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which may restore the balance; are specu- their country. Putant enim, qui mari potitur, lations which have excited the hopes and eum rerum poliri. fears of many. Whether he will profit by w It is not likely that he will be satisfied the positions and present superiority of Ruse with a Dutch permit; but whether he will sia, to accomplish other projects long as- seek to establish himself in the ports of Norsigned to her system of policy, must inter way, in Zealand, in the Archipelago, in the est all governments, not excepting the go- Mediterranean; or whether, like the son of vernment of the East Indies; whose attention Jupiter Ammon on the banks of the Hyphamay also be more excited by the informa- sis, he will say, “Our empire shall have no tion that General Yermolof, the governor of other bounds ihan those which God bas sent the Caucasus line, who probably at this very to the earth'-time will show.". moment has reached the capital of PERSIA on In speaking of America as interested in an embassy, is an officer of the highest counteracting Russian aggrandizement, merit, and capacity as an administrator as

our author introduces the following note. well as a soldier ; and that he has gone, as

“It may, however, interest the reader to sisted not only by tbe French officers em

know that the establishments of the Russians ployed by Napoleon, under Gardanne, in

commence at Okotsh, on the Siberian coast, Persia, and whom Alexander, with the exception of three, engaged in the Russian tend from thence by Kamschadka to the

in a bay of the Pacific Ocean, that they es. service, but with the Reports and maps sent north-west coast of America, where the by that mission to Napoleon, and which principal establishments have been long being carried into Russia at the time of the fixed in the populous island of Kodia (inhainvasion, were found during the retreal, in bited by hunters, and situated in 57 1-2 detwo abandoned tumbrils. ." These reports and plans had convinced grees north, and 152 1-2 west longitude from

Greenwich,) and in Norfolk Sound, 57 de. Napoleon, that the expedition to India was practicable; and it is a positive fact, that he grees north, and 135 west longitude ; where had resolved on sending an united Russian with 100 pieces of cannon.

the fort is so considerable as to be armed

Since the year and French force on that expedition, in case 1813, however, the Russians have descended Russia had been compelled to make peace the American coast, passed the Columbia on his terms. “ There are two additional circumstances doga, at 38 1-2 north, and only thirty miles

river five hundred miles, and settled in Bamost important to influence opinion, if they from the Spanish establishments in Calicannot fix the judgment, as to the further fornia ; where they not only are trading with proposed extension of the Russian power. « Alexander bas already a much larger climate and fruitful soil, to feed their more

great advantage, but are profiting by a fine army than his defensive line requires, or bis northern possessions. The passage from the finances can justify; and yet he continues to north-west coast of America to the Persian increase his force. Russia, with a line of coast upon two seas: four months ; but a ship

leaving Bussorah in

Gulf may be averaged between three and on which there is not navigation above half April

to profit by the S. W. Monsoon, would the year, and in one of them, the Baltic, easily gain the N. W. coast of America in no competitor, not content with an esta

three months." blishment of above eighty sail of the line in the ports of Archangel, Cronstadt, Rerel,

Our author proceeds to estimate the Sevastopol, Cherson ; notwithstanding the

force which the rest of Europe could arpressure of the French war, has been inces- ray to oppose the designs which he assantly building, and is building with increas- cribes to Russia. France he puts out of

activity, the heaviest line of battle the calculation, considering a French army ships.

more formidable to the present dynas. « Alexander knows as well as any Brilish ty of that country, than to any foreign admiral, that ships of any force, or of any nation. Austria, in his view, from the he. amount, are of 'no value without seamen to terogeneous composition of her empire, navigate them; and that seamen cannot be and from her unconciliating deportment formed on inland seas alone. He also knows and feels as well as any economist in Europe, towards the people subject to her rule, is that ships are costly vanities, if built only incapable of wielding the weapons in her for ostentation. There is no sovereign who hands; the subjects of Prussia are equalwould have been less inclined to divert his ly uncemented by community of interest, treasure from state necessities, for the indul. less numerous, and less compact; Turgence of this unproftable pursuit, than key is bed-ridden-and England on her Alexander.

last legs! " There is, therefore, evidence amounting Such is the cheerless survey presented to conviction, that he has always proposed by the author of this Sketch." We do to accomplish the instructions of Peter the not partake of all his despondency., The Great, and extend his empire until he can establish that real maritimne power which hopes of the advancement of the happihimself and people have coveted more since ness of the world by the diffusion of polithey have seen so much commercial wealth tical wisdom and an increased regard to or, as they term it, colonial gold, flow into political justice, do not appear to us st

6

absolutely desperate. We estimate not, ble to change. The invectives of the auindeed, much more highly the integrity, thor of the Sketch against the governor the sagacity of the state-managers at ment, and his aspersions of the character the Congress of Vienna, than our au- of his own country, however well foundthor seems to do, but we cannot think ed, come with an ill grace from him, and that the crisis he forebodes, is very near.

discover a temper which takes away all We can hardly believe that the peace- weight from his indirect compliments society and bible-society patronizing to us. We will conclude our review Alexander will immediately be induced, with an extract from his peroration, in even by the corrupting possession of which, to aggravate the distress he has power, to break through the limits which portrayed, he holds up America, as the he has assigned himself; though the ac

rival from whose enterprise and enmity cumulation of strength in his passive England has most to dread. hands may offer to a less pious successor England already has lost the world's ho, a strong temptation to abuse it. In fact if mage ; no longer is she esteemed“ the friend the growth of Russia for the next century of the oppressed;" her promises have beshall keep pace with her progress in the ated the good-will even of those she assisted

come a scoff and a by-word : she has alienlast—and every thing prognosticates it-. in their usurpations; and where her cause she will be beyond dispute the arbitress of once engaged thousands of voluntary chamthe destinies of Europe. Her growing pions, not one apologist is now to be population yet bears no proportion to her found capabilities of affording sustenance, and “* There is not an Englishman on the Contithough the ratio of increase cannot be ex

nent who has not been the object of insult, pected to hold till the maximum of num

if not of execration. bers is attained, the judicious measures of

“ England, by her money, enabled Europo Alexander have opened avenues to enter- assistance is acknowledged, but not with

to combine and march against France; her prise, and given a security to property, gratitude ; such a sentiment would not havo have produced a spring and provided a been excited if her assistance had been scope of action, the beneficial effects of considered as disinterested; for, as Tacitus which will be felt without diminution for justly says, Beneficia eo usque læta sunt dum an indifinite period, and which must re- ridentur exsolvi posse, at ubi multum antevesult in the generation of a mass of powe

nere, pro gratia odium redditur ; but, on the er capable of overwhelming every pre

contrary, her benefits are supposed to have tension of rivalry. To have allowed such originated from motives of mere self-inter

est, and, as such, to be destitute of all an empire to gun a foothold in Germany,

claim on European gratitude. Various powand an ingress into the capitals of hall ers feel that England also attaches herself to the sovereigns of the continent, Was, in rival governments, not to preserve what she the Allies, whilst they had other resources calls the balance of power, but to control than remonstrance, an act of consum- the continental policy, and continue an er. mite folly.

clusion from what they claim as a due sharo We have devoted a larger space to this of maratime advantages

. work than its merits claimed-from the

“ Hence that jealousy of any returning attention it has excited in England, and prosperity to England, since thai prosperity

would afford stronger means to enforce these the expectation which has been awaken.

obnoxious checks; bence the desire to deed to it in this country-though it is just prive England of the presumed sources of to allow that it contains much valuable in- her wealth : hence the pleasure felt at the formation, whilst the boldness of its posi- augmentation of the naval power of Ame tions and speculations may lead to useful rica, (for, although America might not be reflection. We cannot but again express able for years to do what one of her Presiour surprise that Sir Robert Wilson, the dents onee said she would do, draw a lino virulent accuser of Buonaparte, the chain

of deinarcation with her fleets beyond which pion of the crusades against him, the

no European Hag should be seen without a apologist of the original partition of Po- single ship of the line built by America, re

passport :' still it is well known, that every land, should have undergone so complete quires, in case of war, a counteracting es. a revolution of sentiment upon every penditure on the part of England, equal to subject as this book evinces. He might ihe maintenance of three sail : that as the have retracted his calumnies, if he were American marine increases, the English convinced he had uttered any, without West India islands will require more garribecoming an eulogist of Napoleon-and sons, and the communications with India surely his vehemence in advocating what become more precarious ;) and hence, perhe is now satisfied was wrong, should haps these negotiations whieb have been have taught him temperance in the ex. Washington in the Mediterranean, as well as

carrying on from the quarter deck of the pression of opinions which he is still lia- the preference tafely shown to the American VOL. 11.-No. JII.

26

Rag in the Baltic Envy is not blind, and power, or prejudice to her interests ; her guns revenge never sleeps.

of distress will soon be beard along ber para * The utterance of these truths may of- sessions in every quarter of the globe." send, but silence would injure : the hear

We must say a word on the style of ing of them is painful, but will be of use; the publication of this work. A political · therefore, as the philosopher said to his angry essay, which would not occupy the half master, Strike, but hear.' “ Ji England is true to herself, she may deserved to be swelled out into an octave

of one of our monthly numbers, hardly yet avoid shipwreck; but if she looks to preservation by connexion with France in volume of more than two hundred pages, her present state, and continental operations, and could not by any art of typography involving her in war with Russia, which pru- be rendered worth ONE DOLLAR and dente might avoid without diminution of her

E

PIFTY CENTS.

ART. 6. MUSEUM OF NATURAL SCIENCES,

By C. S. RAFINESQU F, Esq. 15. Introduction to the ICHTAFOLOGY of the known to them; this must be attended to hy United Stules.

the general writers on North-American ich. NVE Natural History of Fishes bears the thyology, in the travels of Castiglione in long been neglected in our country, but it has 1790, some new fishes are described in Latin. lately been studied with assiduity and suc- Many new fishes are also mentioned aod cess, and the knowledge of the u-eful inbabi. partly described in the late travels of Lewis tants of our shores, rivers, and lakes, begins to and Clarke to the sources of the Missouri be cultivated with zeal. Whoever has at. and the Pacific Ocean. tended to that branch of Zoology has been Some few species have been figured in the rewarded by continual discoveries since the transactions of the Philosophical Society of field was entirely new in North-America: Philadelphia by Latrobe; and in those of the those lately made by Mitchill, Lesueur, and Academy of Sciences of Boston by Peck. myself, exceed our anticipation ; but never- Some observations on North-American theless we have not exhausted that immense fishes are scattered through the works of Dr. field, and it is perhaps scarcely glanced upon. Mease, Dr. Mirchill's Medical Repository, It is my intention previous to staring my &c. other observations by Descoutils, Forse own discoveries, to give an idea of the la- ter, Gilpin, Clinton. Dunbar, Robin, Shultz, bours of former authors in that branch of &c. may be seen in their travels or iracus. science.

Many new species have been observed by Catesby was probably one of the first na.

Dr. Benjamin Barton. Dr. Waterbouse, jun. turalists that began to illustrate our Fishes: Dr. Akerly, Dr. Samuel Moti, Messrs. Lein his natural history of Carolina, &c. he has conte, Say, &c. but they have not published figured and described many fishes of the them. The great Ornithologist, Wilson, had southern States, most of which have since also observet some American fishes, and been introduced in the Systema natura by some of his observations are published in the appropriate names; but some of them are yet American edition of Ree's Cyclopedia. unnoticed in the works on Ichthyology, or A German naturalist ( erhaps Schoepf or considered as varieties. Linneus has like. Schneider) has described some new species Wise introduced in bis Sysłami natura, some from North America, but I have never wet species communicated by Garden and Kalm, with his work. and Gmelin those described by Forster. Thedescriptions of the fishes of New York,

the general natural histories of Fishes by Dr. Witchell, published in 1815, in the by Kloch, Castel, Schneider, Lacepede, Son- tirst volume of the transactions of the litera. wini, and Shaw, published within a few years ry and philosophical Society of New-York, of each other, very few North-American must be considered as a standard work on fishes are introduced, except those already American ichthyology. This work, with the mentioned by Linneus and Gmelin: a few supplement which shall be inserted in the se. additions of new species are bowever to be cond volume of said transactions, will con. met, described upon specimens in the Euro- tain nearly two hundred species, one half of pean collections, and Lacepede has some which are probably new. Although desecspecies observed by Bosc. In the zoological tive in many respects, by a want of sinoDictionary of Ray, in the ichthyological Dic. hymy, iguorance of new genera, wrong rec: tionary of the French Cyclopedia, scarcely nion of species, and imperfect descriptions of any are added; but some new species from many, yet the good descriptions of several, Carolina are described by Bose in the great the observations on their natural history, and Dictionary of natural bistory published in the mass of new facts aud species, coutribute Paris in 130-1.

to render it a classical labour. Those general writers have not noticed Mr. Lesueur, well known as the compamany fishes, parily described by travellers, nion of Peron, &c. in his travels to Australia, such as Carver, Bartram, Mackenzie, Casti. is now in the United States; be visited last glioue, &c. probably becawise they were not year, ia cowpany with Mr. Masiurn the lakes

Erie, Outario, Champlain, Saratoga, &c. the pear astraordinary to those acquainted with Chesapeak, the Alleghany, and the Atlantic the treasures of nature, and who know that shores of New-England, New-Jersey, &c. accurate observations and zealous exertions His discoveries have been ample, amounting will almost any where be equally rewarded. to about sixty new species, different from those If in the Island of Sicily, which is only seven of Dr. Mitchill. He has begun to publish hundred miles in circumference, and is situasome of them in the Journal of the Academy ted among the countries most anciently of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, and he known, I have been enabled to discover and has established a new genus Catostomus, add over two hundred and twenty new spe. which I had likewise established, but not yet cies to its ichthyolory, it is reasonable to published. He will probaby give us gradual. conclude that the Continent of North-Amerily all his new species in said Journal, or in ca, exclusive of the Mexican Empire and the another work which he contemplates. West-Indies, will attord at least six hundred

My own labours in that branch of natural and sixty such new species, of which about science began in 1802 '3 and '4, when I ob- two hundred and fifty have lately been deserved many new species in the Delaware, tected; but as many or more are waiting to Susquehannah, Chesapeak, &c. and in the At- reward the researches and labours of future lantic Ocean, some of which have since been observers. The fishes of Virginia, Kentucky, described by Dr. Mitchill. The first species Ohio, Louisiana, Florida, &c. those of the which I described was the Echeneis caudiselis, lakes Huron, Michigan, Superior, Winiping, of which I sent the description and figure to &c. of the rivers Mississippi, Mobile, Missouri, the Linnean Society of London in 1811. In Arkanzas, Columbia, &c. and those of the a pamphlet which I published in 1914 in Norih-il'est Coast of America, are scarcely French (Précis des Découvertes Somiologi- known, or totally unknown. When those ques) I described five other new species of parts shall have been explored, and all the Atlantic or North American Fishes Sp. 27 to former discoveries embodied methodically, 31. Cenuiropomus albus, C. luleus, Sparus mo- we may then hope to be enabled to frame a casinus, Bulistes fuscata, Chironectes variegata. North-American Ichthyology somewhat acIn 1815 ’16 and '17, I have discovered in the curate, if not complete. Atlantic Ocean, near Philadelphia, on the That period is perhaps less distant than wo shores of Lon-Island, in the Lakes Cham- are aware of;able observers will soon spread plain, Saratoga, &c. in the Hudsorr, Fishkill, themselves over those regions, and many &c. about filly new species omitted by Dr. travellers will contribute their mite. I will Mitchill, and different (except very few) from also offer inine, and if every year rewards my those observed by Mr. Lesueur; several of exertions, as successfully as the two last, I which must form vew genera. In this in- may bope to add gradual and yearly disco. stance I must observe that little attention has veries to those already made. been paid by Dr. Mitchill, &c. to the improvements on the genera of Fishes proposed 16. Descriptions of trco neu genera of Northby Bloch, , Lacepede, Dumeril, and myself; American Fishes, OPSANU 8 and NOTROPIS. unless those improvements in generic deno- 1. N. G. OPSANUS. Holobranchial Juguminations and classifications are adopted, lar. Body oblong thick attenuated behind, American Ichthiology cannot reach the per- without scales, abdomen convex, no lateral section of European Ichthiology.

line. Head large, broad, depressed above; Some other new species have been com- eyes approximated on the top, separated by municated to me by Gov. Clinton, Dr. Mease, a furrow, and with an appendage behind: Dr. Mott, &c. which I mean to publish with mouth large, lips thick, without barbs, lower mine. Last year) presented to the Literary jaw the longest

, two rows of obtuse teeth to and Philosophical Society of New-York a each jaw : Gill cover large, soft, spinescent Memoir on the genus Sturgeon, (Accipenser,) above, branchial membrane with nine ray: and particularly the American Sturgeons, of All the fins with soft rays covered by a thick which I have been able to describe or notice skin, two dorsal fins, the second very long, as many as fifteen species, all new except one the first sbort, and with few bard thick obtuse previously described by Dr. Mitchill. rays, anal short, vent nearer to the tail than

When all the discoveries of Mr. Lesueur to the head. and the supplements of Dr. Mitchill will be Observations. A very remarkable, and topublished, the number of North-American tally new genus of Atlantic fish, which has Fishes, known and described, will probably suine analogy with the genera Trachunus, exceed three hundred and fifty species, while Uranoscopus. Corystion, Phycis, Batrictius, &c. scarcely one hundred were mentioned by It differs however from Trachinus by the Linneus, of which a list was made by Fors- situation of the eyes and their appendages, ter in his Catalogue of the Animals of North- short anal fin, backward vent, &c. from the America ; such a rapid increase in our know. genus Uranoscopus by the spinescent gill. ledge of those beings, shows how slightly cover, which is not ciliated, characters of the they had been studied: many species had vent and anal fin; from Coryslwn by two even been considered as consiinilar to Euro- dorsal fins, the anal fin, &c. From Phycis by pean species, which a more accute survey has the gill-cover, head, eyes, fins, &c. and from proved to be different, and very few (if any) Butrictius by the double dorsal fin, want of are common to both continents.

barbs, &c. It will belong to the first natura This large accession of species will not ap- order of fishes Deripie or the Jugulars, the

nine rays.

second natural family Gadinia, and the se- animals with either sorts of bones, and there cond natural sub-family Trachinia, see my is a graduation in the whole class from quite Analysis of Nature. The name means look. hard bones to nearly gelatinous bones! ing up, and the following species will form II N G NOTROPIS. Holobranchial abdothe type of this new genus.

minal. Body elongated compressed, back OPSANUS CerAPALUS. Appendage of each, carinated nearly strait, belly not carinated, eyes short, sofi, and obtuse, gill-cover with an scarcely bowed, a lateral line and a longituobtuse spine and a tubercle under it; body dinal silver band; vent nearer the tail than and head variegated of small, brown, flexuous the head. Head oval compressed, convex lines, and irregular spots on an yellowish above, mouth diagonal large, jaws without ground; top of the head and cheeks brown, teeth, the lower longer and mobil, the upper belly white: first dorsal fin with three rays, extensible: eyes very large : gill cover large, the second with four diagonal brown stripes, smooth valviforun three branchial rays. One the anal fiu with three similar stripes; tail dorsal fin opposed to the interval between oval obtuse yellow, with three vertical browa the anal and abdominal fins, which have stripes, jugular fins triangular acute with two rays.

Observations. The generic name means History. The specific name of this fish carinated or keeled back. It forms a remarka, means Soft-horn, the appendages behind the ble new zenus, belonging to the third natural eyes having very much that appearance. I order Grestripia or the abdominals, the sixhave detected this new fish in Angust, 1817, teenth natural family Cyprinia, and the se. on the south shore of Long-Island: it lives cond sub-lamily Gymnopomia, (see Analysis in the sandy and shallow bottoms of the sur- of Nature,) together with the genera Cyprirounding sea, and is sometimes taken along nus, Alherina, Hydrargyra, ge. It differs fruin with other fishes in the nets and seines; but the first by the compressed hody, carinated it is by no means a common fish ; the fisher- back, lateral band, large mouth, deep cleft men scarcely know it, they call it by the gill-cover, &c. and froin the two last genera name of Yellow-Kusk, Sand-Codling, Slimer, by the three branchial rays, nine rays to the &c. which shows that they confound it with abdominal fins, want of teeth, &c other species : they dont reckon it good to NOTROPIS ATHERINOIDES. Head silvery, eat, and often throw it away on the beach, browa ibove: body pale fulvous transparent, yet it is as good as the different species of with a bcoad silver band; lateral line in the Phycis or Kusk. It frequents the shores in band : fins whitish, dorsal, and anal, with summer to deposit the spawn, and is not eleven rays, the first very short, tail slightly seen in winter. Its length is about one foot, forked. it is covered all over with a gelatinous slime, History. This new fish was discovered in whieh renders it difficult to hold : the head is Lake Erie by Gov. De Witt Clinton, who had remarkable large, broader than the body, with the kindness to present me with many speciswelled cheeks, the eyes are large, brown, and mens; they are now deposited in the Lyce. projecting, the curious appendages project um of Natural History. I have ascertained directly behind them, they are brown, about that they belonged to a new gends, next to one third of an inch long, and nearly cylin- Alherina, and the specific name which I have drical, the animal can move them and swell adopted implies such an affinity. Those them ; after death they are dejected and fac- fishes come on the shores of Lake Erie, and cid. The general colour of the fish is yel- even in the river of Niagara, in the spring, in lowish, but the fins are paler, and the belly great shoals ; but they are so small that they quite white, without spots, while the remain- are scarcely noticed, and escape through ibe der of the body is curiously interwoven with cominon nets; their usual size being from one small vermicular lines and scattered spots. to two inches, and very thin and slender: There is no appearance of lateral line nor they are called Vinny or Minnew, together scales. The jugular fins are white acute, with twenty different vther species of fish, situated under the gill cover or operculum. and often considered as the young of other The pectoral fins are large rounded, spotted fishes. They live in the depth of the lake at like the body, and with twenty rays. The first other seasons, and are probably common all dorsal fin has three thick hard rays, the first over the great lakes. Their eyes are esceed. of which is the shortest, and the second the ingly large, occupying nearly the whole fore. longest; the second dorsal fin has thirty side of the head, the lips are very thin and equal rays, the anal fin only eighteen. The membranaceous, the nostrils large, the gill tail has a slender base, and is quite ovate ob. cover is nearly round, and split above to the tuse, the three stripes are a little bowed, with eyes ; they have small thin broad scales, the the convexity behind. It is worthy of atten- rays of the fins are scarcely articulated simtion that the bones of this fish are quite car. ple and brittle : the pectoral fins bave about tilagineous and soft, more so than those of fifteen rays, and the caudal fin about twenty many Sharks, Skates, &c. yet the gills are four. quite complete, furnished with a gill cover, December 10th, 1817. and branchial ravs! This fact affords ano. ther instance of ihe assertion I have made 17. Second DECADE of new North-Are long ago, that the distinction of hard-boned

can Fishes. and soft-boned fishes, is illusive and useless, 11. Sp. Perca mucronata. Body nearly since all obe natural orders of fishes afford rhomboidal silvery, brownish on ibe beck

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