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who in the distraction of the moment, not above three feet in length—but 90 was heedless of the reiterated assurances great was his strength, that when harof her son's safety-and before he joined pooned and hauled upon deck, though her from the deck she had fainted in my his tail was almost instantly severed from arms in an agony of tortured affection. his body, the rapid but heavy flapping of Gloomy thoughts had began to cloud my his bleeding trunk made every one maincontemplation, and though it was matter tain a respectful distance from the sphere of little moment to me whether my bo- of action. He was attended in the water dy should afford nourishment to the fish by four pilot-fish, whose instinctive office or the worm, yet to be cut off in the midst it is to guide him to his prey-thus perof all my hopes, and far from every kin- forming towards the shark the same serdred tie,-this was food for no consoling vices that are rendered to the lion by the meditation. But the unfortunate occur- jackal. For several hours after the caprence that had just taken place, banished ture of their lord, these brilliant little from my thoughts every idea of personal servitors continued swimming round and safety, and restored my customary pres- about the ship ; and it was really inteence of mind. Amidst the general con- resting to observe the lively agitation they fusion, it was only with considerable dif- betrayed for the loss of their master :ficulty, and after solicitations often and their hostility against the vessel was exvociferously repeated, that I was able hibited in the fierceness with which they to procure assistance of any descrip- darted against her sides. They shot tion. The application of cold water and through the water with amazing velocity

, the usual stimulants at length restor- and the green sparkling lustre of their ed the sensibility of the sufferer, and scales, as they transiently emerged from when she beheld her son by her side, a the wave, contrasted with the deepened copious food of tears assuaged, in a con- purple of the ocean, formed one of the siderable measure, the overcharged feel- most beautiful oppositions of colour that ings of maternal attachment. It is a cu- I had ever witnessed. Those singular rious example of the engrossing influence marine birds, vulgarly known by the over the mind, of powerful and sudden name of mother Carey's chickens, acemotion, that it was not till the recovery companied us almost the whole of the way of my female friend, that I discovered and when fatigued with their flight, rested the storm had so much declined from and floated on the surface of the waves ; its first fury, that all idea of danger was their long, leathern, fin-like, featherless happily over.

pinions continually vibrating, and them Our passage from land to land consum- selves constantly on the watch for pres. ed nearly nine weeks. Of this period, This bird-like fish, or fish-like bird, seems I find, on consulting my journal, about to be an anomaly in the ornithological two thirds were spent in storms. Five vocabulary :—it is seldom caught-alive

, weeks nearly elapsed before we reach. I believe, never-and, indeed, its total ed the Banks.* The waters, of a bril- want of the beauty which usually belongs liant green in the channel, assume a to almost every species of the feathered deep purple dye in the ocean. The vessel race-and its sean and loathsome extewas frequently surrounded by shoals of that rior, render it an object of disgust rather awkward and seemingly unwieldy fish, than curiosity, the porpoise, whose appearance above the On the 27th September, the dense waves is regarded by sailors as a certain and thickening haze that diffused itself indication of stormy weather-a persua- through the whole atmosphere, and kept bion which, judging from our own expe- the

rigging, masks, and decks, in a state of rience, I should scarcely pronounce sue incessant and streaming humidity, anperstitious. Of this denizen of the deep nounced our vicinity to the Banks

. A two species were pointed out to me, the singular effect is produced by this cloudhottle-nosed and the shovel-nosed. These like and almost papable medium. The names are too significant to require ex- mist is in slow but never-ceasing action; planation. Occasionally our eyes were but to the spectator, while his eye remains greeted with the appearance of the stately fixed on the revolving vapour, its mogrampus, sailing with a sort of graceful tion seems transferred to the ship, grandeur through the billows, and dis- which appears to rise and descend, as if charging through its nostrils columns of it were the sport of some invisible and the briny fluid. of sharks we saw but supernatural agent. From the 27th to few, and caught but one: he was young- the soth, inclusive, the sun was usually,

veiled in thick wreaths of fog, but occa* or Newfoundland.

sionally he looked forth in dim and sad

dened majesty, illuminating the skirts of of the captains made us acquainted the vapours with a dusky radiance, not dis- both with the latitude and longitudesimilar to that which imagination lends to our distance from the English, in the the nether world, or with which an oriental commencement of the voyage, and at the fancy lights up the halls of Eblis, or Ar- conclusion, from the American coast, was genk. We seemed floating in a region of generally kept a close secret. Speculashadows and illusions, and the effect of tion was busy upon the cause of this this singular scenery was completed by silence respecting a circumstance so inthe pale and numerous mist-bows, semi- teresting to every member of our little circle within semicircle, formed by the community; and the result seemed to be vapourous refraction of the faint, and al- the apprehension entertained by our most crepuscular light-and which would commodore of an attempt on the part of sometimes appear suddenly to approach the Irish passengers to seize the vessel, to within four or five yards of the ship, and carry her into New-York; that city and as suddenly retire.

and Philadelphia being the places to We cleared the Banks on the evening which every individual had contracted of the 30th, and on the 1st of October, with the charterers to be conveyed ; and were again in the open ocean, with fine though, on discovering that the ship had weather, a clear brilliant sky, and a steady, been cleared for St. Johns,* Newfavourable breeze. It was a spirit-stirring Brunswick, they procured the captain's morning, and the conviction of having promise to steer for Boston, the avowed traversed the greater part of our way, suspicions of the more intelligent and deand the probability of speedily reaching termined portion of them, might, perour destination, produced an universal haps, justify his taciturnity. If this supcheerfulness and gaiètè de cæur. In the position were true, I can scarcely concourse of our voyage we had met and demn the spirit which would prompt the overtaken several vessels : among these self-redress of persons so infamously bewas the Hopewell, bound from Barbadoes trayed; and when you consider the cirto London, (19th September, longitude cumstances of severe and, perhaps, hope. 460,) and the Thomas Wilson from Nor- less calamity in which the majority of folk, (Virginia,) to Glasgow. On this these victims of avarice and treachery day we fell in with a most elegant little might have been probably placed, you American schooner, the Gertrude, on her will, I trust, unite with me in finding in return to New-York, from Bourdeaux. that dreary perspective, every excuse for We passed close by her, and were highly the apprehended insurrection. Thrown pleased with the beauty of her construc- upon a dreary and inhospitable shore, tion, and the bird-like grace and rapidity what were they to do at St. Johns ? with which she glided over the sparkling Their last dollar spent, how were thembosom of the deep. We were at this selves and families to be supported ? time in longitude 570. For some days Were they to become the miserable obpast, on, and in the vicinity of, the Banks, jects of eleemosynary aid ? And were all we had observed considerable quantities their hopes of decent and honourable inof weed, rush, and gramineous vegetation dependence to be merged in the mists floating on the water, whose colour had and vapours of a naked, frigid, and thinly assumed a dingy hue, between the green peopled region, where the skill and intint of the channel, and the deep blue of dustry for which the States opened an the ocean.

ample and animating field, would stagFrom the 1st to the 8th October we nate in obscure and mortifying inaction ? made but little progress, the wind having And all this they were to endure in condied away on the 2d, and abandoned us sequence of the deliberate depravity of to one of the profondest and longest men in whom they had reposed im plicit calms we had yet experienced. The ship confidence; and, pining at St. John's in lay on the unruffled and glassy surface of hopeless misery, were to have their the waters like a logand the motionless wretchedness embittered by the galling sails depended from the yards in long reflection that the authors of their misforand tantalizing folds. Of our exact posi- tunes were rioting at home on the fruits tion, we, the passengers, were ignorant, of their iniquity.

G. F. B. for though the latitude was occasionally * By the lasi act on l'arijanent, respectin passage divulged—sometimes, indeed, unavoida- ships, it is pernitted to vessels clearing for a British bly, as when we fell in with another ves

colony, to take a greater number of passengers in

proportion to the tonnage, than ships bound to the sel, and the usual questions and answers United States.

We are not certain that our correspon- make the assertion. It may be the means dent intended the following letter for of misleading some of your readers who publication, but we do not know how we are not in the habit of examining to se can more effectually subserve his views points for themselves. If ii be your opithan by inserting it.

nion that the book of Job is an allegory, To the Editors of the American Monthly I think you should have stated it as your Magazine.

opinion; and not, as if it were a point GENTLEMEN,

upon which there is no doubt. In your number for October, page 413,

Yours respectfully, I find the following assertion. « The

A ŘEADER. story of Job is the first, and was long an New-York, Jun. 13, 1818. isolated specimen of pure fiction." I am sorry to find that the Editors of a We trust that it is unnecessary for us public Magazine, having a circulation to say, that by terming the book of Job a as extensive as yours, and which, on ma- fiction, we did not mean to detract from ny accounts, stands so deservedly high its dignity, or to diminish the effects of the in public estimation, have ventured an moral which it inculcates. The learned, assertion of this kind without the most it is true, are not united in regard to its abundant proof. I know that some learn- character. It appears to us to be an alleed men have taken great pains to show gory. We meant only to express our that the book of Job is merely an alle- opinion. It is well known that some of gory: but it, certainly, cannot have esca- the most important lessons of our faith ped your observation, that men, as learn- and practice have been conveyed in this ed, to say the least, have thought other guise. The parables of our Saviour are wise. When we begin to allegorize with equally adınirable for their doctrine, and out express authority, we are in great for their force of illustration. In respect danger of carrying it so far, as if not to do to the relerence to Job as a scripture it ourselves, yet to embolden others to character, we regard it as we should an fritter away whatever portion of scripture allusion to Lazarus or Dives. may happen to stand in the way of a favourite doctrine.

AGRICULTURAL. When I find the prophet Ezekiel, or Messrs. Editors, rather, Jehovah, speaking by the pro- Within a few years our climate and phet, mentioning Noah, Daniel and Job, as seasons have been more irregular than three persons eminent for their piety; formerly. This change has been felt more and when I find the Apostle James "il- severely in Europe. In the mountainous lustrating the advantages of patience, by regions of Como in Italy, the seasons the example of Job, as he had before have been late, and cold. The failure of done his doctrine of faith and works by crops, and the distresses of the inhabitthe examples of Abraham and Rahab,” ants were inevitable. To remedy these I am constrained to believe that the his- evils, a celebrated theoretical and praetory of Job, as given in holy writ, is some- tical Agriculturist has suggested, and thing more than an allegory. I can strongly recommended some prudential hardly believe that God, speaking by the measures, which have been adopted, and mouth of his prophet and apostle, would proved highly successful. refer us to the example of Job, for a pat- In order to procure an early harvest, tern of piety, and particularly of patience, they sow barley in the spring, as soon had no such person ever existed; and as the apprehension of severe frusts is had the narrative of his life and sufferings done away. This species of grain is genebeen nothing more than a well written rally very productive, and nourishing. It romance. I shall not pretend, that there will thrive in a poor and sandy soil, and inare no difficulties attending the literal in- deed, almost any soil. In fact, it prepares a terpretation of this book ; nor shall I now a sterile soil for the culture of Buckwheat, attempt to obviate those difficulties. which succeeds remarkably well, in a There are difficulties in other parts of the loamy bottom, after a crop of barley. seriptures, and in those parts too, which The cultivation of Fraima, (Polygonum are without any doubt purely historical. sagophyrum,) a species of black BuckBut we must not on this account pro- wheat, not much known in flat countries, nounce those parts to be fictions. I deserves peculiar attention. In consewould, by no means, gentlemen, be un- quence of the shortness and coldness of derstood as charging you with intention- the seasons, the common Buckwheat canal misrepresentation. But I object to not mature. On the contrary the black the unqualified manner in which you Buckwheat scems to find a cold season

more congenial, and ripens in a short in which it appears in market, attended time. In the country around Como, the with such remarks as the case may require. extensive cultivation of this nourishing This subject shall be treated in the order and palatable grain, was very much en- of the arrangement of Linneus, and we couraged in the year 1816, and yielded will commence our observations with an excellent harvest.

the beginning of the year. As the United States, in their vastextent,

JANUARY, 1818. exhibit a great variety of soil, as well as

1. APODAL FISHES. of climate, and as you have readers in Anguilla vulgaris of Mitchill. Comevery State and Territory in the Union,

mon Eel. I submit these facts, hoping they may afford some useful hints to the American whether eels were oviparous or vivipa

A question has long been agitated Farmer.

K. N. R.

rous, or whether they arose from spon

taneous vital energy. Mr. Noah WebEconomical History of the rishes, sold in though this has generally been abandon

ster has supported the latter opinion; the markets of the City of New-York. ed, of late, and given place to the facts now By Dr. S. Akerly.

well ascertained, that they are oviparous. The history of the fishes of New. Dr. Mitchill settled this point in 1806, York, by Doctor Mitchell, contained and found ten females in roe in the month in the first volume of the Transactions of September. (See Medical Repository of the Literary and Philosophical So- vol. 10, p. 201.) Hence we can have no .ciety of New-York, embraces the des- difficulty in accounting for the appearcriptive account, together with the sys- ance of eels in all our lakes and rivers. tematic arrangement of these animals. They seem to be more common and In the present undertaking, it is not in- more generally scattered through the watended to come into competition with ters of the globe than any other fish. that gentleman, but, on the contrary, to The common Eel of New-York appears give credit to him and others for what they to be the same as that of Europe, or difhave written on Ichthyology, and to take fering from it by very light shades. other views of the subject. The econom- It is found in all our rivers, lakes, ical history of fishes, as they appear in and ponds, whether they occupy the the New-York markets, will inore espe- the heights of mountains, or collect their cially engage attention, embracing those waters in the lowest vallies. There is no which are more particularly useful and difference in the eel of our fresh water edible. In this, it is intended to em- streams and that of the ocean,

- or which brace their habits, the times and places fact we are indebted to Dr. Mitchill's of taking them, the manner in which it particular investigation. is done, and the bait used, the methods The eel has always been considered as of exposing them for sale, fresh or salted, a good eatable fish from the earliest an. dead or alive, their qualities as food, and tiquity. Hence Sannazarius, in his fine market price, their earliest appearance, piscatory eclogues did not omit to menand whatever else may relate to their tion catching cels among the sports of the economical application. This will be a fishermen, nor the place where they statistical account of the useful and ed.

were taken for the markets of Naples. ible fishes, and answer in some measure

“ Sinusa mackrel, soles Dinarchus deals, the purpose of a Calendarium piscium of

Herculia mullets and Amalphi eels." New-York, as many of them are migra

Trans. Lit. und Phil. Soc. tory, and like birds of passage appear at But it is not intended to fix the taste of certain times on our coast and in our riv- the present times by that of the antients, ers, to enjoy the fruits of the season, and though it is well known that almost all again disappear when those provisions ages and nations have eaten eels and adfail.

Oihers remain with us the whole mired them as food. They are ought to year, inhabiting our ponds, rivers, and the New-York markets at all seasons of bays, but are not well-flavoured at all the year, though notin much repute. Their seasons, and should not be eaten at all resemblance to serpents deters many from times, though they may be offered for partaking of them as an article of diet,

Notice will be taken of these facts especially females, whose nervous sensiand circumstances as they occur, as it is bility, frequently overcoines their betintended that the account shall be con- ter judgment. And perhaps too the tinued monthly ; by which method the idea of their being scaleless fish may same fish will be named in every month operate upon some, as these were for. bidden by the Mosaic Law under the and to get rid of the lumps which were Old Testament dispensation.


found upon them in the month of DeIndependently, however, of these con- cember, and filled, like boils, with a pusiderations, eels are recommended as rulent substance: besides which, most of affording good and wholesome food, a them were chafed by the rolling of the rich nutritious diet, and an economical Smacks and Cars, consequent upon boisrepast. They are certainly worth eating terous weather. when well prepared, they set well upon At this season the sale of fresh cod is the stomach, and digest easily. In the dull at five cents per pound, by retail. same weight of fresh cod-fish, black. They are taken off Sandy-Hook and fish, or sea-bass, eels have the most eata- the Jersey shore by the hook and line, ble substance, having no other waste than and some are brought from the shoals at a very small back bone. Hence they are the east of Long-Island. more economical, as the same weight may This is the time, however, to procure be procured at a less price and with less the Cod, dried or pickled, at its lowest bone.

price, and having been preserved when the During the month of January, eels lie fish were fat and free from disease, it afburied in the mud of our rivers and bays, fords as good eating as at any season of the and such as are brought to market are year, and offer to the domestic economist generally taken with a spear. They are and the man of moderate means, the opdeprived of the offals, head and skin, and portunity of making a little do much. thus exposed on the fish stalls for sale.

Dried Cod is an article of merchandise Most of them are taken in the neigh- in the large way, and is sold by retail in bourhood of the city ; though at this season, they are sometimes brought froin market. Its passing price for the month

the shops, but not exposed in the fish Connecticut and the east end of Long has been about 6 cents per pound. Island, split open, and partially dried, Pickled Cod has been very fine during and tied up in bundles of one or two

the month, and sold by the fishermen at i pounds. The finest eels that our State affords, are taken in the Wall-kill, in Ul- is exposed just taken from the pickle, a

cents per pound from the stalls, where it ster and Orange counties, but they never appear in our markets. They have immediate use.

soaked in fresh water to render it fit for sold for 8 to 10 cents per pound, cleaned

The same fish will rise in price, as the and ready for cooking. The most usual method of cooking

spring advances, and the demand for

poultry ceases. This is the best time for cels, is frying them in hogs-lard, or but- pickled cod, and that will be the best for ter; but they may be prepared for the table in a stew, or chowder, or by baking ed by the person who has to provide for a

poultry, if domestic economy is consultthem in a pie, like chickens or birds.

family. Poultry will be as good towards At other seasons of the year eels are taken by other methods, which will be spring, when the present rage of purnoticed in due time. The largest eel ta- chasing ať the highest market price is

. ken on the south side of Long-Island, which has ever appeared in our market,

The Haddock.—This species of Cod freweighed 16 and a half pounds. (Mitch- quents the same banks, and is taken at the Il's Memoirs on New-York Fishes.)

same time, and in the same way with the

common cod. It is not, however, so fre. 2. JUGULAR FISHES.

quent, and there being no perceptible Gadus' morhua, Linneus, Mitchill, Cu- ditference in the taste of it from that of vier. Common cod.

the common cod, they are both sold in Gadus æglefinus. Mitchill. The Had the same parcels pickled and dried. duck.

The Tom-Cod. - This is an excellent Gadus tomcodus. Mitchill. Frost fish. little pan fish, of the Cod family taken in Tomcod.

our salt water bays from the early part of The markets have had an abundant Autumn, or the commencement of frost supply of these species of Cod during the to the disappearance of the same in Spring, month.

Hence the appropriate name of frost-fish. The common cod-fish were jumping It is a native of our own waters, and does alive on the stalls, but rather poor and not emigrate, remaining the whole year sickly, and consequently not so good with us, but is poor and sickly in the sumas at other times. They began to im. mer season, when it retires to deeper waprove, however, as the month advanced, ters, and is not after seen or taken at those

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