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ferable, with it, the industrious cultivator passions. It unequivocally denotes, too, is now often the proprietor of his farm, their exemption from a vice which is and always the master of his own time even more prolific in crime than baneful and acquisicions. “No longer un peu- in itself:-if the peasantry of France have ple serf, corveable et taillable,' all are alike retained a simplicity of mind and an Tree to offer their labour for adequate re- amenity of disposition wbich are sought muneration; and all now 'feel that this for in vain in the corresponding classes of newly possessed power of self-disposal is society in other countries, they owe their property, in itseit.”. Our author distri- happiness to their sobriety, butes the peasantry of France into pro- * The modes of every-day life in prietors, farmer-tenants and labourers. France," says lady Morgan, “ even among
The agricultural surface of France, is the peasantry and lowest classes, are divided, we are tokl, “ into what is powerfully influenced by the happy and called, in the language of the country, genial temperament of the people. And " le pays de grande, et de petite culture.” though the peasantry are not without a In the former, the size of the farms has certain brusquerie of manner, arising out been little affected by the revolution : the of their condition, it is tempered by a only difference that has occurred is, that courtesy, which indicates an intuitive ur several farms belonging to one landlord banity, beyond the reach of art to teach, may have been purchased by the farmers or the means of cunning to acquire ; and who formerly cultivated them, or by a it explains what Cæsar meant, when he small proprietor, whese exertions are con- declared, he found the Gauls - the
pofined to the ground he has bought. The litest barbarians he had conquered." There possession of small plots of ground by is, however, among the peasantry of the the day-labourers has become very fro- present day, as among all the lower classquent; and it is sometimes usual in these es, a certain tone of independence, which countries to let them to the great farmers almost seems to claim equality with the who are desirous of having thern, to com- superior person they address, and which plete the quantity of land which the size is evidently tinged with the republican of their establishment demands." hue, so universally adopted during the
“The pays de petite culture is composed revolution. A French peasant, meeting of small farms, for the cultivation of his brother peasant, takes off his hat, with which the landlord finds the tenant in the air of a petit-máitre; and I have seen horses and ploughs, and divides with him two labourers argue the ceremonies of the profits. Upon the large farms the their bare-headed salutation, with as many condition of the tenant is very much like stipulations as would go to a treaty of that of our English farmers; and in the peace.” (pp. 54, 55.] pays de petite culture there exists a race, "" The domestic manners of the French long disappeared from England, of poor peasantry," continues lady M.“ like their hut independent yeo.nen, who rear their domestic affections, are mild and warm ; families in a degree of comfort as per- and the possessive pronoun, which dem fect, as it is remote from ury. The notes the strong binding interest of prodwelling of a French farmer presents the perty in the object to which it is attached, same scene of rural bustle, activity, and is profusely given to all the endearing ties industry, as is usually found in the Eng- of kindred. « Notre mari,' or more lish farm-houses. The women always frequently " notre maitre," is the term appear full of occupation and energy, which the wife uses, when speaking of or and share, in common with their bus- to her husband; and the adjectives of hands, fathers, and brothers, the toil and “bon," or “ petit," are generally attached anxiety of their condition.” (p. 27.] to every member of the family, accord
Lady Morgan draws a very engaging ing to their rank, or age. The grandsire portrait of the character and manners of is always “le bon papa," and all sisters and the French villagers. She ascribes to brothers are " pctite" and "petit.” [p. 56.] them all those graces and virtues which It is common, lady Morgan observes, appear so amiahle in the shepherds and to deplore the decine of religion in shepherdesses of Florian, and which we France, but she advises us, before we had never expected to find but in the make ourselves too unhappy on this head, creatures of fancy. There is, however, to inquire what kind of religion it was a constitutional gayety in these people, that bas declined. Among many inwhich if it be not the ebullition of that stances of the stupidity of the clergy, and cheerfulness that innocence inspires, may the ignorance and credulity of their ticek, easily be mistaken for it, and which at in the age of Louis 14th, the golden age Ioazt evinces the absence of the malignant of tyranny, siue quotes an anecdote from
•L II. Na. I.
Madame de Sevigné to the following ef- wrought, was strictly according to Volfect. “ The Abbé de La Mousse in cate- taire's heretical definition of all miracleschising the children of his cure, mechani- . “ une chose qui n'est jamais arrivée.'* (p. cally put this question to them, who is 76.] the Virgin? The children replied one af- It is probably in the recollection of ter the other, The Creator of Heaven many of our readers that this city, in and Earth.' The Abbé was not disturbed which, according to lady Morgan, there is by the mistake of the children, but when not a maid to be found, is itself in the he heard the men and women and eren demesne of the Virgin, who was created Ahe old people taking up and repeating Countess of Boulogne by one of the pious the same response, he was utterly con- predecessors of Louis le desiré, for the fused and gave in to the common creed."* magnanimous purpose of conferring upSuch was the religion that has decayed, on the Saviour the dignity of hereditary and such is the religion that it is attenipt. nobility! ed to revive. Not that the identity of Dr. Moore, in his charming letters from God the Creator and the Virgin Mary is Italy, mentions a friend of his, who passone of the tenets of the catholic church, ing a prostrate statue of Jupiter, very but that implicit faith in the priesthood is respectfully uncovered himself, and with one of its requisitions, and that, in the a profound reverence, requested his godprohibition of the exercise of reason, one ship, should he ever be reinstated in the absurdity is as like to be inculcated as government of the world, not to forget the another, and equally certain of reception notice he had taken of him in nis adverwith the most demonstrable truth. sity. An equal degree of circunspection
Louis the 16th is a zealous restorer of would have saved the French of the prethe statues of the saints, and of the wor- sent day from a deal of penance, and ship of the crucifix, and regularly exhibits prevented a multitude of ridiculous metahimself in all the solemn processions to morphoses which have resulted from the the chapel of Notre Dame. These muin- impatience of atonement. In the gener meries, however, do not seem to suit the ral resurrection of the saiats, on the retaste of the Parisians, notwithstanding turn of the Bourbons, many an unworthy their fondness for spectacles. Nor hare effigy that had slept, has received the the efforts to get up these fêtes in the honours of an apothesis. provinces been attended with much bet- “ Wherever the royal family was exter success. “In Boulogne-sur-mer,” pected to pass,” says kis Morgan, “ON says our fair author, “ orders were given the occasion of the two ; yorations, or in for a procession, in honour of the Virgin, their respective journeys into the interior whose wrath, it was declared, had caused of the kingdom, the via sacra is distinchat abundance of rain, wbich threatened guished by the new setting-up of prosruin to all the vignerons and farmers in trate crosses. The crucifix, placed at the France. Some of her festivals had not port of Diappe whea Modrone landed, been duly celebrated, since the restora- is, I think, for size and colouring, the most tion of festivals in France, and a well- formidable image that ever was erected founded jealousy had discharged itself in to scare, or to edify. And the Madonna torrents of rain, which I had the missor- exhibited in the church of St. Jaques, in tune to witness, during the greater part of the same town, and on the same impormay residence in the land of her displeasure. tart occasion, was evidently, in the hurry The priests, however, of Boulogne, to of the unexpected honour, suddenly their horror, could not find a single Jürgin, transported from the bowspirit of some in that maritime city, io carry in proces- English trader ; and had doubtless stood siou, and wore at last obliged to send a many a hard gale, as the “ lovely Betty," deputation into a neighbouring village, Or" sprightly niliy," before she was reau request ihe loan of a Virgin until moved to receive divine honours, as notre they could st one of their own, A dame de Si. Jaques ; where dressed in Virjin was at last procured, a little indeed English muslin, anc) in a cojfure à la Chithe worse for wear; but this was not a noise, to show she is above prejudi:e, she moment for fastidiousness. The holy bro, takes her place with Lonis the Eightponth, therhood assembled, and the gloi'onna who shines in all the radiance of mester was prodle through the streets; but no of paris, on an eltar beside her.” (p. 78.] devout laity followed in her train, and no There is scarcely such a thing a- menrainbow ni mise spoke the cessation dicity, we are inforined, in France. The of hir wrath. The people would not wish of Henry the 4th. that each of his walk ; the rain would not stop ; the Vir- subjects might put a pullet in his pot on gin was sent back, to pout in her native village; and the miracle expected to be ** A thing which has never bappened." a Sunday, falls short of the luxury now nown of conquest. His patronage to meir enjoyed by the lowest peasant, who is of learning, and his liberal encouragement able to enrich his pottage with a little of sciences and the arts, rendered them fesh even on week days. The attention subjects of national attention, and gave a that is paid to dress, too, by the labouring tone to public taste which foreigners never classes, contributes much to the appears fail to remark. ance of comfort.
Lady Morgan has displayed all her “The influence of the toilette is uni- wit, in ridiculing the royal family and versal in France, and it is far from being their partisans. She is continually dis exclusively an object of female devotion, verted by the follies of the preux chevur even among the peasantry. The young liers' and veteran dames of the • vielle farmer “ qui se fait brave," is, in his own court.' The following extract will serve estimation, as attractive as any merveil- as a specimen of her humour, leux of the chaussee D'Antin can suppose ' Among those of the elder royalists himself, His well-powdered head and attached to the person of the king, and massive queue, his round hat, drawn up at believing that they contributed to his reeither side, “pour faire le monsieur," his storation, there is a sort of lifeless animalarge silver buckles, and large silver tion, resembling the organic movements watch, with his smart white calico jacket which survive the extinction of animal and trowsers, present an excellent exhibi- life, and which are evidenced in the hoption of rural coxcombry, while the elders ping of a bird alter decapitation. I have of the village set off their frieze coats with frequently amused myself by following a fine flowered linen waistcoat, whose re- the groupings of these loyal vieilleries dundancy of flaps renders the texture of who, like old Mercier, seem to continue the nether part of their dress very un- living on merely" par curiosité pour voir important.
ce que cela deviendra.”—I remember one But, however tasteless or coarse; morning being present at a rencontre be however simple or grotesque, the cos- tween two " voltigeurs* de Louis XIV. ON tume of the French peasantry may ap- the terrace of the Thuilleries. They were pcar to the stranger's eye, it still is a cos- distinguished by the most dramatic seatume! It is a refinement on necessity, and tures of their class ;--the one was in his not the mere and meagre covering of court-dress (for it was a levée day), and shivering nature. It is always one, among with his chapeau de bras in one hand, and many evidences, that the people are not his snuff-box in the other, he exhibited a poor, are not uncivilized, that they require costume, on which perhaps the bright the decencies of life, and are competent eyes of a Pompadour bad often rested: to purchase them.” (pp. 94, 95.) the other was en habit militaire, and
In introducing us into higher life, lady might have been a spruce ensign, " joli Morgan takes a survey of the history and comme un cæur," at the battle of Fonte. materiel of French society, in which she noy. Both were covered with crosses gives full scope to her propensity to de- and ribands, and they moved along under clamation. It is well known that Buona- the trees, that had shaded their youthful parte was inclined to fortify his power by gaillardise, with the conscious triun: ph of drawing the ancient nobility round the Moorish chiefs restored to their promised. throne, and that he succeeded in filling Alhambra. Their telegraphic glasses his court, in a great measure, with the communicated their mutual approach, representatives of illustrious houses, who and advancing chapeau bus, and shaking preferred the experience of imperial fa- the powder from their ailes de pigeon, vour to the prospect of royal gratitude. through a series of profound bows, they The facility with which he reversed out took their seat on the bench, which I oclawries, and the liberality with which he 'cupied, and began, "les nouvelles e la indemnified the losses of loyalists, gave main," to discuss the business of the day. considerable umbrage to his military no- ---A levée, a review, a procession, and the bles. It was a part of his ambition to installation of the king's bust, which ia excel the “ legitimate sovereigns of Eu- some remote town had been receivrd with rope in regal splendour, and in this en- cries of " Vive le roi, mille fois répolis," deavour he assumed the pomp of an were the subjects which led to a boundAsiatic monarch. The pride of the em- léss eulogium on the royal fainily." peror in this respect was the chief motive “ Personal devotion to the king," conof his lenity to encigrunts, and the principal source of all those magnificent estab- "* The name given in derision to old lishments which have endeared his me- military men, re-established in all the mory to France, and which will confer rank and privileges they enjoyed before on hin a more durable fame than the re- the revolution."
tinues lady M." is not however exclusive- hand, to listen on all occasions ;-but lady ly confined to the eklers of the privileged Morgan has incidentally accounted for it, classes. It was a profane maxim of a in a manner entirely satisfactory. profane French wit, that “les vieilles et few years back," says her ladyship, "all kes laides sont toujours pour Dieu ;" and his ranks and distinctions were lost in the afpresent Majesty of France seems to en- fectedly simple appellations of citoyen joy a siinilar devotion, as a part of his and ciloyenne. At present France is indivine right. Many of the aged members, undated with titles, multiplied far beyond of the middle classes of the capital, have the heraldic dignities of those aristocratiremained true to the good old cause; and cal days, when, according to Smollett, the petits rentiers, or stockholders of the “ Mons. le Comte," called to his son, in Fauxbourg St. Germaine (that centre of the business of their noble verger,
6 Mons. all antiquity and royalism), assemble le Murquis, avez-vous donné à manger morning and evening before the windows aux cochons **_If nobility is so cleap in of the Thuilleries, in the hope of seeing France as her ladyship represents, it is, the king pass and repass to and from his to be sure, no great affair to be talking morning's drive; and they remain seated with a count or a marquis, nor can there on the benches which front the facade of be much difficulty in finding something the palace, among piping fawns, and of the sort to speak to whenever one fighting gladiators. These monumental has any thing to say. figures contrast themselves, with peculiar Lady Morgan has co mixed herself with force, to the marble wonders of the chis. all she saw or heard in Paris, that it is not el which surround them, and to the flit- easy to select any picture from her portting groups of the present age, which folio in which she does not occupy the glide by, turning on them looks of the most prominent place. This desire to same pleased curiosity, as I have seen show herself off is very annoying to her bestowed on the monumens François, at readers. We shall not pretend to pick les petits Augustins. Here the costumes up the opinions which she has scattered of the three reigns which preceded the re- through her Journal. They are not genevolution are preserved and amicably unit- rally of much moment,-but her judyed. Here is still to be seen the "hurlu- ment of the French character in one resbrelu” head-dress, the subject of so many pect, is too singular to pass unnoticed. of Mad. de Sevigné's pleasant letters. Lady Morgan considers the French as Here too may be found the bonnets à papil- peculiarly grave people, and adduces their Bons pointes and petites coméles of the du profound attention at the theatre and in Deffands and Geoffins, with the fichus de the saloon as evidences of this disposi. souflet, and the more modern néglige of tion. We cannot consider the disproporthe Polignacs and Lamballes. These tionate interest taken in trising entertainvenerable votaries of loyalty, who have ments or conversation a great proof of so long"owed heaven a death," that they gravity. If it be, children who can amuse seem to have been forgotten by their cre- themselves alone, by the hour, with a few ditor, are chiefly females. They are al- billets of wood in piling them up and ways accompanied by a cortege of little pulling them down, must be wonderdogs, which, half-shorn, and half-fed, fas- fully grave. Lady Morgan complains tened to girdles, no longer the gift of the of the formality that prevails in the graces, by ribands no longer " couleur de circles of the ancient nobility.
They rose," are under the jurisdietion of large are precise," she says, “to a degree fans, frequently extended to correct the that imposes perpetual restraint; the la" petites folies of these Sylphides and dies are all seated à la ronde ; the gentleFidèles, when they sport round their aa- men either leaning on the back of their cient mistresses, with unbecoming levity." chairs, or separated into small compact Lpp. 144, 145.]
groups. Every body rises at the entrance One cannot help observing in reading of a new guest
, and immediately resunes. these volumes, how invariably the fair a seat, which is never finally quitted unauthor's opportune remarks, of which til the moment of departure. There is she has favoured us with a prodigious robustling, no gliding, no shifting of number, are addressed to Madame la place for purposes of coquetry, or views Duchesse, Monsieur le Prince, Mon- of flirtation ; all is repose and quietude steur le Comte, Madame la Marquise, among the most animated and cheerful Madame la Vicomtesse, or Madame people in the world. My restlessness la Baronne. We will confess that we and activity was a source of great astonsuspected some little affectation in this ;--we could scarcely imagine it *“ Mons, Marquis have you fed the possible that such people should be at bogs?"
ishment: my walking constantly in the place in society, and continues to be, nog streets and public gardens, and my hav- indeed respected, but received."[p.219,220.) ing nearly made the tour of Paris, on But whatever latitude of conduct may foot, were cited as unprecedented events be allowed, whilst external decorum is in the history of female perambulation." not violated, no infringement of decency
“Coming in very late one night," pur is endured. “In the lowest places of sies lady M.“ to a grand réunion, I made public amusement,” says lady Morgan, my excuse, by pleading the fatigue I had in the most mixed and motley assemencountered during the day ; and I enu- blies, all is decency and seeming proprie merated the different quarters of the ty. No look shocks the eye, no word oftown I had walked over, the public places fends the ear of modesty and innocence. I had visited, the sights I had seen, and Vice is never rendered dangerous by exthe cards I had dropped.— I perceived my ample, nor are its allurements familiarizfair auditress listening to me at first with ed to the mind of youth, by the publieity Incredulous attention ; then“ panting af- of its exhibitions. This propriety of exter me in vain,” through all my move- terior, this moral deceney in manners, has ments, loosing breath, changing colour, been made a subject of accusation against till at last she exclaimed: "Tenez, ma- the French by recent travellers, who de dame, je n'en puis plus. Encore un pas, monstrate their patriotism, by extolling et je n'en reviendrai, de plus de quinze even the licentiousness, which, in Engjours ?” (p. 168.]
land, openly presenting itself, to public Now we can easily imagine that a very observance, marks by very obvious limits robust and active person might loose his the line between vice and virtue.” (p. 223.) breath, and change colour, during such a We agree with her ladyship, that to escape fatiguing detail, and that too from a sense grossness is one remove from vice, and of weariness wholly independent of sym- that to keep profligacy in awe is some pathy. We do not wonder that her audi- preservative of virtue. Lady Morgan bor entreated her to stop.
mentions that she was in the theatre ono Lady Morgan gives a ludicrous des- evening, when a young English noblecription of some of her countrymen, man of fashionable notoriety, having enwhom she terms dandies, who attempted tered a box in the second tier, with a foto play off their Bond-street airs in the male equally notorious, and to use hen Parisian circles, where she encountered own expression, less severely draped them. From her account, young French-than custom requires, the house testified men of the same rank are generally much their disapprobation so unequivocally better informed, and always better bred, that the intruders were obliged to retire.
We are happy to have the assurance of “It is owing to the extreme propriety and lady Morgan that conjugal fidelity is not even purity of manners,” says her lady unfrequent, and that some attention in ship,“ preserved in all public places, in public from the husband to the wife is France, that young females of every ranks folerated, although the first is not a re- and condition, well brought up, may requisite, and the last is barely permitted. main ignorant, as far as their own obser
As long, however, as the frailties of a vation goes, that there docs exist a wretchFrench woman of fashion are “ peccaie ed portion of their sex, who eat the bread celate ;" lady Morgan admits, as long as of shanie, and live by self-degradation, she lives upon good terms with her hus- But no woman of any rank or age, who band, and does the honours of his house, has only once visited a public place, ir she has the same latitude, and the same England, can escape becoming the inreception in society, as is obtained by voluntary witness of the most unblushing women sirailarly situated in England, vice, of the most brutal indecency." [p. where, like the Spartan boy, she is pun- 224.] ished, not for her crime, but for its disco- The following extract will correct any very. There, a divorce only marks the misapprehension of an incident which has kine between reputation, and its loss : so- already been alluded to in the newspapers, ciety will not take hints, and a woman in this country, with an evident jealousy must publicly advertise her fault, before of intentional disrespect." It is a very she can obtain credit for having commit- singular circumstance," observes lady ted it. The high circles of Paris are to Morgan," that the return of the French the full as indulgent as those of London. emigrants from England after a twentyLovers understood, are not paramours five years' residence in that coumtry, has convicted ; and as long as a woman "does absolutely added nothing to the stoek of not make an esclandre ; as long as she is acquirements in the English language er decent and circumspect, and“ assumes literature. Of the numbers whom I met virtue which she has not," ske bolds her in society, who had resided in England,