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he admitted at last a kindly feeling to- poetry, is traced with a fine discernment wards one whom he had laid under an of moral causes, and exemplified and ilobligation for his life, to expand into the lustrated with striking beauty of concepreciprocation of esteem and affection. tion and felicity of application. Jealousy on the part of Cesario for a The following extracts from the address while disunite them; but on finding that are given, not only as specimens of elehis mistress was unworthy of his regard, gant English composition, highly honourand his friend innocent of encouraging able to the taste and academic discipline that preference which she had iinmodestly of the learned professor, but also as discovered for him, h. expiates his injuri- examples of just thinking, not less honourous suspicions by a pilgrimage to redeem able to his head, and heart. Giovanni from captivity, into which he “It has ofien been said, the heart is the had been carried by the Moors. In pur

best casuist, and its natural promptings the safese suing this aim, Cesario discovers the sis- guides in duty. But in respect to this objection

it must be carefully remembered, that we are not ter of Giovanni, a widow of nineteen, to form our estimate of the value of natural conalso in bondare, and wins her love in the science from the prevalent opinions of civilized garb of a slave. He ransoins the sister and christian countries. The moral sense of the and enables the brother to escape. The

most unlearned at the present day is not the sense author leaves him in the anticipation of fied by the studies and experience of ages, and,

of nature, but of cultivation ; it has been modiattaining the summit of human bliss. above all, by the christian religion. It is net dr.

A moral is to be drawn from the tale, nied, that we have from nature a moral as well which is briefly this-that Providence

as an intellectual capacity ; but the former, no orders all things for the best to those who larged by observation and thought. Many duties

less than the latter, is to be improved an en-' confide in him without remitting their arise froin relations, which are complicated and own exertions, and that what we are apt remote; these relations must be investigated and in the impetuosity of the moment to brought together, and general principles, which deem the greatest calamities often prove The necessity of įhis is sufficiently shown by the

may be served into rules, deduced from them. in the event the happiest occurrences. Of different and contradicting maxims of duty that the author's style we can only say that it have prevailed in different ages and nations. is bad enough, but not worse than that of Were however the original suggestions of uncil her previous productions which have tivated conscience far clearer and more decisive obtained a measure of popularity. We than experience will allow us to believe, still the did not read this work for pleasure, and The unremitted labours of the moralist would,

necessity of philosophy would not be superseded. did not derive much pleasure from read- notwithstanding, be required to relieve the sentiing it. It is certainly harmless, and those ments of mankind from those associations of prewho can find either information or judice, of fasiion, and of false opinion, which

have so constant an influence in perverting the amusement in it, will not have wasted judgment and corrupting the heari, and to bring their time in its perusal.

them back to the unbiassed dictates of nature and common sense. Besides, the moral constitution

of man, bis relations, and duties, are subjects too Inaugural Address, delivered in the interesting, and too fruitful of remark, to be nere

lected in the speculations of the ingenious and inChapel of the University at Cambridge, quiring. Erroneous theories will be formed, nay, November 5th, 1817. By Levi Frisbie, they will be presented to mankind as the rule of A. M. Alford Professor of Natural Reli- lite, and even history and fiction be made vehigion, Moral Philosophy, and Civil Polity, cles of princips, dangerous alike to virtue and in Harvard University. Cambridge, Uni- false philcsoples are wrapped in metaphysical

to peace. While indeed these speculations of versity Press. Hilliard and Metcalf, 1817. subtiels, they may excite little alarm, and serve 8vo. 28 pp.

rather to amuse the learned ; they are those ce

cenuick lightnings that play harınlessly in the “The necessity, ohjects, and influence evening cloud; but when they are made the mai

ims of common life, or, embodied in popular of moral philosophy," form the subject- fiction, find their way into the hearts of men, matter of this able and eloquent address. they are these same lightnings concentrated and The necessity of a scientific investigation brought down to earth, and consuming." of "the principles and obligations of

Under the third branch of his disduty,” is vindicated and enforced with course, in noticing the means by which great comprehensiveness of view and co- ethical opinions are diffused, and the gency of argument; the objects of moral effects of theory are brought out in conscience are justly apprehended--and the duct, professor Frisbie this speaks of the influence attributable to the cultivation of moral influence of polite literature. that science, not only through the medium

“ Those compositions in poetry and prose, which of systematic lectures and formal precept, drama, the novel, it cannot be doubted, have a

constitute the literature of a nation, the essay, the but also by means of the various sorts of most extensive and powerful operation upon the fiction and history, whether in prose or moral feelings and character of the age. The


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very business of the authors of such works is di- of heaven, and the pestilent va pours of night are rectly or indirectly with the heart. Even des- breathed in with the fragrance and balin, and criptions of natural scenery owe much of their the delicate and fair are the suresi victims of the beauty and interest to the moral associations they exposure." awaken. In like manier fine turns of expression Aiter reading this passage, we should or thought often operate more by suggestion than feel inclined to urge the expediency, if not enumeration. But when teelings and passions the necessity, of cultivating moral science, are directly described, or embodied in the hero and called forth by the incidents of a story, it is though it were only for the gratification then, that the magick of fiction and poetry is of taste, and the excitement of pleasuracomplete, that they enter in and dwell in the se- ble emotions, without any reference to cret chambers of ihe very soul, moulding it at

the ascertainment of duty, or the illumiwill. In these moments of deep excitement, must

nation of the conscience. not a bias be given to the character, and much be done to elevate and refine, or degrade and pollute those sympathies and sentiments which are the

“ How charming is divine philosophy! sources of much of our virtue and happiness, or

“ Not harsh and crabb'd, as dull tools suppose, our guilt and misery? The danger is that, in

“ But musical as is Apollo's lute, such cases, we do not discriminate the distinct ac- “ And a perpetual feast of nectar'd sucets, tion of associated causes. Even in what is pre

" Where no crude surfeit reigns.” sented to the senses, we are aware of the power of habitual combination. An object naturally

We cannot but congratulate Harvard disagreeable, becomes beautiful, because we upon the establishment of the Alford have often seen the sun shine or the dew sparkle Chair, and the accession of a lecturer so upon it, or it has been grouped in a scene of pe

well calculated to grace it. culiar interest. Thus the powers of tancy and of taste blend associations in the mind which dis

L., guise the original nature of moral qualities. A liberal generosity, a disinterested seli devotion, a Female Scripture Biography, includpowerful energy or deep sensibility of soul, a con- ing an Essay on what Christianity has tempt of danger and death are often so connected done for Women. By Francis Augustus in story with the most profligate principles and Cox, A. M. New-York. James Eastmanners, that the lauer are excused and even sanctified by the former. The impression, which burn & Co. 2 vols. 12mo. pp. 642. so powerfully seizes all the sympathies, is one; and the ardent youth becomes almost ambitious

The object of this work is an interestof a character he ought to abhor. So too senti- ing one--to delineate the private and doments, from which in their plain form delicacy mestic life and character of the exemwould revolt, are insinuated with the charms of plary women who are brought to our no. poetical imagery and expression, and even the coarseness of Fielding is probably less pernicions the contemplation of their principles and

tice in the sacred Scriptures; and, from refinement of writers like Moore; whose voluptuous sensibility steals upon conduct, to deduce lessons and motives the heart and corrupts its purity, as the moon for the guidance and governance of febeams, in some climates, are believed 10 poison males of every station at the present the substances on which they fall.

“But in no productions of modern genius is the day, With this aim the author has proreciprocal influence of morals and literature ceeded to infer the dispositions and cirmore distinctly seen than in those of the aụthor cumstances of the subjects of his meof Childe Harold. His character produced the moirs, from the few but forcible facts poems, and it cannot be doubted, that his poems which are related of them in the Bible. are adapted to produce such a character. His heroes speak a language supplied not more hy As far as we have been able to examine imagination than consciousness. They are not his work, he appears to have illustrated those machines, that, by a contrivance of the the history of the times to which he artist, send forth a musick of their own; but in

recurs, and of the individuals of whom he strunents, through which he breathes his very has endeavoured to trace the biography, soul, in tones of agonized sensibility that cannot but give a sympathetick impulse io those who

with no little learning and ingenuity. hear. The desolate misanthropy of bis mind Whilst we confess that we have not yet rises and throws its dark shade over his poetry, been able to bestow on these volumes like one of his own ruined castles; we feel it 10

that attention which they merit, we feel be sublime, but we forget, that is is a sublimity it cannot have till it is abandoned by every thing warranted, from the passages we have that is kind, and peaceful, and happy, and its halls read, in recommending them to the

peare ready to become the baunts of outlaws and rusal, not only of those for whose use assassins. Nor are his more tender and affec; they seem principally designed, but of all tionate passages those to which we can yield who are desirous of improving them. ourselves without a feeling of uneasiness. It is not that we can here and there select a proposi- selves in rational views of religion, and tion formally false or pernicious; but that he what is preliminary and essential to the leaves an impression uniavourable to a healthful attainment of those views, in the habit state of thought and feeling, peculiarly dange- of reasoning for themselves in matters rous to the finest minds and most susceptible pertaining as well to practice as to hearts. They are the scene of a summer evening, where all is tender and beautiful and grand; faith. It is in this light we particubut the damps of disease descend with the dews larly commend this work. By enter


ing into the situation of the persons to imbibe a liberal portion of his spirit, whose deeds and sayings are recorded in and to effuse it, as freely as it is imparted, Scripture, by considering their educa- on all those occasions which present tion and opportunities, and the condition themselves in our sphere of life. It is of the times in which they lived, we are neither necessary nor proper for men to led to estimate their piety and morality ape the attributes of Deity—to assume at its proper rate, to judge how far they his providence, or to affect his ubiquity. are fit examples for us, and to understand All that is required of an ordinary mortal the true intent and application of the pre- who is forced to toil for his subsistence, cepts enjoined upon them. It is well is to practice virtue in the lot to which he known that the sacred writers have al- is called. To take upon him the office of ways accommodated their language to the Saviour, and of those whom he has the ignorance and prejudices of the age ordained as his ministers, is unbecoming in which they wrote, and to know the and presumptuous. To go about to extent of that ignorance, and the nature preach the word, or evento do good,' is of those prejudices, is important to the to desert his duties at home. Were all right interpretation of the divine com- Christians to set up for apostles, pestimandments. It is of the highest moment lence and famine would soon put an end to distinguish between the moral and the to the propagation of the Gospel. ceremonial law, between the eternal Even the demeanour of the patriarchs ordinances of God and the local or and prophets, or of the primitive distemporary edicts of the Jewish theo- ciples, is not to be adopted by every cracy. To discern between injunctions christian. In seasons of persecution it of so different effect, yet promulged from is commendable to carry openly the exthe same high source, and with the same ternal indications of one's religious persolemnity, requires the exercise of the suasion—but when religion becomes a reasoning faculty. Indeed the reason of “a garment of praise,' an ostenti.tious mankind is continually appealed to in display of it, is, like every other foppery; the Bible; it is only as reasonable and disgusting. To cultivate a decorous and reasoning creatures that they can have an unaffected deportment, neither austere interest in its promises, or be affected by nor relaxed, neither repulsive nor famiits denunciations. Reason is therefore liar, should be the endeavour of every legitimately employed in weighing the friend of religion. The crown of righteousforce and ascertaining the spirit of Scrip- ness is not necessarily a crown of thorns; tural language. We must resort to the and wry faces are a very unnatural indisame aid to enable us to appreciate the cation of peace with God and charity merit of scripture characters. The sacred with all mankind. To use the bounties writers often state the facts, and leave the of Providence as not abusing them, to reader to make the comment. The sa- enjoy the good things of this life without crifice of his daughter by Jepthah, in suffering them to wean our affections from fulfilment of an impious vow, is no where Him who bestows them all, to possess & reprehended in the Bible-yet can any contented and grateful heart, and to difone doubt how the holy penman regarded fuse cheerfulness and generous feelings the act ? David is called a man after amongst our friends and neighbours, are God's own heart, though there are in- as consonant with Christianity as prayer stances recorded of his depravity; and and alms-giving. The love of God ought Soloman is termed the wisest of men, undoubtedly to predominate over every whilst numerous evidences are exhibited affection which comes into competition of his folly-but is any one at a loss to with it, but it can hardly be exercised as comprehend the real meaning of the an abstract sentiment. We love God writer ? In the best men there are faults, only as our benefactor, and supremely as which it is as incumbent on others to our supreme benefactor-but to love the avoid as to imitate their excellences. Any giver and to despise his gists, to crave one who, in contempt of the dictates of blessings and contemn the boons which his judgment and conscience, should pre- heaven is pleased to confer, is strangely tend to assume David or Solomon as his inconsistent, not to say absurd. It is model, for the purpose of gratifying his our duty to convert every talent put into lusts, would sin still more heinously than our hands to its proper account. He who he who should pursue his illicit pleasures has not created any thing in vain, has in open defiance of the interdict. not implanted in the human breast a

There is but one perfect examplar single desire which it is not lawful in Jesus Christ. Yet we are not servilely to some mode to indulge-and that man copy him. It should be our endeavour who will rather extirpate a passion than


514 PP.

regulate it, commits a mental violence as Letters from the South, written duroffensive as the mutilation of his body. ing an excursion in the summer of 1816.

It is not the interest of the friends of By the author of John Bull and Brother religion to draw a line of distinction be- Jonathan, &c. &c. New-York. James tween them and the world—nor the pro- Easthurn and Co. 1817. vols. Svo. vince of pastors to obstruct the narrow path to the fold. The physician of the soul should not study to make his potion book. Although there is too often an

We have been much gratified with this bitter. Community of religious feeling unsuccessful effort at vit, yet there are may result from community of feeling on other topics and when a little more

many happy sallies; and though the of life shall be carried into religion, a

style is sometimes debased by phrases great deal more of religion will probably unnecessarily

vulgar, and allusions, not so Le carried into life.


low and unseemly, yet on the whole it is A letter addressed to Cadwallader D. easy, animated, and nervous. The Colden, Esq. in answer to the strictures letters purport to have been written contained in his “ Life of Robert Ful- froin Virginia, and the subjects on which ton," upon the report of the select coin- they touch are various and interesting; mittee, to whom was referred a memo- but the principal object of the publication rial relative to steam navigation, pre- seems to have been to delineate the Vir. sented to the Legislature of New York, ginian character, which the author having at the session of 1814, with an Appen- been born and bred, as far north as ine dix, &c. by William Alexander Duer, State of New-York, if we may, judge Esq. printed at Albany, by E. and E. from the internal evidence furnished by Hosford, pp. 127.

his letters, and being a man of generous Mr. Duer was the chairman of the sentiments and much knowledge, not to Committee referred to in the preface, say a scholar, and acquainted with men and which had made a report, and pro- and things, is well qualified to do. He posed a Bill hostile to the exclusive right was kindly entertained by the Virginians, of Messrs. Livingston and Fulton, to and has repaid their hospitality, not with navigate the waters of this State by flattery, for he has indicated their faults steam, or at least to the ample form in as well as held up their virtues, but with which that right is enjoyed, and the ex- just and honest praise. His remarks on traordinary privileges by which it is pro- character and manners, which are numetected. The points of collision between rous, and suggested by an extensive and Mr. Duer and Mr. Colden, naturally re- vigilant observation of his countrymen, late to the great questions of legal right are in our opinion accurate and instruc and legislative policy embraced by this tive; they abound with good seirse and subject, and the merits of the various patriotic feeling ; and if his wisdom hras. claimants to the honour, and we may put on a merry guise, it is not for that add, emolument, resulting from the reason, the less wisdom, while by avoidgreatest improvement of modern times, ing all austerity of manner, he has fitted the introduction of steam-boats. These his book for the perusal of those who are matters without the legitimate limits of most need the advice it contains, to a our jurisdiction, and we certainly shall not much greater extent than he would if he treat of them in this summary and informal ' had been more grave and elaborate. manner. The letter in question is written As a specimen of the caustic humour with much spirit and ability. It betrays of the author, and also with the hope a strong personal feeling, although the that it may prove useful, we give the folexpression of it is in the main decorous lowing portrait of a certain class of young and gentlemanly. Mr. Duer's style has men of fashion. It is sketched with spirit, probably been formed by his habits of and may, it is to be regretted, be approlife, and in reading this production one priated by numbers in all our more conis continually reminded of a law argu- siderable towns. ment, or an address to the Legislature. mined to be a gentlemau, according to the ta:

little D

the contrary, was deterIt contains, however, a luminous state

shionable idea of the present day in our cities. As ment of facts and arguments, and will lie was to be rich, there was no occasion for him be read with much pleasure by those to know any thing—but low to enjoy it like a who feel an interest in the subject.* D. gentleman. He accordingly look his degree as

ihe first dunce in the college; and the first thing We would also refer to a “Short account of the origin of Steam Boats,” a sinall pamphlet published le did on coming to the possession of nearly half

a million, was to send out his measurv for a suit by W. Thornton, Esq. the presidiog oficer in the Patent Office, in 1814.

of cloubes 10 u Londou tailor, Ue formwich VOL. 11.--No. 11


listed himself under some tavern bucks, and strute married ladies, and thrice venerable spinted up and down with a surtoue which sters, who go about our cities like roarsaved the Corporation the trouble of sweeping the streets—was seen every where at public pla ing lions, doing good.” To this charge ces and parties, without doing anything but the author thus replies : yawn at the one, and stand in every body's way “ Here, too, you mistake me. I only obin the other, eating pickled oysters. His esti- jected to the infinite number of these institations, mate of a party, where a man of feeling and re- which are placed solely under the direction of finement would go to enjoy clegant society, and womeil, whose easiness of belief, and want of rational amusement, was always founded on the experience of the various disguises under which quantity of porter, wine, and pickled oysters, the vicious practise on the credulity of the handed round. Never was he known, on any charitable, render them incompetent to such a occasion, to do any one thing either pleasing or delicate task. I am satisfied that this almost inusetuland, of course, in a little time he attained discriminate charity causes far more misery than to the reputation of a fine gentleman ; because, it alleviates panders to vice and immorality, by as he never did any thing, le must needs be so; taking from the labouring class the strongest id. employment being unworthy thai high character. ducement to industry and economy, namely, the Some of the best bred people doubled his prezen- conviction that these alone would keep them sions, until he thought of finding fault with every from starving ; by rendering it easier to get re thing he beard and saw, when the opinion of his lief by begging ihan by work; and finally, by high breeding became unanimous.

giving a sort of respectability to pauperism and Whether the people got tired of him, or he beggary, which destroys the salutary contempt grew tired of the people, I don't exactly know; we used to feel towards those now right honourbut in order to gei a new gloss, he wení abroad, able and thriving professions. The moment you staid six months, and came back vastly improved; make beggary a tolerably respectable calling; for he found this country more intolerable than the moment you relieve it from the tax which it ever-a sure sign of excessive refinement, espe. pays in society, by being despised ; that moment cially as he made a point of proclaiming his opi- you create armies of Lazarones, and convert the nion aloud at all parties. When I was last at

idle and the indolent, whom the sense of shame N- I saw him in a book-store, reading a had hitherto delerred, into sturdy beggars. book upside down, and dressed as follows: to When I was last in your city, where there is a wit, one liule hat, with a steeple crown; one pair society for the relief of everything, I was struck of corsetts; one coat, so tight he could just with the hold and confident air which pauperism breathe; one pair of pantaloons, so immcasurally had assumed, which I suppose paruly arose from wide and loose you could hardly tell whether they the unwonted respectability of the dress it bad vere petticoats or not; I don't recollect the resi. assumed. Formerly, it was necessary for a bem due of his costume--but his hair.came out from gar to be both ragged and dirty, and to exhibit beneath his hat like an ostrich's tail, and he stuck the strongest symptoms of inability to work. But out behind like the African Venus. No doubt the during the period of my visil, I was several ladies found him quite irresistible.

times accosted by stout, hearty fellows, who un“One might moralize and speculate on what der pretence they could not get work, begged liad been the different estimation of these young stayed, complained to me that there was hardly

without a blush. The friend with whom I men, at least hereafter, had they pursued a course becoming their fortune and education, and de- a day in which he was not called on for charitas voted themselves to a useful or brilliant career.

ble contributions, either to relieve somebody, ar Had they employed part of their fortunes, and to convert the Hindoos, or Hottentots, by some their leisure, in adorning their minds, and cu- of those good ladies I spoke of, who are sucta couraging a taste for refined, elegant, and scien- sturdy beggars that there is no refusing them. tific pursuits, although perhaps they might not

One day, as I was sitting alone in the drawing have attained to any loriy eminence, they would

room, thinking about matters and things in ge. bave become associated, at least, with those that neral, I was roused by a most confident rap at the were eminent. They might have become their door. On opening ít, a smart dressed young patrons, if not their equals, and attained to a lady tripped in. Professivg a great respea for blameless, nay, noble immortality, as the muni.

thie sex, I bowed most profoundly, and invited ficent encouragers of genius ; instead of being in her into the parlour. The moment she sat downl, their lives, the contempt of the virtuous and the without being asked her wishes, and with the wise; and in their deaths, the companions of air of a demand rather than a request, she told oblivion."

me that her mother beiug in want of ten dollars,

she had come with Miss The author's remarks on Charitable and a request that I would let her have the

's compliments, Societies are, we think, eminently just. money! Now Miss was secretary, or If there be any one evil in our commu- treasurer, I forget which, to several charitable nity that cries out for extirpation more

institutions, and exceedingly potent in the beau than another, it is the increase of pau.

monde ; so I paid the ten dollars, to escape the

terrible areopagus” of the lea-lable. The perism, principally assignable to the young lady took the money, with the air of remanner in which alms are distributed by ceiving her due rather than a favour ; slightly public charities, as the cause.

On this lisped Obliged to you, Sir-Ma can now send subject, the following observations must

me to a dancing-school this winter' and slid be confessed by all to contain too much dollars-laid up in heaven! thought I.

out of the rooin with a right fashionable air. Tes truth to be lightly overlooked. The “I had scarcely recommenced my cogitations, author had been charged by his friend when there was another rapal the door, and a most and correspondent, with “cherishing a

respectable looking inatron was shown in, who confirmed antipathy to charitable insti- ney for the support of missionaries among the

handed me a subscription-book for raising motutions, and especially to those venerable lottentots. I asked her, uth & the respues I

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