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midable, from the works erecting at Liege British subjects." From 60 to 70,000 persons and Namur.

visit the Island periodically. The result of the negotiations at the Hague.

AFRICA. between the ministers of the Netherlands and the United States of America, bas been Two Tunisian vessels captured, in July transmitted to the respective governments. and August, several Hamburgh vessels, the GERMANY

crews of which were thrown into prison. The Diet of the Germanic Confederation

A demand was made by the captain of his have resolved that they will receive minis

Britannic Majesty's frigate Myrmidon, for ters from the several European States, and the surrender of the Hamburghers, which also from the United States of America; and

the Bashaw declined doing until the arrival that they will represent themselves by minis- of certain ships that had been captured by ters at foreiyn courts, whenever the interests

his cruisers, but detained by the British goof the confederation shall require it In con.

vernment. The demand was made by the Brisequence of the great emigration from Ger. tişh otficer on the ground that the vessels many to the United States of America, a were captured within the British waters, and representative has been sent by the confede- it was accompanied by a call upon the Bashaw ration to watch over the interests of his to enjoin upon his corsairs not to cruise

henceforth in those waters. The fact was countrymen upon their arrival in America.

The celebrated mineralogist. Werner, who denied by the Bashaw, and the injunction died at Dresden on the sun of June last, at

would therefore be useless. In consequence the age of 87 years, gave in his will, his col

of this evasion, the British consul called upon lection of minerals to the Academy of Frey- the Bashaw for a categorical note, which was burg: it coutained more than 100,000 speci- immediately given, but the purport of wbich inens, aud is valued at 150,000 crowas.

is not stated.


SPANISH AMERICA. The Russian Court will spend the ensuing

Venesuela. winter at Moscow. Major General Count Van Tuyl bas been appointed ambassador forces of the Independents. In abandoning

Both Guyanas are now occupied by the from the Emperor of Russia to the United States of America, in the place of M. Dasch. these territories the royalists left behind koff, and is on his way thither. The Russian great quantities both of warlike supplies and

articles of commerce. The richest booty, General Yermoloff has gone on a mission to Persia. This envoy has cai ried with bim, however, was taken by the naval force of the plans, letters, and reports, sent to Bonaparte iwenty-one sail of vessels, most of them

patriots, which captured from the enemy at the time of his invasion of Russia, and found in his abandoned carriages after his re

brigs. The prospects of the independents in treat, which had convinced Napoleon that an

Caraccas are also bright. Letters from Guy

ana of the 21st to the 291h of September expedition to India was practicable; and it is

state, that “ General Zaraza, with two thousaid to be an ascertained fact, that if he could have compelled Russia to make such a peace

sand horse, is on the other side of the way

to Orituco; General Bermudez, with two as he wished, he had resolved to send a Russian and French force on that expedition. A

thousand infantry, one hundred draghons,

and four field pieces, is about setting out to deputation from the nobles of Courland has presented a resolution for the abolition of incorporate his forces with those of the personal servitude among the peasants of where they must be joined by general Paez

foriner, and occupy Calahozo and San Carlos, that province, for which they have requested with two thousand horse. General Aionathe confirmation of the Emperor. The no. bles of Esthonia were amongst the first of gas is ordered to take possession of Barcethose of the Empire who had given last year fantry. The remaining body of the army,

lona with his brigade and three hundred inthe noble example of the abolition of slavery. commanded by the general in chief Simon

The barvest throughout the Empire is represented 10 be very abundant,' and the

de Bolivar, is preparing to march imme

diately; weather serene.

; the squadron and two thousand warriors will be left to protect this province. By

next December the tri-coloured flag will be The apprehension of a war between Rus

seen waving triumphantly in Caraccas, and sia and Turkey, has been removed by intelli- every single spot occupied by the Royalists gence from Semlin, stating that the Porte

wii be freed by the liberating army." bad ordered the Servian commandant, Rich

East Florida. ta, who put Czerny Georges to death, to be On the 19th and 20th of November nine delivered up to the Russians.

were elected representatives of the ASIA.

people of Amelia, for the purpose of consti

tuting a provincial government; they were to By a late census of the Island of Bombay, hold their session on the 1st of December. it appears, there are 403,786 Hindoos, 27,811 Since the administration of affairs fell into Mahometans, 13,155 Parsees, 11,454 native the hands of Aury, things have taken a turn Christians, 781 Jews. The houses are 20,786. unfavourable to the wholesome regulation of This estimate is exclusive of temporary so- society, and from the proximity of Amelia journers, European and native troops, or Island to the United States of America, it





has excited the altention of that nation, and maintain and hand them down, in their utmost it is said that troops are moving to that quar- purity, to our latest posterity. ter by the order of its government.

I have the satisfaction to inform you, that as

arrangement, wbich bad been cominenced by my BRITISH AMERICA.

predecessor, with the British government, for Canada.

ihe reduction of the naval force, by Great Britain

and the United States, on the lakes, has been Mr. Miles Macdonald, governor of Lord concluded : by which it is provided, that peither Selkirk's colony at Hudson's Bay, is expected party shall keep in service, on Lake Champlain, at Montreal to meet his trial on the charges more than one vessel ; on Lake Ontario more which have been preferred against him by than one ; and on Lake Erie, and the upper the agents of the North-West Company.

lakes, more than two; to be armed, each with News from Quebec, under date of the

one cannon only; and that all the other armed 24th November, states that the winter had is interchanged, shall be dismantled. It is also

vessels, of both parties, of which an exact list fairly set in, and that the last vessel that agreed, that the force retained shall be restricted, would sail this season left that place the day in its duty, to the internal purposes of each party; before.

and that the arrangement shall remain in force

until six months shall have expired after notice Messrs. Rodney, Graham, and Bla: d, have given by one of the parties to the other of its debeen appointed commissioners to the South.

sire thai it should terminate. By this arrangeAmerican provinces, and, with Mr. Bracken- is of still greater importance, the danger of colli

ment, useless expense, on both sides, and, wbat ridge, secretary to the mission. have em

sion, between armed vessels, in those inland barked on board the Congress frigate, Cap- waters, which was great, is prevented. tain Sinclair, to proceed immediately to their I have the satisfaction also to state, that the place of destination.

cominissioners, under the fourth article of the

treaty of Ghent, to whom it was referred to dePROCEEDINGS OF CONGRESS.

cide, to which party the several islands in the Bay

of Passamaquoddy belonged under the treaty of On Monday, December 1st, being the day one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three, appointed by the constitution for the meeting have agreed in a report, by which all the islands of Congress, the members of both branches in the possession of each party before the late assembled at the capitol, and both houses war, have been decreed to it. The commissionwere duly organized. Mr. Gaillard took the ers acting under the other articles of the treaty chair

as President of the Senate, pro lempore. of Ghent, for the settlement of boundaries, have Mr. Clay was chosen, by a large majority, also been engaged in the discharge of their reSpeaker of the House of Representatives. A

spective duties, but have not yet completed them.

The difference which aros between the two gocommittee was appointed, on the part of each house, jointly to wait on the president of the United States to take and cure fish on the

vernments under that treaty, respecting the right of the United States, to inform him of their coast of the British provinces north of our limits, organization.

which had been secured by the treaty of one SENATE.

thousand seven hundred and eighty-three, is still Tuesday, December 2d. At 12 o'clock, this in negotiation. The proposition made by this day, the following message was transmitted government, to extend to the colonies of Great by the President of the United States to both Britain the principle of the convention of London, houses of Congress, by his secretary, Mr. by which the commerce between the ports of the Joseph Jones Monroe.

United States and British ports in Europe, had

been placed on a footing of equality, has been PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE.

declined by the British government. This sub

ject having been thus amicably discussed be Fellorc-Citizens of the Senate,

iween the two governments, and it appearing

that the British government is unwilling to depart and of the House of Representatires,

from its present regulations, it remains for conAt no period of our political existence, had we gress to decide whether they will make any so much cause to felicitate ourselves at the pros- other regulations, in consequence thereof, for the perous and happy condition of our country: - protection and improvement of our navigation. The abundant fruits of the earth have filled it The negotiation with Spain, for spoliations on with plenty. An extensive and profitable com- our commerce, and the settlement of boundaries, merce has greatly augmented our revenue.- remains, essentially, in the state it held by the The public credit has attained an extraordinary communications that were made to congress by elevation. Our preparations for defence, in case my predecessor. It has been evidently the poof future wars, from which, by the experience licy of the Spanish government to keep the neof all nations, we ought not to expect to be ex: gotiation suspended, and in this the United States empted, are advancing, under a well digested have acquiesced, from an amicable disposition system, with all the dispatch which so imporiant a towards Spain, and in the expectation that her work will admit. Our free government, founded government would, from a sense of justice, on ihe interests and affections of the people, has finally accede to such an arrangement as would gained, and is daily gaining strength. Local jea- be equal between the parties. A disposition has lousies are rapidly yielding to more generous, been lately shown by the Spanish government to enlarged, and enlightened views of national

po- move in the negotiation, which has been met by licy. For advantages so numerous and highly this governmeni, and, should the conciliatory and important, it is our duty to unite in grateful ac- friendly policy, which has invariably guided our knowledgments to that omnipotent Being from councils, be reciprocated, a just and satisfactory whom they are derived, and in unceasing prayer arrangement may be expected. It is proper, that he will endow us with virtue and strength to however, to remark, that no proposition has yet

been made, from which such a result can be pre- which characterized the other, and more particusumed.

larly by the equipment of privateers which have It was anticipated, at an early stage, that the annoyed our commerce, and by smuggling. These contest between Spain and the colonies would be establishments, if ever sanctioned by any authocome highly interesting to the United States.-It rity whatever, which is not believed, have abused was natural that our citizens should sympathize their trust, and forfeited all claim to considerain events which affected their neighbours.— tion. A just regard for the rights and interests seemed probable also, that the prosecution of of the United States required that they should he the contliet along our coast, and in contiguous suppressed; and orders have accordingly issued countries, would occasionally interrupt our com- to that effect. The imperious considerations which merce, and otherwise affect the persons and pro- produced this measure will be explained to the perty of our citizens. These anticipations have parties whom it may, in any degree, concern. been realized. Such injuries have been received To obtain correct information on every subfrom persons acting under the authority of both ject in which the United States are interested ; 10 the parties, and for which redress has, in most inspire just sentiments, in all persons in authority, instances, been withheld. Through every stage on either side, of our friendly disposition, so far of the conflict, the United States have maintained as it may comport with an impartial neutrality; ·an impartial neutrality, giving aid to neither of and to secure proper respect to our commerce in the parties in men, money, ships, or munitions of every port and from every flag, it has been war. They have regarded the contest, not in thought proper to send a ship of war, with three the light of an ordinary insurrection or rehel. distinguished citizens, along the southern coasto lion, but as a civil war between parties nearly with instruction to touch at such ports as they may equat, having, as to neutral powers, equal rights. find most expedient for these purposes. With Our ports have been open to both, and every ar- the existing authorities, with those in the possesricle, the fruit of our soil, or of the industry of sion of, and exercising the sovereignty, must the our citizens, which either was permitted to take, communication be held; from them alone can has been equally free to the other. Should the redress for past injuries, committed by persons colonies establish their independence, it is proper acting under them, be obtained; by them alone now to state, that this government neither seeks, can the commission of the like, in future, be pre. i nor would accept, from them, any advantage, in vented. commerce or otherwise, which will not be Our relations with the other powers of Europe equally open to all other nations. The colonies have experienced no essential change since the will, in that event, become independent states, last session. In our intercourse with each, due - free from any obligation to, or connexion with attention continues to be paid to the protection of us which it may not then be their interest to our commerce, and to every other object in form on the basis of a fair reciprocity.

which the United States are interested. A strong In the summer of the present year an expedi- hope is entertained, that, by adhering to the tion was set on foot against East-Florida, by per- maxims of a just, a candid, and friendly policy, sons claiming to act under the authority of some we may long preserve amicable relations with ali of the colonies, who took possession of Amelia the powers of Europe, on conditions advanIsland, at the mouth of the St. Mary's river, near tageous and honourable to our country. the boundary of the State of Georgia. As this With the Barbary states and Indian tribes our provinee lies eastward of the Mississippi, and pacific relations have been preserved. is bounded by the United States and the ocean In calling your attention to the internal conon every side, and has been a subject of negotia- cerns of our country, the view which they extion with the government of Spain, as an indem- hibit is peculiarly gratifying. The payinents * nity for losses by spoliation, or in exchange for which have been made into the treasury show territory of equal value westward of the Missis- the very productive state of the public revenue. sippi, a fact well known to the world, it excited After satisfying the appropriations made by law surprise that any countenance should be given for the support of the civil government, and of to this measure by any of the colonies. As it the military and na 'al establishments embracwould be difficult to reconcile it with the friendly ing suitable provision for fortifications and for relations existing between the United States and the gradual increase of the navy, paying the the colonies, a doubt was entertained whether it interest of the public debı, and extinguishing had been authorized by them, or any of them. more than eighteen millions of the principal, This doubt has gained strength, by the circum- within the present year, it is estimated that a stances which have unfolded themselves in the balance of more than six millions of dollars will prosecution of the enterprise, which have marked remain in the treasury on the first day of January, it as a mere private unauthorized adventure. applicable to the current service of the ensuing year. Projected and commenced with an incompetent The payments into the treasury during the force, reliance seems to have been placed on year one thousand eight hundred and eighteen, what might be drawn, in defiance of our laws, on account of imposts and tonnage, resulting from within our limits; and of late, as their re- principally from duties which have accrued in sources have failed, it has assumed a more the present year, may be fairly estimated at marked character of unfriendliness to us; the (wenty millions of dollars ; internal revenues, at island being made a channel for the illicit intro- two millions five hundred thousand ; public lands, duction of slaves from Africa into the United at one million five hundred thousand; bank diviStates, an asylum for fugitive slaves from the dends and incidental receipts, at five hundred neighbouring States, and a port for smuggling of thousand; making, in the whole, twenty-four mil.

lions and five hundred thousand dollars. A similar establishment was made, at an earlier The annual permanent expenditure for the period, by persons of the same description, in support of the civil government, and of the the Gulph of Mexico, at a place called Galves- army and navy, as now established by law, ton, within the limits of the United States, as we amounts to eleven millious eight hundred thou. contend, under the cession of Louisiana. This sand dollars; and for the sinking fund, to ten enterprise has been marked, in a more signal millions; making in the whole twenty-one milo manner, by all the objectionable circumstances lions eight hundred thousand dollars ; leaving an VOL. 11.–No. Ili.


every kind.

annual excess of revenue beyond the expendi- The hunter state can exist only in the vast, unture of two millions seven hundred thousand cultivated desert. It yields to the more dense dollars, exclusive of the balance estimated to be and compact form, and greater force, of civiin the treasury on the first day of January, one lized population ; and of right it ought to yield, thousand eight hundred and eighteen.

for the earth was given to mankind to support In the present state of the treasury, the whole the greatest number of which it is capable, and of the Louisiana debt may be redeemed in the no tribe or people have a right to withhold from year one thousand eight hundred and nineteen; the wants of others more than is necessary for after which, if the public debt continues as it their own support and comfort. It is gratifying now is, above par, there will be annually about to know, thai the reservations of land made by five millions of the sinking fund mexpended, the treaties with the tribes on Lake Erie, were until the year one thousand eight hundred and made with a view to individual ownership among twenty-five, when the loan of one thousand eight them, and to the cultivation of the soil by all, and hundred and twelve, and the stock created by that an annual stipend has been pledged to supply funding treasury notes, will be redeemable. their other wants. It will merit the considera

It is also estimated that the Mississippi stock tion of Congress, whether other provision, net will be discharged during the year one ihousand stipulated by the treaty, ought to be made for eight hundred and nineteen from the proceeds these tribes, and for the advancement of the liof the public lands assigned to that object; after beral and humane policy of the United States which the receipts from those lands will annually towards all the tribes within our limits, and more add 10 the public revenue the sum of one million particularly for their improvement in the arts of frve hundred thousand dollars, making the per- civilized life. manent annual revenue amount to twenty-six Among the advantages incident to these purmillions of dollars, and leaving an annual excess chases, and to those which have preceded, the of revenue, after the year one thousand eight security which may thereby be afforded to our hundred and nineteen, beyond the permanent au- inland frontiers is peculiarly important. With a . thorized expenditure, of more than four millions strong barrier, consisting of our own people, thus of dollars.

planted on the Lakes, the Mississippi and the By the last returns from the department of Mobile, with the protection to be derived from war, the militia force of the several States may the regular force, Indian hostilities, if they do " he estimated at eight hundred thousand men, in- not altogether cease, will henceforth lose their fantry, artillery, and cavalry. Great part of this terror. Fortifications in those quarters, to any force is armed, and measures are taken to arm extent, will not be necessary, and the expense althe whole. An improvement in the organization tending them may be saved. A people accusand discipline of the militia is one of the great lomed to the use of fire-arms only, as the Indian objects which clains the unremitted attention of tribes are, will shun even moderate works which Congress.

are defended by cannon. Great fortifications The regular force amounts nearly to the num- . will, therefore, be requisite only, in future, along ber required by law, and is stationed along the the coast, and at some points in the interior, conAtlantic and inland frontiers.

nected with it. On these will the safety of our of the naval force, it has been necessary to towns, and the commerce of our greai rivers, maintain strong squadrons in the Mediterranean, from the Bay of Fundy to the Mississippi

, deand in the Gulf of Mexico.

pend. On these, therefore, should the utmost alFrom several of the Indian trihes inhabiting iention, skill, and labour, be bestowed. the country bordering on Lake Erie, purchases A considerable and rapid augmentation in the have been made of lands, on conditions very value of all the public lands, proceeding from favourable to the United States, and it is pre- these and other obvious causes, may henceforsumed, not less so to the tribes themselves. By . ward be expected. The difficulties attending these purchases, the Indian title, with moderate early enigrations, will be dissipated even in the reservations, has been extinguished to the whole most remote parts.

Several new states have of the land within the limits of the state of Ohio, been admitted into our Union, to the west and and to a great part of that in the Michigan ter- south, and territorial governments, happily or. ritory and of ihe State of Indiana. From the ganized, established over every other portion in Cherokee tribe a tract has been purchased, in which there is vacant land for sale. In termithe State of Georgia, and an arrangement made, nating Indian hostilities, as must soon be done, in by which, in exchange for lands beyond the Miss a formidable shape at least, the emigration whicha sissippi, a great pari, if not the whole of the has heretofore been great, will probably er• land belonging to that tribe, eastward of that crease, and the demand for land, and the aug. river, in the States of North Carolina, Georgia, mentation in its value, be in proportion. The and Tennessee, and in the Alabama Territory, great increase of our population throughout the will soon be acquired. By these acquisitious, Union will alone produce an important effect, and others, that may reasonably be expected and in no quarter will it be so sensibly felt as in soon to follow, we shall be enabled to extend our those in contemplation. The public lands are a settlements from the inhabited parts of the state public stock, which ought to be disposed of to of Ohio, along Lake Erie, into the Michigan ihe best advantage for the nation. The nation territory ; and to connect our settlements by de- should, therefore, derive the profit proceeding grees, dirough the State of lodiana and the Illi- from the continual rise in their value. Every jois territory, to that of Missouri. A similar, epcouragement should be given to the emigrants, and cqually advantageous effect will soon be pro- consistent with a fair competition between them; duced to the south through the whole extent of but that competition should operate, in the first the states and territory which border on the sale, to the advantage of the nation rather than of waters emptying into the Mississippi and the individuals

. Great capitalists will derive all ebe Mobile. In this progress, which the rights of benefit incident to their superior wealth, under nature demand, and nothing can prevent, mark- any mode of sale which may be adopted. But ing a growth rapid and gigantic, ii is our duty to if, looking forward to the rise in the value of lbe make new efforts for the preservation, improve public lands, they should have the opportunity of ment, aird civilization of the native inhabitants. amassing, at a low price, vast bodies is their

hands, the profit will accrue to them, and not to machinery and fabric of all the most useful the public. They will also have the power, in manufactures, is of great value. Their preser that degree, to control the emigration and settle- vation, which depends on due encouragement, is ment in such manner as their opinion of their re- connected with the high interests of the nation. spective interests might dictaie. I submit this Although the progress of the public buildings sabject to the consideration of Congress, that has been as favourable as circumstances have such further provision may be made in the sale of permitted, it is to be regretted that the Capitol the public lands, with a view to the public inte- is not yet in a state to receive you—There is rest, should any be deemed expedient, as in their good cause to presume that the two wings, the judgment may be best adapted to the object. only parts as yet commenced, will be prepared

When we consider the vast extent of territory for that purpose at the next session. The time within the United States, the great amount and seems now io have arrived, when this subject value of its productions, the connexion of its may be deemed worthy the attention of Congress, parts, and other circumstances, on which their on a scale adequate to national purposes. The prosperity and happiness depend, we cannot fail completion of the middle building will be necesto entertain a high sense of the advantage to be sary to the convenient accommodation of Couderived from the facility which may be afforded gress, of the committees, and various offices bein the intercourse between them, by means of longing to it. It is evident that the other public good roads and canals. Never did a country of buildings are altogether insufficient for the acsuch vast extent offer equal inducèments to im- commodation of the several executive depart. provements of this kind, nor ever were conse- ments, some of whom are much crowded, and quences of such magnitude involved in them. As even subjected to the necessity of obtaining it in this subject was acied on by Congress at the last private buildings, at some distance from the session, and there may be a disposition to revive head of the department, and with incouvenience it at the present, I have brought it into view, for to the managcinent of the public business. Most the purpose of communicating my sentiments on nations bave taken an interest and a pride in the a very important circumstance connected with it, improvement and ornament of their inetropolis, with that freedom and candour which a regard and none were more conspicuous in that respect for the public interest, and a proper respect for than the ancient Republics. The policy which Congress, require. A difference of opinion has dictated the establishment of a permanent ressexisted, from the first formation of our constitu• dence for the national government, and the spirit tion to the present time, among our most enlightin which it was commenced and has been proses ened and virtuous citizens, respecting the right of cuted, show that such improvement was thought Congress to establish such a system of improve worthy the attention of this nation. Its central ment. Taking into view the trust with which I position, between the northern and southern exam now honoured, it would be improper, after tremes of our Union, and ils approach to the west, what has passed, that this discussion should be re- at the head of a great navigable river, which vived, with an uncertainty of my opinion respect: interlocks with the western walers, prove the ing the right. Disregarding early impressions, I wisdom of the councils which established it. have bestowed on the subject all the deliberation thing appears to be more reasonable and proper, which its great importance, and a just sense of than that convenient accommodations should be my duty, required, and the result is, a settled provided, on a well-digested plan, for the heads conviction in my mind, that Congress do not of the several departments, and for the Attorneypossess the right. It is not contained in any of General; and it is believed that the public ihe specified powers granted to Congress ; nor ground in the city, applied to those objects, will can I consider it incidental to, or a necessary be found amply sufficient. I subunit this subject mean, viewed on the most liberal scale, for car. to the consideration of Congress, that such rying into effect any of the powers which are further provision may be made in it, as to thein specifically granted. In communicating, this may seem proper. result, I cannot resist the obligation which I feel In conteinplating the happy situation of the to suggest to Congress the propriety of recom. United States, our attention is drawn, with pecumending to the States the adoption of an amenda* liar interest, to the surviving officers and soldiers ment to the constitution which shall give to Con- of our revolutionary army, who so eminently gress the right in question. In cases of doubtful contributed, by their services, to lay its foundaa construction, especially of such vital interest, it Lion. Most of those very meritorious citizens comports with the nature and origin of our insti- bave paid the debt of nature, and gone to tutions, and will contribute much to preserve repose. It is believed that among the survivors them, to apply to our constituents for an explicit there are some not provided for by existing laws, grant of the power. We may confidently rely, who are reduced to indigence, and even to real that if it appears to their satisfaction, t at the distress. These men have a claim on the gratis power is necessary, it will always be grant d. In tude of their country, and it will do honour to this case I am bappy to observe, that experience their country to provide for them. The lapse has afforded the most ample proof of its utility; of a few years inore, and the opportunity will and that the benign spirit of conciliation and be for ever lost ; indeed, so long already has harmony, which now manifests itself ibroughout been the interval, that the number to be beneour union, promises to such a recommendation fitted by any provision which may be made, will the most prompt and favourable result. I think not be great. proper to suggest, also, in case this measure is It appearing in a satisfactory manner that the adopted, that it be recommended to the States to revenue arising from imposts and tonnage, and Include, in the amendment sought, a right in from the sale of the public lands, will be fully Congress to institute, likewise, seminaries of adequate to the support of the civil govermeni, learning, for the all-important purpose of dif of the present military and naval establishments, fusing knowledge among our fellow citizens including the annual augmentation of the latter, throughout the United States. Our manufacta to the extent provided for ; to the payment of che ries will require the continued autention of Con- interest on the public debt, and to the extinguistgress. The capital employed in them is consi- ment of it at the time authorized, without the aid derable, and the knowledge acquired in the · of the internal taxes; I consider it my duty to re-.

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