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160 :-mean temperature of the month In the New-York Bills of mortality for estimated between morning and evening November, the followiug number of 460.4'.

deaths has been recorded : Nearly the same constitution of the Apoplexy, 5; Burned, 3; Catarrh, 1 ; weather having prevailed in this as in the Childbed, i; Cholera Morbus, 1; Conformer month, little alteration has taken sumption, 53; Convulsions, 14; Diarplace in the state and variety of diseases, rhæa, 7; Dropsy, 6 ; Dropsy in the Head, or extent of mortality. In the existing 7; Drowned, 4; Dysentery, 3; Epilepsy, multitude of morbid affections, fevers still 1; Fever Bilious, 1 ; Fever Intermittent, take the lead. Disorders connected with 2; Fever Typhous, Q2; Flux Infantile, 2; derangements of the stomach and intesti- Hives, 4; Hæmoptysis, 2 ; Inflammation nal canal have also continued to occur, of the Bowels, 6; Inflammation of the though in rather less proportion; but Brain, 2; Inflammation of the Chest, 1; from the want of sudden and extensive Inflammation of the Liver, 5; Inflammaatmospheric variations, complaints of an tion of the Lungs, 1; Insanity, 1; Inteminflammatory nature have been less fre- perance, 5; Marasmus, 3 ; Manslaughter, quent than is usual at this time of the 1; Menorrhagia, 1 ; Nervous Disease, 3; year. A typhoid tendency has been the Old Age, 7; Palsy, 2; Pleurisy, 1; Scaldmost general character of the acute dis- ed, 1 ; Scrophula, 1; Small Pox, 3; Stilleases of this month. Typhous fever still orn, 10; Sudden Death, 1 ; Suicide, 1; prevails, and with much the same fatali- Tabes Meseuterica, 7; Ulcer, 1; Worms, ty. The infantile remittent, which was 1. Total 208. formerly described, has, since the com- Of whom their died 42 of and under mencement of Autumn, assumed in ma- the age of 1 year; 12 between 1 and 2 ny instances the nature of synochus, and years; 11 between 2 and 5; 8 between in a few protracted cases has exhibited .5 and 10; 16 between 10 and 20; 35 besymptoms of a putrid tendency; being ac. tween 20 and 30; es between 30 and 40; companied with dry brown tongue, 19 between 10 and 50 ; 8 between 50 and weak and quick pulse, violent pains in the 60; 10 between 60 and 70 ; 11 between head, delirium, or coma, and pains and 70 and 80; 3 between 30 and 90 ; and I distension of the stomach or intestines, between 90 and 100. sometimes with diarrhea, and sometimes

JACOB DYCKMAN, M. D. with costiveness.

New-York, Vov. 30th, 1817. Small Pox is gradually extending.

One of the cases of urticaria occurred from eating lobsters. As there was much inflammatory fever, bloodietting was neeessary, although the stomach and bow. els had been well emptied by the early To READERS AND CORRESPOT DENTS. use of evacuants.

A case of ascites, tending to general A part of the copy of the Review of dropsy, was cured by venesection and Pursh's Flora, having been accidently other antiphlogistic treatment, calculated mislaid, that article is abruptly terminatto diminish the excitement of the exhalented in this number. The review will be vessels. After the subsidence of intam- completed in our next. matory action in the exhalent arteries, We have several communications on corroborant medicines were employed, hand, which shall appear next month. to restore the general tone of the system. In compiling the journal of the proThe subject of the disease was a female, ceedings of Congress, we have relied aged 25 years, who had laboured under a principally on the abstract given in the suppression of the Catamenia for several National Intelligencer, which we believe months preceding the appearance of to be faithfully and ably rendered. dropsy.

THE

AMERICAN MONTHLY MAGAZINE

AND

CRITICAL REVIEW.

No. IV...... Vol. II.

FEBRUARY, 1818.

Art. 1. ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS.

1
1

1

CONTENTS.

1 1

1

MEMOIR ON ICHTHYOLOGY.

Red Fin, or Rough Head, 1

Corporal, The Fishes of New-York described and

Mudfish, arranged. In a supplement to the Me

-12 moir on the same subject, printed in CARTILAGINOUS—Mouse fish, the New-York Literary and Philoso

Prickly Angler, 1 phical Transactions, Vol. 1. p 355—

Rostrated Angler, 1 492. By Samuel L. Mitchill.

Calico Angler, [To the 166 species and varieties of fish men

Radiated Angler, ! tioned in that paper, here is an addition of

Fringed File-fish, 1 about 30 more; making considerably above

Sharp-tailed Filein the whole.]

fish,

4 1 Narrow tailed Filefish,

4 4 A PODAL Order

Smooth backed
Fresh water Eel,

Skate,
Sea Wolf,

Ground Shark
Sword Fish,

Long toothed

Shark,
JUGULAR—Marginated Cod,

Scarlet Snake fish, i
Cod of the Lakes,

Six-horned Trunk
fish,

1
THORACIC—Apodal Sole,
1

43 White Tailed Remora, 1 Perch Coryphene, 1

Total 42
Purplish Scorpæna,
1

ANGUILLA, EEL.
Red Scorpena,

1

The Eel of Success Pond was bought to Geometrical Dory,

1

me in an entire state on the 30th April, 1819. Spinous Dory,

From an examination of half a dozen indiHippos Mackarel, 1

viduals, I was enabled to complete the desGlass-eyed Perch,

cription. The Lake in which these creaSis-spined Bodian,

, tures were found has no connexion with Black Eared Pondfish, 1 salt water, or any other water. Occasion. Sheepshead Chætodon, 1 ally from rains, or a deficiency of evapo

-12 ration, it overflows, and the surplusage of ABDOMINAL-White Fish of the

water finds its way to Little Neck Bay, Lakes,

emptying into Long-Island Sound in the Smelt,

Eastern part of the town of Flushing. But Bony-scaled Pike,

there is no evidence of Eels returning from Alackarel Pike,

the Sound to the Lake at any time; for the Long-jawed fresh water overflow, when it happens, is so scanty that Pike,

1

it is inerely a gush of a few days duration at Long tailed Catfish, 1

most, and so transient that the channel Herring of Commerce, 1 quickly returns to the condition of arable New-York Flying Fish, 1 land. The Eels of Success Pond may thereSix-rayed Polyneme, i fore be considered, in the strict sense of the

31

1

VOL. 11.--No. Ir.

word, fresh water Eels. On this account I its commencement a few inches behind the procured them for examination by the aid of head, in a broad expansion, almost to the my friends Mr. Benj. Fowler, and Mr. Isaac tail. The anal fin reaches from the vent also Hicks, who live in the neighbourhood. almost to the tail. After a short and small

One of the heaviest of the Success Eels interruption the caudal fin projects from the weighed

three pounds and four ounces. The narrowed and attenuated tail, in a somewhat length was thirty three inches and a half, rounded and fan-like expansion of a very and the girth rather more than seven inches. moderate size. The pectoral fins are stout,

The lower jaw longer than the upper ; nos- and of the same dark complexion with the trils tubular. On each side, reaching back body. The hue of the bead, and of the wards and above the upper lip, four holes or dorsal and anal fins rather more pale. orifices, a short distance from each other.

XIPHIAS, SWORDFISH. Between the tubular nostril and the eye two Generic character. Body cylindrically other orifices nearly of the same size and con- roundish, head furnished with an elongation siderably larger. Along the lower jaw also a of the upper jaw in the form of a sword, row of orifices on each side. All these, mouth destituie of teeth, eight rays to the save that near the eye, seem to effuse a slimy branchiostegous membrane. liquid, and that appears to be the nostril. SWORD-FISH-Xiphias gladius-an indivi

There are ten rays to the gill membrane, dual of this species was taken off Sandy: 456 to the united dorsal, caudal, and anal fin, Hook, by means of a harpoon, on the 19th and 19 to the pectoral.

June, 1817; the next day it was brought to The colour is dark brown on the back, in the New-York market, and cut up, like some individuals inclining to black, in others holibut and sturgeon, for food. The length toward greenish and yellow. Frequently was about twelve feet, and the girth by estithe sides are diversified with lightly cloudy mation five. variegations, not however having the dis- The head was elongated forward into a tinctness of spots. The belly is whitish with blade or flat projection thirty eight inches shades of yellowish, brown, or_greenish. long, and near its junction with the head four Lateral line distinct and straight. Rib-spaces broad. It gradually tapered away to an edge very evident. Lower margin of the anal fin on the sides, and to a point at the end. This often coloured yellowish. The dorsal fin edge was neither toothed nor serrated, but begins about one third of the distance be- fortified with a hard substance resembling tween the tip of the upper jaw and the tail. flint, yet not hard enough in its fresh state to Tbe vent is situated rather nearer the head strike fire with steel. it was covered with than to the other extremity. Tongue large, skin resembling that of a shark. The thicksmooth, pointed, with a distinguishable ness of the sword near the head was two frænum beneath. Pupil of the eye black, inches and an balf; it was blackish above, and Iris yellow, skin covers the eye. Teeth whitish beneath. There were longitudinal small, though visible as well as palpable, depressions to the number of four on the forming several rows in each jaw, and in the upper side. upper uniting into a patch on the forepart The gills were divided into eight pairs; of the Palate.

and were of a more spongy constitution, and Hence I conclude, upon a survey of the more retentive of blood than usually hap, whole matter, that these Eels are not spe- pens in fishes. In tbis respect they seemed cifically different from those of the salt to border somewhat upon lungs. The tail water, nor is the species different by any was shaped like a crescent, and measured actual character I am able to assign from thirty eight inches across from tip to tip; the Anguilla vulgaris of Bloch.

The Aukes were equal, and the length of ANNARICHAS.

each was twenty seven inches. There was a Sea Wolf-Anarrhicas lupus, with distinet skinny or fin-like appendage lengthwise on strong diverging teeth ; with large head and each side, corresponding with the lateral line. jaws, and one dorsal fin reaching alınost to The greatest height of the dorsal fin was the tail. This description is made from a fine twenty two inches, and its connexion to the specimen in the Museum of Mr. Trowbridge, back was by a base of eleven. The greatest at Albany. The length of the individual length of the anal fin was twelve inches and now before me is two feet and six inches. a half, with a depth of seven at the place of Figure resembling that of a Blenny, being connexion. large toward the head and thorax, and taper- The pectoral fins were twenty-two inches ing away toward the tail. Was taken by the in length and five inches deep at the body. fishermen when angling for cod, and brought All the fins, more especially the dorsal into Boston.

and anal, had a falciform figure. The mouth is large, and when opened dis- The skin was without scales, the belly of closes five strong white and pointed teeth a light complexion, and the back and sides in each jaw. of these, three are rather of a silvery gray. smaller than the other two; to wit, the front The mouth was beneath, and toothless; the one and the two hindmost ones; the two lower jaw was short, and terminated in a middle teeth, particularly in the upper jaw, point. The stomach contained seven of bave the canine form and strength. The eight mackerels. Read is ample and fleshy, the nostrils tubu- The flesh was remarkably frm; it was lar, eyes large. The dorsal fin is com. purchased at a quarter of a dollar the pound. posed of numerous rays, and reaches from 1 tasted a chop of it broiled, and found it

savoury and excellent.

It resembled the York,) in order that you may add it to the best sturgeon, without its strong and oily supplement you are preparing. flavour. While I ate it I thought of veal- I observed several of these fishes on the cutlet. The eyes were very large.

3d instant, on board of a fishing-smack off These observations were made by the as- Judith Point, Rhode Island, the very same sistance of Enoch Johnson, Jun. Esq. and day of my unfortunate shipwreck. The Mr. Isaac Fairchild, of New-York. I have drawing and description I made being in my been informed by my friend, John Remmey, pocket at the time, were among the few that a sword-fish, sixteen feet long, was ex. objects I saved, which now enable me to hibited at New-York in the year 1791. add one fact to the general stock of ichthyPhycis MARGINATUS, Rafin. logical knowledge. New-York, 27th Nov. 1815.

I am truly, dear Sir, I beg leave to hand you a drawing and

Your friend and servant, description of a new species of fish from

C. S. RAFINESQUE. your shores, which appears to have escaped The Gadus marginatus is thus described by your notice, (since it is not mentioned in my worthy friend C. S. Rafinesque, under your paper on the Ichthyology of New- the name of Phycis, a new genus ?

[graphic]

PHYCisGeneric definition. Gills com- twenty rays, is nearly round and margiplete, lower fins jugular, formed by many nated, with black on the posterior part. (more than one) rays, partly connected to- History. This fish may bear in English the gether without any meinbrane ; two dorsal vulgar name of marginaled Phycis. or Custe fins, caudal fin unconnected.

Phycis. It inhabits the shores of North Phycis MARGINATUSSpecific definition. America, and particularly those of Conneco Lower jaw the shortest, and with a small ticut, Rhode Island, and the Long Island beard ; jugular fins white, with two rays, and Sound, where it is a resident, since it is reaching to the anal fin; body brown above, caught both in summer and winter. It bears white underneath; fins brown, the first dorsal the vulgar appellation of Cusk, which aptriangular, and with ten rays, the caudal fin pears to be an aboriginal name; but as the rounded and marginated with black, lateral same name is applied by fisherinen to several line bent in the middle.

fishes of the Blennidia fainily it may lead Description.-Full grown length nearly two into error. This animal is caught together feet; body cylindrical, or rather a little fusi. with the codfishes, and in the same bottoms, form, being a little swelled towards the belly; where it seeds on smaller fishes. It is, howhead Aattened above; mouth large, with ever, a much scarcer fish, and as it is not striking lips and small teeth ; upper jaw the so good, is not much known; although it largest, and longer than the lower one, which is carried sometimes to the New York has below a small conical appendage or market. Its flesh is soft, like that of ma. beard ; nostrils small, without any crest ; ny species of the genera Blennius and Cyprieyes large, situated over the corners of the nus, but good enough to eat, particularly mouth; iris white; prunella black. The fried. whole colour of a light brown above, and ot This species, as in fact all its congeners, is a dirty white underneath, both on the head much more akin to the genus Merluccius and body; the lateral line is incurvated be. (Gadus sp. with two dorsal fins and one anal hind the abdomen. The jugular fins are fin) than to the genus Blennius, which has only white, slender two-fingered, the two rays one dorsal fin; it differs, however, by the connected nearly to the middle, but after- family characters of the defect of mem. wards free; the anterior is a little longer, brane between the rays of the jugular fins, and reaches to the anal fin. All the other besides the gill-cover baving no membranafins are brown, the pectoral are oblong; ceous appendage. This species is very difobtuse, and with twelve rays; the first dorsal ferent from all my new Sicilian species is triangular, and with ten rays, none of Phycis macronemus, Ph. fuscus, Ph. agramwhich extend beyond the membrane ; the mus, Ph. muslea, &c. and is more a kia second dorsal is longitudinal, and with sixty to the Ph. selosus (mihi, Blennius phycis, L.). rays; the anal is similar, but shorter, and which, however, differs by being cinereous, with only forty rays; the caudal has about having a 'crest over the nostrils; the first ray

of the first dorsal fin elongated, and the tail made, be rated as a species not hitherto de. not marginated !

scribed. COD-FISH OF THE LAKES.-Gadus lacus.

III. THORACIC. tris.—This is considered a very poor fish, and

PLEURONECTES. generally rejected by the persons who catch APODAL SOLE.—Pleuronectes apoda; with a bim. Others, however, say that his flesh is body almost circular; with about twenty excellent.

transverse black stripes; and with a single I state, on the authority of Henry A. S. skinny appendage to the thorax instead of Dearborn, Esq. the species now under con- two ventral fins. sideration abounds in Sabago-pond. This Length four inches exclusive of the caudal is a large collection of fresh water, about fin; breadtb, including the dorsal and anal twenty miles north-west of Portland, in the fins, about as much. Taken from the bottom district of Maine. In it lives a fish exactly of the ocean in the Straights of Bahama, resembling the sea-cusk, common in the with several other species, by David H. Boston market; and is taken there in great Fraser, Esq.surgeon in the United States navy, numbers at certain seasons of the year. They The eyes are situated to the right; and are represented as precisely of the shape there are no pectoral fins. What is very and size of the cusk caught in the ocean peculiar is, there are no ventral fins, but, inadjacent to the coast of New England. In stead of them, there is a single skinny elon. Maine this fish is not found in any of the gation from the lower side of the thoras, with lakes or ponds connected with rivers. Even the rudiments or semblance of tive rays. Has if this was the case the sea-cusk is never a soft mucous skin, apparently without scales. known to ascend rivers and visit the reser. The back is barred across by about twenty, voirs of fresh water.

black stripes and as many pale ones, and Mr. Dewitt describes a fish which appears each pale one is divided by a narrow brown to me the same, as inhabiting Lake Cayuga : stripe, giving the upper side the appearance he belongs to the family of the Gadus, or of variegated black, pale, and brown crossCod. There is a cirrhus or single beard to bars. The lower side is muddy white ; many the chin. The body is plump and roundish, soft caruncles or papillæ beneath, on both with great flexibility. The skin is smooth sides of the mouth. and scaleless, and marbled with yellow and Lateral line begins near the upper lip, near brown, with here and there, occasionally, a the origin of the dorsal fin, and, after form. dark spot; back darkish, belly white. A ing a curve around the head and eyes,

is circle of yellow surrounds the pupil of continued almost in a straight line to the the eye; two dorsal fins, of which the middle of the tail. foremost is about midway of the back,

ECHENEIS. small and triangular, the hindmost is long, WHITE-TAILED REMORA.-Echeneis alba. ribband-like, and reaching almost to the tail. cauda; with triangular white marks on the The anal fin begins just behind the vent, and tail, and twenty-one bars across the shield; extends nearly as far backward as the second length twenty inches and a half; breadth aldorsal. The vent is nearer the head by se- most three; girth nearly seven; weight veral inches. The caudal fin is handsomely twenty.one ounces. rounded into a convex or projecting curve ; Taken in the bay of New York, June 22, the lateral line is a distinct furrow, winding 1815. along with a course gently inclined or bend- This fish bad twenty-one bars across the ing up and down; the pectoral fins rounded; shield on the top of his head. ventral fins situated on the neck, and taper- The dorsal fin was tipped with a white ing to a point ; nostrils large. In front of the margin almost the whole of its length. nostrils two other orifices, furnished with The caudal fin was yet wbiteľ on it upper appendages concave, elongated, and pointed and lower sides, the white part slanting over like ears; they resemble more exactly an the rays, and widening to half an inch and external organ of hearing than I ever before more at the extremity above and below. The saw in a fish. Uppor jaw longest, and re- middle portion of it, between the white ceiving the lower; both furnished with an triangles, almost black. abundance of minute sharp teeth. Mr. Le The eyes were brassy yellow; the lower Sueur found him in Lake Erie, and has jaw jutted very much beyond the upper; figured him in that finished style which dis- and though the point could not come in tinguishes all the drawings in marine zoology contact with it, was covered with minute done by that enterprising traveller.

teeth directed inwards. The Gadus lola, called by the English the The skin was scaleless; colour of the back turbot or eel-pout, is a fresh water fish of this dark, with a conversion to pale or dove family, living in the rivers and lakes of toward and along the belly; throat and chio, Europe, and even of the East Indies. But with some variegations, whitish. as the body of the eel-pout is said to be The remaining characters were much like compressed and covered with minute scales, those of the other species. his lateral line to be straight, and his head

CoryphÆNA. to have considerable resemblance to that of RUDDER-FISH, OR PERCH CORYPHÆNA the frog, our lake-cod, or fresh-water cusk, Coryphæna perciformis ; with zig-zag im must, until at least further inquiry shall be pressions adowu his sides; serrated gill

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