Gre- the velocity of the sail is equal to that of gory's Mechanics, Vol. 1.) The resulting the wind, we have four angles of position, theorem for the maximum effect in theory as follows.

Ratio of vel. of sail Corresponding angles

to the vel. of wind. is the following:

of position. 1- I?

0 to 1

480 4650 Sv

1 to 1

72 45 tay; which gives in the first of the two 2 to 1

80 S7 3 to 1


403 cases above, 81°, 03', and in the second

By this table the sails of a windmill 830 484", exceeding those obtained from may be set in the best position when the experiments by only 23 & 8 minutes res

relative velocities of the sails and wind are pectively.

given. The foregoing investigation gives the

Solution to Ques. 10, by Analyticus. proper angle of incidence only for a narrow part of the sail at a certain distance the radius of the earth unity and the

Let A=the angle contained between from the axis ; for it is impossible that all distance of the body from the centre parts of the same sail should move with of the earth; then will said distance the same velocity. The extreme parts of the sail ought to be most turned to

Sec A=; and the absolute force

Cos A wards the wind. If, for example, the ex

of gravity at this distance will be tremity of the sail moves three times as fast as the wind, the rib ought to be set at dency of the body down the plane=

=cosA, and consequently the ten830 40'; but at the length of the samo

COS2 A. sin A. Tire differential of this sail from the axis, where the velocity is formula is dA. COS3A_2dA. sin? A cosa, only twice that of the wind, the angle ought to be 800 37'.

sin A

which put=o gives =tan A= I have chosen to deduce the solution

of this question from the experiments of Dr. Hutton, rather than from those of =distance sought. Cor. the distance Bossut, Vince, &c. because those of the sought is equal to the sine of 450 to the latter were made with water as the re

radius of the earth. sisting medium. After a pretty exten

This question was ingeniously solved sive research, I can find no experiments by. X. of New-Haven, Mr. O'Conner and

Mr. O'Shannessy. which come so near the point in hand as those of Dr. Hutton; except those of

The prize which is a set of the MagaMr. Smeaton, which were actually made zine for one year, has been awarded to with wind-mill vanes on a small scale. I. of New-Haven for his very ingenious But he does not attempt to dran from and elegant solution to the problem of his experiments any law of resistance, nor

the windmill; a problem that has been does he appear to have regarded the

repeatedly discussed by many great macise ratio of the velocities of his sails thematicians, but which is now for the round their axis to that with which they first time resolved in such a manner as to passed through the air. He nearly as

render it useful to the public. certained, in general, that an angle of poi Prize Question by R. Adrain, to be solved sition varying from the centre of the sail to its extremities from 71 to 83 degrees,

in our No.for May next. produced, at a medium, the greatest

It is required to investigate the general effect.

equations of the surface, at any point of
which the sum of its inclinations to the

plane of the horizon is a constant quan. Remark on the Prize Question by the pro: tity; one of those inclinations being ta

ken in a plane parallel to the meridian, Having calculated by Dr. Huttun's for- and the other in a plane parallel to the mula the angles of position when the ve- prime vertical ; and to point out the two locity of the sail is exceedingly small with simplest species of surface having the respect to that of the wind, and also when specified condition.

cas A

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3; Febris Continua, (Continued Fever.) 4; GEBRIS Intermittens, (Intermittent Fever,) Febris Infantum Remittens, (Infantile Remit.


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