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tween king Joseph's Spanish government and so considerable, were apparent to both parthe French military authorities, all the Span- ties; and the Grand Duchess Anne, who iards, who had assisted us during the siege, bad might, it is believed, have mounted the throne been prosecuted for treason against Joseph?!” of France, having accepted the proposals of
Bút to return to the course of the Rus- the Prince of Orange, is destined to succeed sian monarch.
to another throne, which shıc is equally quali“ Alexander, having accomplished all his fied to grace. designs, and maintained a supremacy which
The position of Wurtemburg was not of the rival powers did not dare to dispute, equal importance; but still the extension of quilted France to review his armies, visit Russian influence in Germany, where alreaPrussia, receive the homage of Poland, and dy Weimar, Badea, and Oldenburgh were unreturn to his capital, there to conciliate a
der its sway, was desirable. growing discontent at his absence, and re- A young and gallant prince, whose milipair the mischiefs which it had occasioned to tary services were then considered to be the private interests and to various branches of least of his claims to public esteem, was the public service.
married to a princess of Bavaria. Separa. “ The Nobles thought he was becoming a
tion took place instantaneously after the foreigner, and they required a Russian mon- ceremony, as the marriage had been coinarch; but these were only the ill-humours of pulsive. Divorce was obtained,* and the a day; the glory acquired to the Russian Grand Duchess Catharine, whose name, ac. name, and the vast increase of power added tivity, talents, and attachment to her native to her sceptre, ensured him the applause and country rendered her the general object of allegiance of a class enamoured of autocracy, its affection, was established in succession to elated with glory, and ambitious of national a kingdom, of whose reigning monarch Naaggrandizement.
poleon said, if that man had but fifty thou" Alexander, however, did not trust to
sand soldiers, he would weave me a more dif. force alone for the prosecution of his future ficult web than any I have ever had to disdesigns, or the maintenance of his ascen
entangle.' Nancy. He knew, that family alliances, at " Personal feelings, as well as policy, sug. Tariance with national policy, would never gested the connexion just solemnized at Si, preserve permanent influence; but he also Petersburg with a princess of Prussia-a conwas sensible that, when they were made in nexion full of recollections to bind, if any unison with it, they were additional securi- human arrangement can permanently bind, es, monitors, and guards.
the friendship between crowns. The marriage, which would bave united " Having thus traced a summary narrativa England and Hollanıl, was always conceived, of the principal points and facts, which chạ. by the continental statesmen, calculated to .racterized the policy of Russia, and have involve Europe in wars against natural in- tended to her aggrandizement--a summary ferests, and the negotiations from the com- which will acquire interest the more it is exmencement were viewed with great and un
amined and the more it is developed—be concealed jealousy:
question may be investigated which has been "The presumed alliance was no sooner proposed, viz. how far any combination of broken off than Russia directed her atten. France, England, and Austria, can control the tion to the advantages which she might de. policy Russia may be disposed to pursue ?” rive from a family interest being established To solve this question the writer underon the throne of Holland.
takes to display the progression and pre" Her fleets, shut up in the Baltic half the sent state of the Russian empire. We year by the seasons, were (especially since shall give a very succinct summary of his ihe destruction of the Swedish and Danish statements. When Catharine the second navies) costly superfuities rather than an useful establishment adding to her import the homage of twenty-two millions of peo,
mounted the throne in 1762, she received of the Texel and the Scheldt would afford ple. She reigned thirty-three years, and powers of navigation, administering to all during that period had increased the immediate objects, and contributive to more number of her subjects to thirty-sir milremote designs.
lions. Besides the natural augmentation " Holland, as a maritime state, could not of population, she had added seven milbe injured by a maritime auxiliary, over lions of Poles, including Courlanders ; whose fleets she was the guardian; and the two millions and a half of the inhabitants alliance with Russia assured that mililary of New Servia, between the Boristhenes support, which she required for the preser- and the Don; half a million of Germans vation of her continental possessions.
“ To Russia, Holland was a lete du pont, and other settlers; two millions in the or advanced work, which awed France, and Caucasus, Siberia, Little Tartary, the which aided the control over Prussia. To Crimea, &c. The short and turbulent Holland, Russia was a protecting ally against reign of Paul witnessed no considerable both those powers, with a spear
and a shield to defend her from England.
* The virtues of this princess bave since placed her * Reciprocal benefits, so unequivocal and on the throne of Austria.
increase or diminution in the aggregate voluntary settlers-amongst them many so. population of the country. In 1800 reigners; and not only the city of Tobolsk, Alexander commenced his reign over enriched by every species of European and thirty-six millions of subjects. His ar
Asiatic luxury, is growing into a very con. mies, however, were not sufficiently nu
siderable capital, distributing civilization merous for the extent of his possessions, of three thousund seren hundred and serenty.
around-but İrkoutska also, at the distance nor proportionate to those kept up by four miles from Moscow, and not four hunthe other great states of Europe. Their dred from the frontier of 'China, has become organization too was imperfect. His the seat of a considerable and fourishing finances were, moreover, in a deranged government. and unproductive condition.
Communications are open in all direc" To what extent Alexander has accom- tions, even to Kamtschadska and the fort of plished all his undertakings, without for- St. Peter and St. Paul, at the distance, (by getting the interests he was bound to protect, Okotsk in the Pacific). of eight Thousand may be difficult to prove, since there is no seren hundred and thirty miles from Moscow.' direct mode to ascertain the opinion of his “ Reports are regularly received from subjects by the discussions of a free press ; every government, and arrive generally at but as far as the prevalence of tranquillity the prescribed day, and from most of them in every province under his sway-as far as at the same hour. ostensible improvements, in all military eco- “ In no country in the world is travelling nomy, and general order in all branches of so cheap, or so secure against robbers; and the administration-can authorize the pre- within the last half dozen years, large inns sumption, an extraordinary amelioration must have been erecting, under ihe order of the have taken place.
Emperor, at all the principal European post “ Bodies of recruits, of which three-fifths stations, used to perish in the journey, now arrive Manufactories of all descriptions have with no more than common casualties; and been established, and particularly in iron, so far from the spirit of the people being which is worked with a delicacy íhat rivals worn down by deinands for military service the artists of any country. and augmentation of taxes, patriotism bas Carriages, wbich beretofore were im. acquired devotional ardour, and the state has ported from England, are now made under not found it necessary to impose any addi- the original instruction of German and tional burthens upon its inhabitants.
English builders, with such good and cheap. "The ground on which the town of Odessa materials as to render the prohibition of now stands did not contain, in the year importation a matter of no regret. 1794, one house or inbabitant: now there * Cloth manufactories are receiving great are one thousand houses in stone, and above encouragement from the government, and forty thousand residents. Eight hundred the late events on the continent have added ships annually sail from the port; and such largely to the manufacturing and mechanic quantities of corn are exported that this population. part of the world, as in the time of the • The ports of Cronstadt, of Riga, and Greeks and Romans, promises to be the chief Revel, have not only been opened again to granary of the Mediterranean.
the trade with all Europe, but America is “ Tcherkaz, near the mouth of the Don, becoming a competitor of such importance in the sea of the Azof, is no less prosperous.
as to render Russia no longer dependent on Astrakan, at the mouth of the Volga, the English market : and thus the preference by the last treaty with Persia (which gives promised the English merchants by Peter the the exclusive navigation of the Caspian Sea Great, when he addressed William the Third to the Russian flag) bas obtained equal ad- Holland, in the year 1697, and the privivantages.
leges subsequently granted, have been can. “ The internal navigation from the White celled, or rather not renewed, on an aland Baltic to the Caspian and Black Seas has leged principle of general justice. been improved by various great works, and At the same time, the doctrines incul. others are in progress.
cated by La Harpe have not been neglected “ The city of Petersburgh has been in Russia. Slavery has not only been divested embellished at the expense of five millions of of many of its most disgusting features; but roubles annually; so that three-fourths of the great progress has been made towards its aboo houses are now palaces of stone, and the city lition by the regulations as well as the itself has become the most magnificent in the example of the Emperor. world, for its buildings, its quays, its canals, The nobles of Esthonia bave lately deand the pellucid waters of the majestic clared, that, at the expiration of a few years, Neva.
necessary for intermediate arrangements
, “ The impulse has not been confined to useful to the peasant as well as to the pro. the European provinces ; but Siberia, to prietor, slavery shall no longer exist in their which such terrible images have been at. tached, from the supposed intolerable rigour tions are greatly facilitated by the sledge conveyance.
* It must not be forgotten, that the communica. of its climate, and its associating ideas of Merchandise can be transported on sledges in one misery and unjust suffering, is hecome a fer- winter, which would require two summers water cara tilized and productive country, inhabited by less than three months.
riage. The jouruey from Okotsk is performed in
province; and there is every reason to what is; and with that design, to exhibit the expect a more general extention of this profiles, the points, the piunacles of the policy will not be long protracted.
vantage-ground on which Russia now proudly " A disposition, manifested by the Em- reclines ; for who can talk of the repose of peror, to introduce preliminary measures for ambition ? The establishinent of a constitutional govern- In the year 1800 Russia rested her right ment, was rejected by the senate, who de- flank on the North Sea; her frontier line, clared for the maintenance of an autocrasy, traversing Russian Lapland, ran fifty miles But if the senate at that time had been as in advance of the White Sea: then coverJiberally disposed as the sovereign, the frame ing the province of Olonetz, approached the of a representative government might have Lake Ladoga within twenty miles, and been formed to keep pace with the progress fell upon the Gulf of Finland, at the disof education.
tance of only one hundred and fifteen miles “ While such are the characteristics of in- in a direct line from Petersburgh ; so that ternal improvement, the indications of ex- Sweden not only commanded near twoternal greatness, in her foreign relations, are thirds of the northern coast of the Gulf of no less unequivocal.
Finland, but ranged herself in view of, and " It has been said already, when Alexander at the distance of not more than thirty miles came to the throne thirty-six millions of from the port of Revel, situated in the propeople acknowledged his authority; but at vince of Livonia, wrested from her by Peter this day, by increase and acquisition, there the Great, and which she might always hope cannot be less than forty-two millions at the to re-occupy, so long as she preserved such Lowest calculation; and not of Asiatic contiguity: houseless hordes, wandering in deserts, but “ The frontier of Russia, opposed to the chiefiy of Europeans, situated in territories, frontier line of Prussia, commenced near whose military and political value to Russia Memel ; and reaching the Niemen, between does not merely consist in an augmentation Tilsitz and Kovno, continued along that of her revenue and her number of souls, but, river as far as Grodno, when it ran in a as will be shown hereafter, in CONTRACTING southern direction upon the Bug river beher line of defence, and at the same time tween Drogutcbin and Brestlitov; then deaffording her powers of advance to posi- scending to Wlodowa, on the frontier of tions, that must, if properly occupied, secure Austriun Gallicia, continued along that prothe command of Europe and of Asia !" vince until it reached the Dniester, near
It is not in the number, but in the loy- Chotin, when it followed the course of that alty and affection of her subjects, that the river into the Black Sea. strength of Russia consists. She has “ On the side of Asia, the frontier was succeeded in conciliating the attachment separated from the Turkish prissessions by of so many millions of people, of differ- the Cuban, a small river, which flows at a ent laws, languages, and religions, by which divides the Crimea from the continent
little distance from the very narrow strait leaving to all the enjoyment of the faith, of Asia,
and connects the Sea of Azoe with the habits, and privileges to which they Black Sea. It then continued along that were born. She has adapted herself to river to its source, and passing in front of their prejudices, instead of attempting to Georgiesk, and behind or to the northward of gubdue them.
the mountains of Caucasus, joined the river “ It was this system of legislation and Terek, and followed its course into the connexion which preserved the Fins, the Caspian. Lithuanians, the Courlanders, the Podolians, " In the year 1817, the right of the frone the Wolhynians, the Sarmates, and the tier still rests on the Northern Ocean, but, adTartars in general, in their allegiance, and vancing a hundred and sixty miles, touches animated the Cossacks of the Don and the the frontier of Norway, and bends round it Wolga, with enthusiastic zeal in the service for a hundred and ninety miles, until it of a power against whose dominion they reaches a line drawn due north from the bad so long contended."
Torneo, when it descends on that river, The same system of policy has been and continues running parallel until it falls adopted towards Poland. She is permit. into the Gulf of Bothnia, intersecting a ted to bear the name of a kingdom; she country through which the Swedish troops has her own laws, her own language, her always passed into Finland, but where, froin own troops, and her own revenue, which the severity of the climate and the poverty
of the soil, none can move without previous is applied exclusively to her own use.
arrangements. Now let the reader consider the station taken by Russia , ber immo Be acquisitions, cation contributed to the loss of the Swedish
" The difficulty, indeed, of the communithe bold line of ber frontiers, and her do- provinces ; since Sweden could not sustain mineering infuence over the whole world.
with a piipulation of little more than two “ The importance, however, of these ac
millions of people, and a revenue of not quisitions cannot be bere fully manifested: much more than one million, the heavy exthe map and the intelligence of the observer penditure of men and money*. These difmust supply many inevitable omissions. The object is to show, not what may be, but * Before the separation of Finland, the revenue did plain. and sweeping with her frontier round considerable. The whole military force amounted to Georgia, absorbing ihe Persian provinces of about fifty thousand men.
ficulties, however, will be less felt by Russia, field equal, or nearly so, to the attacking since the command of the Gulfs of Finland force, and especially in the arın of cavalry; and of Bothnia would facilitate the opera. which is almost impossible ; since Russia, tions.
without any extraordinary exertion, could " A line is then drawn through the Gulf of bring one hundred and trenty thousand (reBothnia, which sweeping round Aland. re- gular and irregular) cavalry into action on gains the continent in the province of Li. the Prussian frontier. vonia, thus giving to Russia the ports of Abo * It is no wonder, then, that Prussia interand of Sweaborg, which was the great naval weaves the myrtle with the olive. that sho establishment of the Swedes on the coast of may preserve the ground for the laurels sho Finland, and all the numerous islands which has won! Had she a hundred daughters, and cluster between Aland and the main land, Russia as many sons, she would willingly and which are inhabited by a rich and happy unite them all. population. But the island of Aland is distant " On the side of the frontier, from Cracow from the shore of Sweden only twenty-four to the Pruth, the kingdom of Poland reposes miles, from the Archipelago of islands in on a friendly population, and not merely advance of Stockholm not above thirty, and friendly, but one in which the white eagle is not above sevenly from Stockholm itself; building, as it were, a native aerie: a terriwhile the intervening sea is frequently frozen, tory which, in time of peace, occasions jeaso that carriages may pass.
lousy to the present possessor ; and which, if “ Thus Russia has completely CHANGED the disaffection of the people were less uneher relative POSITION with Sweden. Instead quivocal, could not be delended in time of of her former vulnerable and humiliating war; notwithstanding, political consideradefensive attitude, she not only menaces tions render Sclaronian contact with the but awes; and not only awes; but, from a Carpathian mountains perilous to the Ause variety of contingent circuinstances, all fa- trian monarchy. vourable to her authority, she commands. “ The Russian frontier having reached the
“ On the Niemen, the frontier remains in Pruth, continues along that river (so disas. statu quo for about one hundred miles; when trous in her history) to its confluence with it traverses the Memel or Niemen river, and the Danube ; when this great artery of Ausrunning along East Prussia, strikes the Vistula tria, and main support of the Turkish fropDear Thorn, from whence Dantzic is distant tier, rolls its streams, now also tributary to about seventy miles, and BERLIN only one the flag of Russia, into the waters of the hundred and seventy.
Black Sea. " The line then crosses the Vislula, and “ In this position Russia is distant only advances to Kalish, a point nearly equi- one hundred miles fron Transylvania, about distant from Dresden and Berlin ; thence two hundred and fifty from Constantinople by taking a southern direction,and passing within water, and three hundred by land, in a direct thirty miles of the Oder, it bends in an eastern line; whilst the two interjacent provinces of course along the district of Cracow, which Moldavia and Wallachia are in fact regulated it respects; but at this point its distance by her policy, though the Ottoman Porto from a third capital, Vienna, is again only retains the nominal sovereignty. one hundred and seventy miles; the Gallician " Russia bad endeavoured to obtain the lino frontier is then rounded, when the line tra- of the Sereth, when she found that Austria verses the Dniester, allongates the Bukovine was not willing that sbe should occupy the frontier", until it reaches the river Prulh ; whole of the provinces of Moldavia and thus circumventing all that part of Poland Wallachia, and throw her frontier upon Illyexcept the Duchy of Posen, which belonged ria and the bigher Danube ; a boundary-lino to Prussia by the partition-treaties.
which, in fact, would have uncovered not " In this position, which may be called the only Illyria, but the Banat, Transylvania, and very heart of Europe, she rides alongside Hungary; and brought her within a little moro the Brandenburgh possessions with the lofty than two hundred miles of Constantinople. and fearful superiority of one of her hundred " It may be said, however, that Persia and twenty gun ships over a Prussian galliot, would march to the aid of the Mussulmane, when there is no escape from pressure, and although the religious quarrel between these when the weaker must be crushed or over- nations renders them deadly enemies when whelmed.
Christians do not menace the overthrow of “ Notwithstanding the possession of the both ; but Persia by the late treaty, made fortresses of Dantzic, Graudents, and Col under the auspices of England, is herself berg. Prussia can never attempt to defend any prostrate at the feet of Russia." territory north of the Oder; and her line of “Russia has descended from the mountains ! fortresses on that river is now the only ram- She is no longer struggling against the hos part of Germany, a rampart too of no value tility of nature and barbarians in the regions if there are
not supporting armies in the of the Caucasus; she has advanced into the Dnt exceed one million and a half, and the debt was
Daughistan and Shirvan, so as to consoli• The Bukovine is a small district lying between Transylvania and Moldavia, and which has belonged * The British ambassador obtained the best terms to both these provinces: it contains about one beurd ed he could; but his inability to procure better, corro would thirty thousand inhabitants, now under the Aus. borates the assertion of the text, with respect to the Atria government.
present helpless situation of Persia.
date and cement all her possessions, she has in order of battle, exclusive of mililia,
“ Thus Persia is humbled to the dust, and sand in Moldavia, thirty thousand on the her court to eastern dependence and bond- frontier of Armenia, as many in Persia, and age It is true, that Persia, unfetlered by leaving a reserve of one hundred thousand Turkish prejudices, has long solicited, and men to sustain these armies, possesses still a has at length obtained, the instruction of disposable force of above lwo hundred thouEuropeans, of French officers, officers of the sand infantry, eighly thousand cavalry, and army of Napoleon proscribed by Louis ; and one thousand two hundred guns better horsed it is not probable that they have carried with for service than any artillery or cavalry in them feelings of ill will to Russia so strong the world ;-an army, than which, there is as those towards England; that they would none more brave, and with which no other rather storm the frozen Caucasus than join in can march, starve, or suffer physical privaan expedition to share the spil of Asia, and tions and natural inclemencies. She has avenge in the East their humiliations in moreover a population equal to the needed Europe.
supply, and to a great portion of whom the " To reach Tchiran, the capital of the habits and sufferings of war are familiar; Shah, the columns have to march only three while no power in Europe can raise, equip hundred miles; and by the navigation of the or maintain their forces, with such disdain of Caspian they can be disembarked within one the price of blood." hundred! Thus an army might sail from the “Such,” exclaims our author, “is RusBallic through an internal navigation from sia ; such has been her gigantic growth Petersburgh to Astracan, and landing on the within a short century.” After this pasouthern shore of the Caspian, pitch their rade of her power, he undertakes to delitents within four hundred miles of the Per- neate the policy which she will probably sian Gulf; from whence the voyage to Bomday is only from twenty-four to thirly days,
pursue. in both Monsoons; and to Madras, but
" Alexander now wields the huge sceptre of eight or len days longer in the S. W. Mon: Russia, and displays an ability equal to the soon.*
task. His philosophical views have indeed “ This, then, is the territorial attitude of those who have known himn in other days,
been enfeebled by pernicious advisers ; but Russia. But can any power sustain a force still cling to the hope that he will not substigutficient to garrison a frontier, whose points tute an unfeeling policy, of which the pillars d'appui are the Northern Ocean and the Caspian, as well as the frontiers of China and te sentiments of that yenuine philanthropy
are tyranny, ignorance, and fanaticism, for Armenia; on whose line Srcedes, Austrians, which must still have possession of his heart, Turks, and Persians, are arrayed with feelings and interests at war with the power that though they do not animate his councils. would enslave them ?
" If, indeed, Alexander had resisted the “ Can Russia, who in the year 1799 had a
enemies of liberty and buman happiness—if disposable arnıy of only fifty thousand men ; fessed, to see governments and nations so
he had persevered in the wish he once proin the year 1807, not more than eighty thou« constituted, that sovereigns should be only sand to defend both capitals ; and in the year the execulive representatives of represented 1813, only three hundred thousandt on her states, whose action depended not on the whole territory, after several years prepara- character of the individual chief, but on gention; can she, notwithstanding a destructive eral,
fired, and self operating principles ; ho invasion and wars of such great waste and would have added to his glory, the more ilexpenditure, have collected and re-equipped lustrious and imperishable title of the “ Bearmies sufficient to defend her acquisitions nefactor to Mankind.”. and improve her advantages? The answer is, She can; and Europe and Asia must his enemies triumph in the result) of a con
“Now he appears only in the character (and acknowledge the truth of that assertion ; for, both quarters of the globe are over
querr, who engages the consideration of
the universe by the immensity of his power shadowed by the mass of six hundred and
to do real mischief and problematical forty thousand men, which an establishment of one million two hundred thousand ranges
“ How he will employ the vast force at
his disposition is certainly a most interesting * Nearchus, the captain of Alexander the Great's question. Whether be will take the line of fleet, from ignorance of the compass, being obliged the Vistula or even Oder for himself: push to hug the coast, was still only sixiy-one days actually Prussia into Holland; instigate France to in his voyage from the Indus.
| Peter the Great is said to have had one hundred imitate England, and complete and termithousand men at Narva ; but they were troops of that
nate her revolution by the election of a sodescription which present themselves under the image of sheep,, whose numbers never concern the wolves, vereign from the family of Nassau ; or and which eight thousand Swedes, being discipliged',, whether he will enter into negotiations with conquered,
Austria for a new arrangement of Europe,