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jaws equal, gill cover angular, a broad dat brown. Teeth of different forms, some spine before the angle: first dorsal fin with bidentated or dentellated, pine spiny rays, the second dorsal fin with 14. Sp. Phycis marginatus. Brown above, eleven rays, whereof the first is spinescent, white beneath, fins brown, tail rounded maranal fin with twelve rays, whereof three ginated of black, lateral line descending in spiny, second ray of the thoracic fin mucro. the middle, first dorsal fin triangular with ten nate elongated, a Aesh coloured spot at the rays, jugular fins with two long rays con. base of the pectoral fins. tail forked.-Obs. nected only at the base, reaching the anal This fish is vulgarly called White Perch, a fio.-Obs. My genus Phycis established in my Dame common to many species It is not Sicilian Ichthyology contains the species of uncommodi in Pennsylvania, in the Susque. the genera Blennius, wlich have two dorsal hannah, Delaware, and Schuylkill. Size fins, jaws with teeth, the lower shorter and from four to eight inches long. The upper with an appendage or barb, the jugular fins part from the mouth to the first dorsal in is with few rays partly unconnected, and withsloping and straight, and the back part is simi- out membrane, &c. Many American species lar. Head, Hesh coloured, brownish above; of the G. Gadus Mitchill, belong also to it. gill cover scaly, the second plate serrate, a This species is found in Long-Island sound, suture from the eyes to the upper part of the and on the shores of Rhode-Island; its vullast plate, which is rounded with a membra- gar name is Kusk : its flesh is not quite as naceous angular appendage. Scales denti- good as that of the Cods. Length from one culared. Thoracic fins while with six rays, to two feet; the iris and barb is while: the one spiny; pectoral finns fulvous, with seven- second dorsal fin has about sixty rays, the teen rays: other fins brownish
anal fin about forty, the pectoral are oblong 12. Sp. Perca nolala. Body elongated pale with twelve rays. olivaceous, with six narrow transverse brown 15. Sp. Sparus erythrops. Body oval brown stripes, and many scallered blackish dots, shining, covered with large scales, belly yelbelly unspotted : lower jaw longer; gill low; iris purple red, teeth small acute, a cover angular, a broad Hat spine before the transverse wrinkle over the nose : dorsal fin angle : fins olivaceous, first dorsal fin with with five spiny rays, tail entire truncated.fourteen spiny rays, with a black spot before Ohs. This species has been communicated to and behind, anal bio with ten rays; whereof me by Dr. Mease: it is found in the Chesatwo are spinescent, tail forked.-Obs. This peak, the Susquehannah, and Elk river, it is species has been communicated tu me by sometimes brought to the Philadelphia market, Gov. De Will Clinton, who has found it in where it is known by the vulgar names of Lake Erie ; it is volgarly called Yellow Perch, Oldwives, or Sunfish. It comes next to the or Brindled Perch, with many other species. Sp. argyrops and Sp. chrysops, length about Size from three 10 six inches ; head dotted six inches, body rounded, very compressed, with black Second dorsal fin with fourteen bead small, operculum with an angular furrays, pectoral fins lifteen, thoracic six, wbereof row; scales very large. one is spiny. Both this and the foregoing be- 16. Sp. Exocelus rubescens. Mouth without long to the real genus Perca, having two barbs, pectoral fins reaching near to the tail, dorsal fins and a serrate spinescent opercu. body elongated subquadrangular, entirely redlum: they agree besides in the following dish ; dorsal and anal fins opposed. Obs. I secondary characters, bead wrinkled above, bave observed this species in 1815, in the mouth with teeth, the upper jaw extensible, Atlantic Ocean, south west of the bank of operculum scaly, with four plates, the second Newfoundland. It has the habit and manserrate, the third spinescent, the fourth with ners of the other species: the Coryphena a membranaceous projecting angle, six bran. hippuris preys upon it: length about ten cbial rays, lateral line following the back, inches. first ray of the dorsal and anal fins short, &c. 17. Sp. Callionymus pelagicus. First dorsal
13. Sp Petromyzon leucoplerus. Budy fiu reaching the tail, gill cover spinescent, gradually compressed, lead colour above, tail entire : body silvery, covered with redsilvery beneath, swelled cheeks, large white dish spots, fins' spotled.-Obs. Observed in mouth with yellow teeth in concentrical 1815 in the Atlantic Ocean, together with the rows, unequal : gills in a diagonal curved foregoing: it flies also over the water, length Pow: dorsal fins white, the second opposed only three inches, very handsome, body the rent, tail ovate lanceolate acute brown slender. decurrent.-Obs. A curious fish differing from 18. Sp. Clupea Sapidissima. Height of the P. sanguisuga of Europe which has a cylin- body one-fourth of total length, head gilt, drical body, orange teeth, gills in a straight jaws equal, gill cover veined; back greenisk Pow, second dorsal fin close to the tail, &c. brown, sides silvery and gilt, an irregular Vulgar names Small lamprey, Shad lamprey. brown spot behind the gill cover, and a row River lamprey, &c. I have observed it in of smaller spots under the scales; abdomen April 1816, in Philadelphia, the first speci- serrated, no lateral line ; pectoral fin short; men being communicated by Dr. Mease. It dorsal fin, with sixteen rays, and a brown is found in the Delaware, and torments in the spotupwards anteriorly ; anal fin, with spring the shads and berrings. Length from twenty rays.- Ohs. This species is the six to 12 inches. Eyes silvery, iris with three Clupea alosa of Mitchill; it was first distin. rings, the second silvery, the others bluish guished and named by Wilson, in the American edition of Ree's Cyclopedia, but not de- racemose, pedicels biglandular: fruits glescribed! Its vulgar names are Shad, Common bular, red.-Obs. A fine new tree, Gifteen to Shad. Spring Shad, &c. It has the manners twenty-five feet high, which grows on the of the European shad, living in winter in the banks of brooks, near Fisbkill, Newburglen ocean, and ascending the rivers in the spring Catskill, &c. It is a real wild apple tres to deposit its spawn: it frequents nearly all since the five styles are united at the base, the rivers falling into the Atlantic Ocean and the fruit not turbinate, that fruit is Total length nearly two feet; very good to smaller than a cherry, entirely red when eat, better than the European shad. Its his. ripe, and very good to eat; it ripens in June tory, which is very interesting ; (since it as- and July, the flowers blossomn in April and fords an exuberant fishery ;) shall be un- May. The branches and twigs are reddish dertaken in another place.
brown, the upper part of the ovary is woolly, 19. Sp. Clupea megalops. Height one- as well as the margin of the calys, whose fourth of total length; body silvery ; back divisions are ovate acute reflexed. scarcely brownish ; snout, upper part of the 23. Neoltia plantaginea Raf. Very smooth, head and a spot behind it, brown; lower jaw radical leaves ovate lanceolate acute carilonger; abdomen serrated ; gill cover gilt nate with seven nerves; scape vaginaled: with some flexuous red lines, no lateral live, spike oblong, flowers three-sided spiral nodpectoral fins long; dorsal and anal fins with ding, bracteas ovate acuminate obtuse, longer seventeen rays. -Obs. Vulgar name Big-eye than the pubescent ovary : labellum canaliHerring, common in the Delaware in the culated, broad at the top, reflexed obtuse spring, along with the Cl. vernalis (Cl. pseudo crenate.--Obs. I found this species with Mr. barengus of Wilson) of Mitcbill, both very Knevels, near Fishkill, in meadows, blosdifferent from the Cl. harengus, or English soming in June : the flowers are white, the berring. Length from ten to hifteen inches: labelium is yellowish towards the top; but eyes large blue, iris gilt This species, with the margin is u bite. Roots palmaled, scape the foregoing and following, will be more half a foot high. particularly described in my Memoir on the 24. Neollia lacera Raf. Smooth radical Ainerican herrings.
leaves oblong obtuse jat, scapes vaginated, 20. Sp. Clupea neglecta. Height one-fifth sheaths acute: spike slender, lowers une of total length ; lower jaw shorter; a red sided spiral nodding, bracteas longer than the spot at the summit of the gill cover ; body ovary, labellum canaliculated retlesed obsilvery, scarcely brownish above ; back with tuse laciniated.-Ohs. Detected in 1816, in many scattered round blue spots, no lateral the swampy woods, near Glen's Fall's, Lako line, abdomen pot serrated, pectoral fin George, and the Luzerve mountains, blos. short : dorsal fin, with twenty rays, the first soming in July and August, flowers white, very short, anal fin with twenty rays.- scape slender about one foot high, root palo Obs. A common species in the fall on maied. Buth species belong to the real the south shores of Long-Island, omitted by genus Veottia, having the three upper petals Dr. Mitchill. Length about a foot, indiffer- or sepals of the perigone connected, the ent food. Vulgar names Fall Herring. Mars- anthera posterior, &c. and they are very bankers, in common with other species. different from N. tortilis and N. cernua.
25. Spirea obuvala Raf. Under shrubby, 18. THIRD DECADE of new Species of North- smooth, branches flexuous angular; leaves American Plants.
shori, petiolate abovate nearly acute, une
qually serrate, base acute entire, corymbs raWhile other botanists extend their labours cemose, racemes terminal paniculate, ovate, in various sbapes, I shall proceed to inves- bracteolated, bracteoles linear, petals obotigate and describe, in preference, new ge- vate crenate undulate, 5 ovaries.--Obs. A nera and new species, according to the sy. small sbrub about a foot high, gruwing on the noptical manner of classical authors. Since summit of the Highlands, among rocks ; it is bigh time that all our plants should be flowers white, blossoming in June, branches known and well named before we attempt reddish, leaves green on both sides, thickly to illustrate completely their history.
set. 21. Sp Euphorbia vermiculata Raf. Up- 26. Prunus rupestris Raf. Shrubby, branchright, nearly dichotomous, pilose : leaves op. es glandular; petiols biglandular, leaves posite, shortly petiolated, oblong acute acu. smooth ovate oblong acuminate, base acute, minate serrate trinerved, base oblique, thin. serrate, teeth cartilagineous, peduncles gemivermiculate-dotted : Rowers solitary in the nate or solitary elongated upright, fruits ovate dichotomies peduncled upright, perianthe oblong.–Obs. Found among rocks on the campanulated fourcleft, sepals ovate entire, summit of the Highland and Catskill mouecapsuls smooth.-Obs. Found in August, tains. A small shrub two or three feet bigb, 1316, near Sandyhill and Glen's Falls, State of branches upright slender red, petiols and New York, in fields. Small annual plant, peduncles red, fruit small, ripe in August, flowers reddish: the vermicular transparent blossoming in May. dots of the leaves are very remarkable. 27. Equisetum montanum Raf. Rongh,
22. Sp. Malus microcarpa Raf. Arbores. sterile and fertile stems very branched striat. cent, petiols round and pubescent; leaves ed, sheaths rufous nearly quadrifid, dici. elliptical acuminate serrulate, base cordate, sions ovate acute trinerved, branches two pubescent above, tomentose beneath: Powers or three-chotomous, small branches adscendo
ent filiforme, flexuose triqueter or compress. the calyx, capsuls ovate longer than the ed, rufous caliculated, leaves subulate, calyx.-Obs. A different species, which has ternate, or opposite.-Obs. A singular species much aihnity with the foregoing, found with found with Mr. Knevels on the Catskill Mr. Knevels on the Catskill mountains in mountains, in wouds near the two lakes; it June, in shady and moist grounds, near the has some atřnity with the E. Sylraticum, two lakes. It has sometimes four styles ! and rises about two feet.
30. Juniperus depressus Raf. Stems cespi28. Stellaria tenella Raf. Very smooth. tose-depressed spreading decumbent, little stem, dichotome dit'use slender tetragone; branches obtuse trigone ; leaves ternate leaves linear entire nearly obuuse, the upper spreading subulate spinous mucronate, while ones oblong cuneale ; Aowers terminal, striped above, convex and oneveined be. phylles of the calyx ovate acute, petals neath : inale catkins ternate nearly sessile searcely longer bipartile linear, capsuls glo- obovate obtuse, hali the length of the leaves, bular.-Obs. This plant had been taken by berries globular, shorter than the leaves. Bigelow and several American Botanists, for Obs. This species of Juniper is very remarks the St. graminea or Sl. palustris, while it dif. able and distinct ; it had been considered as fers from either. It might also be the un a variety of J. communis by Pursh. It apdescribed St. longifolia of Muhlenberg's pears to have an extensive range in North catalogue. I found it in 1803 near Philadel. Ainerica, since it is found in Canada, Maine, phia, and in 1817 found it, with Mr. Torrey, and perhaps as far west as the Columbia abundant near Poughkeepsie in a wood near river; I observed it in 18!6 near Saratoga brooks, it grows also near Fishkill and in and Lake George, and in 1817 found with many other places. It blossoms in June :
Mr. Torrey its southern range in the state of flowers white as in the whole genus, the New-York, between Wappinger's creek and stems are sometimes upright. the lower Poughkeepsie. It always grows in dry and leaves are short, sometimes a little pubes. sterile swil, it forms a circular and flai bush, bent at the base or union, bracieas subulate sometiines twenty feet in circumference, and scariose, shorter than the peduncles.
not above two or three high ; its bark is 29. Stellaria montana Raf. Sinooth, stem wrinkled cinereous brown, the berries are upright dichotome diffuse, leaves lanceolate large sessile trisulcated above : foliage thick, acute entire ciliolate ; peduncles filiform, at leaves longer than the internodes, not very the dichotomies; phylles ovale lanceolate, rigid, appearing decurrent by having the age margiu scariose, petals bipartite shorter than gles under thein.
Art. 7. LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE.
and make the wire consume it either with
red or white heat. I was led to this reSR IR Humphrey Davy has made a fur- sult by discovering slow combustions
ther discovery in regard to combus- without flame, and at last I found a metion, which will prove a very great im- tal which made these harmless combusprovement to his safety lamp. He thus tions visible.” describes it in a letter to the Rev. J. A correspondent of the Philosophical Hodgson of Heworth:
Magazine complains loudly of the omise' “I have succeed in producing a light sions and erroneous figures and calcula. perfectly safe and economical, which is
tions in the Nautical Almanack. He most brilliant in atmospheres in which points out more than 40 considerable erthe flame of the safety lamp is extin
rors in the Almanack for 1819, guished, and which burns in every mixture of carburetted hydrogen gas that is A work entitled Memoirs of the His. respirable. It consists of a slender me- tory of the Fifty Years from 1760 to tallic tissue of platinum, which is hung 1810, by the late Abbe Georgel, is about in the top of the interior of the common to be published in three volumes. The lamp of wire gauze, or in that of the announcement of it, from the character twilled lamp. It costs from 6d. to 1s. and opportunities of the author, who was and is imperishable. This tissue, when a distinguished Jesuit, and Secretary to the common lamp is introduced into an the Cardinal de Rohan, has excited a explosive atmosphere, becomes red hot, strong interest. and continues to burn the gas in con- Constantine Nicolopoulo, of Smyrna, tact with it as long as the air is respira- Professor of Greek Literature, has pubble; when the atmosphere again be lished, at Paris, a Greek Ode on Spring, comes explosive; the flame is relighted. to which he has prefixed an epistle in I can now burn any inflammable vapour Greek verse, addressed to Count Capo either with or without flame at pleasure, D'Istria.
mer, in the same way as we can do for A letter from Naples, dated July 20, the coming day or night, by the rising says—“ The present eruptions of Vesu- and setting sun. A great number of the vius are astonishing. Copper, iron, al- latest observations confirm Herschel's kaline acid, sulphur, sulphuric acid, opinion, that like the planets (verander chalk, and ammonia, form salts that lichen sternen) one half of the sun is less are sometimes in a mass and sometimes favourable to an abundant discharge of divided. It is observed that copper is rays than the other, and that many spots very much mixed with volcanic matter; on the sun make the year warmer and quantities of it are found among the dif- more fruitful. So much is certain, that ferent kinds of lava. Vesuvius, which in defect of spots on the sun, the atmossince the year 1813 has been more or phere is more serene, as happened in the less in a state of commotion, has entire- year 1811, in which none appeared durly covered its former crater with a thick ing the whole summer; but it showed crust, over which the new eruptions likewise that such a year must not of nehave thrown two little mountains, from cessity be unfruitful, as was the case in which come smoke, ashes, and vitrified the years 1795 and 1799. It is yet more stones. The earth is covered with bits certain that very warm and very cold of transparent glass. This crust is so weather can alone depend on the periconsiderable, that if it is not propped up, odical abundance or scarcity of combusthe sinking of the matter composing it tible matter (brennstoff) in the sun, since will produce an effect like that of the the moon and the planets can neither eruption which took place in the time cause heat nor cold. In the year 541, of Titus."
which was one of famine and pestilence, Professor Morichini, of Rome, having the rays of the sun, according to Cedrediscovered the magnetizing power of the nus, were as feeble as those of the moon, violet rays of the prismatic spectrum, the and yet the weather was so clear that in Marquis Ridolsi has succeeded in magnet Italy they observed the comets of that izing two needles, the one in 30, the time; the chronicle writers remark, that other in 46 minutes, and can now charge excessively dry summers (as the year with the magnetic power, by the same 763, and the year 1800, remarkable for process, as many needles as he pleases. spots on the sun, and woods taking fire)
The needles thus magnetized (namely follow a very copious appearance of meby directing on and passing over them, teors (sternschnuppen.) In nature great for a period of not less than 30 minutes, matters more constantly depend upon the violet rays of the spectrum, through each other than minute, and it becomes the medium of a condensing lens) pos- us to observe and take advantage of that sess all the energy and the properties of dependence: it is to be wished therefore, needles magnetised in a common way by that meteorologists may apply them. means of a loadstone. Their HOMONO- selves to a diligent observation of the mous poles repel, their HETERONOMOUS spots on the sun." poles attract each other: and made to UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. vibrate on a pivot, their points turn con- The following extract of a letter from stantly to the north, their heads to the Count De La Cepede, President of the south! This adds to the wonders of French Academy of Sciences at Paris, to magnetism, and must be regarded as a Dr. Mitchill of New York, dated 14th very extraordinary discovery.
June, 1817 is flattering and interesting
to Americans. The Political Zeitung of Munich, of After generously making a tender of the 10th August, contains the following his elaborate and admirable work on meteorological remarks.
Fishes, the illustrious writer proceeds “ The great and remarkable opening in thus : "I have just finished another great the sun's atmosphere of clouds, (wolkigen work which will probably occupy two sonnen atmosphare,) of which notice has volumes in quarto, and which will be enbeen lately taken, was visible only a little titled Ages of Nature, and History of the before it vanished at the western edge on Human Species. I read the preliminary the 5th of August, at which period a discourse to it, at a public sitting on the number of little openings began to unite 19th of the last month, when I opened themselves into two spots; storms and my course of zoology in the royal Musemuch rain followed. It must be of great um of Natural History. This performutility to farmers to be able to foretel ance will be found to contain numerous fair or stormy weather, from observa- proofs of my admiration for the respections of the spots on the sun, which are table nation of the United States, and for easily examined in the middle of sum, the illustrious men who honour it, and
have honoured it; as well as a picture, The opposite direction of the wind bas such I have been able to conjecture, on
no influence on their course. the subject of its glorious destiny.
“This phenomenon not only excites the “The ministry of our king, a few days attention of the planter, as having a posago, actuated by the enlightened zeal of sible and not improbable connexion with our minister plenipotentiary in the United his interest ; but it affords ground for a States, asked of the Academy of Scien- curious speculation on the nature of that ces, a body of instructions relative to impulse, to which it is owing that these travels through the different countries of insects persist in migrating in a course, North America, for the express purpose which will afford them no additional proof promoting the Natural Sciences. On tection against approaching cold weather, this occasion I observed to the Academy, nor seems to be lavourable, in any one that nothing better could be done on that particular, to their existence.” subject, than to have recourse to the in- The Medical College in Transylvania formation and complaisance of yourself, University, Kentucky, is completely or. and the other distinguished scavans of ganized and in operation. The courses of the United States."
lectures were commenced in November. The St. Stephens paper of Oct. 10 The faculty consists of James Overton, contains the following interesting article. M. Đ. Professor of the Institutes and “ The woods between this place and Practice of Medicine; B. W. Dudley, M. Chickasawks are filled with yellow but- D. Professor of Anatomy and Surgery; ierflies, migrating at the rate of 4 or 5 Daniel Drake, M. D. Professor of Matemiles an hour, when on the wing, and all via Medica and Botany; W. H. Richardmarching in an eastern direction. The son, Professor of Obstetrics, and the Dispecies appears to have been unobserv- seases of Women and Children ; James ed before. From tip to tip of its wings, Blythe, D. D. Professor of Chemistry. it is from 2 to 2 1-2 inches. The body, The Rev. Horace Holley, of Boston, when divested of its down, is black. The has been chosen President of Transylvawings are decked with spots of orange nia University. or brown. It has the general appearance
The Hon. S. L. Mitchill, of New York, of feebleness; and has, probably, lately has been elected a Fellow of the Royal emerged from the caterpillar state.
Medical Society of Copenhagen. “The first notice taken of these butter- We understand that the complete ediflies was about three weeks ago. They tion of Franklin's works, which William frequently loiter in groupes about mud Duane, Esq. of Philadelphia, has been holes, or stop to regale themselves on the several years in preparing, will soon be flowers with which the woods still abound. published in five volumes octavo.
ART. 8. RELIGIOUS INTELLIGENOE.
Missionaries have been sent out to The Ninth Report of the Committee of the London Society for promoting
convert the Mongul Tartars. Christianity among the Jews, states that UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. great progress has been made towards The following Societies have become completing a Hebrew translation of the Auxiliaries to the American Bible SoNew Testament. The gospels of St. ciety. Luke and St. John, the Acts of the The Female B. S. of Harpersfield, N. Apostles, and the Epistles to the Romans, Y. formed in October, 1817 ; Mrs. CaCorinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Phil tharine M'Intyre, Secretary. - The Auxlippians, Colossians, Thessalonians, to iliary B. S. of the towns of Preble and Timothy, Titus, and Philemon, have al- Tully, N. Y.-The Aux. B. S. of William ready been published. The prospects of and Mary, and St. Andrew, parishes, the Society are represented as Aattering. Md, instituted in November last ; Rev. The success in circulating the Testament John Brady, President; M. C. Jones, has been greater among the Jews on the Secretary; Robert Hammet, Treasurer:Continent than in England. It is esti- The B. Š. of the young men of Pittsmated that the number of Jews in the burgh, Pa. recently formed.— These Russian Empire is 2,000,000 ; of which make the number of' Auxiliaries known, 400,000 are in Poland.
122. Vol. 11.–No. 111.