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Rhine to attack Prussia, one hundred and bim the pretext for declaring war against twenty thousand Russians were advancing to England; a policy in which he persevered, her support.

notwithstanding circumstances were recalled “ The battle of Jena, which in one day to his mind calculated to deter him from overthrew the Prussian monarchy, and in carrying into execution so unpopular a mea. fourteen days advanced the French standards sure. to the Vistula, disconcerted the intended “ The seizure of Finland was most unjusoperations, and threw Russia upon the de- tifiable; but the acquisition was of the same fensive on her own frontier, with only five importance to Russia, as Normandy, under or six thousand dispirited auxiliaries, which English dominion, would be to France. The had escaped the wreck, instead of the two consequent dethronement of the then reignhundred and forly thousand men,

who a

ing dynasty in Sweden was never anticipaled few days previously had been arrayed to by Alexander, and will always be deplored co-operate with her.

by him, until the injury is compensated either “The battles of Pultusk, of Eylau, of Heils- by indemnity or restoration. berg, and Friedland, could not (or rather, in Napoleon, having again invaded Acs. one instance, that of Eylau, did not) prevent tria, to punish equivocal negociations, when the enemy's successive approach to the Nie- he was embarrassed, after the battle of men; and Alexander, alarmed at his situa. Eylau“, as well as to anticipate hostile artion, accepted the conditions of peace that rangements in progress, summoned Russia Napoleon offered, and which he not only as an auxiliary to invade Austria on the side rendered advantageous to Russia. but embel- of Gallicia. Her armies overran that protished with circumstances of respect to the so- vince, and advanced to Olmutz, wheu the vereign, that soothed the feelings of disap- Austrian cabinet resolved on peace, and pointment and defeat.

agreed to give a pledge of permanent friend. The unsuccessful i sue of Sir George Duck- ship--a pledge, wbich Fiussia is believed to worth's expedition, and the result of the un. have declined to give after the peace of authorised movement of the British Iroops

Tilsit. from Alexandria on Rosetta (tor the enter- Peace again added to the Russian empire prise against Alexandria itself was underta- an extensive and inportant district of terri.. ken at the express suggestion of the Russian tory; and, although it has since been relig. cabinet) had certainly much chagrined fler. quished, its re-occupation awaits but the ander, and given such an accession of force conrenience of the Emperor. to the Turks as to oblige the march of rein- “ The defence of Galicia is as impossible, forcements to that frontier, when they could since Russia has the Duchy of Warsaw, sit not be spared without danger to other points hundred thousand men to act wilh, and a of great interest : but the real motive, which friendly population to march on, as the disposed him to peace, was à conviction, maintenance of the country between the from a short residence at the army, that it Vistula and the Ni men, now under the was too weak in numbers, and too disor- Prussian dominion, would prove to be, if ganised from want of elementary arrange

Russia should ever resolve on its possession, ments, to defend from invasion the provinces unless Prussia negociated cession and inof Poland incorporated in Russia, where a demnity. spirit of insurrection was to be apprehend. " A strong English party continued to esist ed; whilst he knew that the succours, an.

in Russia ; and the commercial interest, nounced as on a march, were not in exist

which embraces the interest of a great part ence, and that there were not twenty thousand of the Russian nobility, murmured loudly at men in reserve to cover both his Capitals.

the detriment occasioned to their fortunes, “ Peace, which restored a throne io bis ally, and therefore to the general prosperity of although some of the richest jewels of the the empire, by the English maritine blockcrown remained in possession of the invader ade. Sull Alexander persisted; but, bearing diminished much of the personal regret in mind the impressions of the campaign on which Alexander had felt as a man for the the Vistula, he applied himself unremittingly issue of the war-Peace, which gave him to improve the administration of the army, a farther portion of Poland, wbich sanction. as well as to the increase of its numbers. ed his views in Turkey, as far as the Danube, Napoleon, who had expected and hoped and the conquest of the important province the Turkish war would have exhausted the of Finland, was favourable to his general po. treasure and military resources of Russia, or licy; but peace, which gave him tine, and at all events bave prevented the growth of by which he was resolved to profit, was, her disposable force, saw, with astonishment with the experience which he had acquired and apprehension, the result of Alexander's of the imperfections of his military system, administrative measures. of still greater, and, as he said himself, “ of “ In three years Russia had lost, of her the greatest value."

Moldavian armnies, by climate rather than by " The attack on Copenhagen, which Alex. the sword, thirty-six generals, and an hundred ander always declared to be unjustifiable, (as and twenty thousanul inen. Still an army of the then Crown Prince of Denmark had de- Napoleon said to the Austrian general sent to retermined on maintaining the strictest neutra- connoitre bis force and situation, and who did not arlity, and resisting any infraction whatsoever,

rive unul after the danger was passed, “ Go back and

tell your master he is too months too late, I am dow whether from the land or the sea,) afforded ready.''


sirty thousand strong, better equipped, or- means of judging of the correctness of ganized, and disciplined, than Russia ever his decisions in regard to military operabefore had, and which equalled, perhaps tions, on which he pronounces with a exceeded in general composition, any army in Europe, was stationed on the line of the peremptoriness that would be unbecomDanube, and occasionally blockaded the ing in any man, and which in an anonyTurkish army in Schumla, (at the foot of the

mous pamphleteer is most absurd and riBalkan mountains,) the rampart of Constan.

diculous. Yet, incompetent as we are to tinople-a rampart, which' a general like convict him of error, on points on which Napoleon wouid long since have prostrated we may possibly be a little more ignorant by bis genius and kindling spirit of en- than hinself

, his inaccuracy, and evenanterprise.

achronisms in regard to historical events The Persian war had consumed annually of a remoter period, of which he pretends from ten to twenty Thousand men; but every to speak knowingly, have destroyed all year improved the Russian lines of commu

claim to confidence, even were his denication, and gradually weakened the Per

mands as modest and moderate as they sian frontier. “ Instead of one feeble army to guard the

are impudent and unlimited. We will Niemen, one hundred and eighty thousand however copy, though we question its men were formed in three lines to repel any truth, as presenting to the imagination a attack, and another considerable body of vivid picture of the horrors attending the troops was stationed in Finland; all the ar- memorable retreat from Moscow, the folsenals were full of stores--fifteen hundred lowing description of the miserable deaths pieces of cannon in the field-recruits were of multitudes of the famished, fugitive intraining in every province-and a mililia was

vaders. instituted through the whole empire. “ Napoleon, who had never forgotten the

· In the hospitals of Wilna there were

left above seventeen thousand dead and battle of Eylau, and the martial qualities of dying frozen and freezing. The bodies of a Russian army, saw the time was come

the former, broken up, served to stop the when Russia was either to ass:ime that atti

cavities in windows, floors, and walls; but tude, which was the object of his ambition, a

in one of the corridores of the Orear Consettlement in Europe, which from the strate

vent, above fifteen hundred bodies were gical properties of her position and numerous population assured her the command of the piled up transversely, as pigs of lead or

When these were finally removed on continent, or, that she was to be dislodged, sledges to be burnt, the most extraordinary broken, repelled, and reduced, until she

figures were presented by the variety of their became again little more than an Asiatic

attitudes, for none seemed to have been power. He selected that moment to com

frozen in a composed state : each was fixed mence his operation, because he feared

in the last action of his life, in the last diRussia might prevail on the Turks to make

rection given to his limbs: even the eyes peace, and that England would acquire retained the last expression, either of anger, more indluence from her good offices on that occasion ; perhaps, also, he had good collected round the burning ruins of the

pain, or entreaty. In the roads men were reason to suspect, that the character of the

cottages, which a mad spirit of destruction protracted war in Spain was reviving the

had fired, picking and eating the burnt bodies hostile feelings of mwilling allies, and con

of fellow men; while thonsands of borses necting them in alliances of reciprocal resisiance and support.

were moaning in agony, with their flesh " In opposition to the advice of many of of a hunger that knew no pitý. In many of

mangled and hacked to satisfy the cravings his best viticers and statesmen, he refused 10 send eighty thousand more men to complete

the sheds, men, scarcely alive, had heaped

on their frozen bodies human carcasses, the conquest of the Peninsula, and disgust which, festering by the communication of the English nation with continental wars, by animal heat, had mingled the dying and the a failure of hopes so highly excited, and so

dead in one mass of putrefaction." expensively supported. He always replied, that it was most judicious to leave the Eng. the close of the first campaign.

We rejoin our author and Alexander at lish army engaged in a country remote from one, where, in his view, they might more

" Alexander, during this crisis, had disefficaciously contribute to the prejudice of played a degree of firmness which deranged bis interests

all the calculations of Napoleon and his coAt the head of a confederate army of adjutors. He pledged himself, as a sovereign above four hundred thousand men, Napoleon

auda man, that he would never treat with Accused Alexander of a violation of treaties, Napoleon whilst there was an armed enemy in and demanded their renewal."

his country; and his inflexible firmness renWe shall not enter into a detail of this

dered nugatory those aitempts at negotiation, campaign, the occurrences and termina

which are reported not to bave received the

same discouragement in other quarters. tion of which are fresh in recollection.

" His views even then embraced the fu. Had we a disposition to go over the ture ; and an anecdote industriously circu. ground with our author, we have no lated at a subsequent period, relative to the † The Russian rear guard could not pass the Elbe for ten days; during which time it was embarrassed




transactions at Aho, affords a memorable " The operations of the cabinet were no and splendid proof of his prospective policy. less vigorously conducted, and no less suc

“ England and Russia had determined to cessfully accomplished. adopt the same line of proceeding with re- “ The King of Prussia, who had disgard to Denmark as had occasioned, accord. claimed the conduct of General York, and ing to the declaration of Alexander, the war who bad resolved on faithfully adhering to bei ween those two oations.-Such are the bis treaties with Napoleon, at last signed the unfixed, and it may be said, revolutionary treaty of offensive and defensive alliance principles of cabinets !

with Russia ; but he acquiesced only an hour “ Alexander insisted that Sweden should before the signature was affixed; and only be indemnified by Norway for Finland, in then, under the suggestion, that in case of re. case Denmark refused to join the coalition. fusal, it was possible a prorisional govern.

The English minister, forgetting that ment might be established in his kingdom.* Russia, by the possession of Aland, SWEA- " In the month of May, an army of abont BORG, and the WHOLE GULPHS OF FINLAND eighty thousand Russians, and sizly thousand AND BOTHNIA, was, in fact, mistress of Prussians, passed the Elbe, vear Wittenberg STOCKHOLM, agreed to an annexation, which and Dresden. surrendered a country, so important for its Napoleon, who had been no less active maritime* resources, ports, and position, to and energetic, presented himself at Lutzen; the same influence and authority. The treaty where, from an injudicious disposition of the being signed, Alexander, who, as before cavalry, and the want of simultaneous elsaid, never forgets the unintentional wrong forts on the part of the allies, he gained which he did to his nephew, developed the a sanguinary victory, which would have true object of the arrangement, by saying to ruined their armies, if be could have brought Bernadotte, ' If Napoleon fails in his attack any cavalry into the field to press the against my empire, and the French throne retreat.t becomes vacant by the result of his defeat, I Reinforcements replaced the Russian shall think no one so eligible as yourself for losses; negotiations offered by Napoleon that station.' Important words, which serve were rejected; and the battle of Bautzen as a key to explain many of the future mys- was hazarded, contrary to all military sci. teries, and which bave not yet lost their ence and political prudence. value ; although Bernadotte does not enjoy The French, by an attack in flank of a equal consideration in the eyes of Russia, salient position, overpowered the Prussiams since be did not acquire the expected suf- (who fought gallantly) and gained the frages of the French people, and afford the ground; but the retreat, ending in the affair desired opportunity for the re-establishment of Reiehenkach, wbere Duroc was killed, of tbe ancient dynasty.

added in the honour of the Russians and the “ Alexander, after joining the army at confidence of the allies. Wiloa, had afforded useful encouragement to " The armistice ensued; and, during the perse nal exertions hy bis own exemplary en- negotiatious, stove sixty thousand good durance of privations, cold, fatigue, &c.; an troops from Odessa, and distant provinces, esample, which, added to great affability, entered the Russian camps. produced, not only very beneficial effects “ Austria was still unwilling to quit the on the soldiery, but which sustained the en. position of arbitrator, and join the coalition, thusiasm of the Russian nation. In the head whilst the interests of Napoleon required quarters at Kalish he was equally remarkable peace to dissolve a confederacy which every for diligence. Couriers, with autograph let. day enlarged and cemented. Pride or des. ters, in many instances were dispatched in tiny prevailed. He would not write even a all directions to bring up the recovered conciliatory note to his father-in-law, which wounded and sick, to advance the new re- would have sufficed to prolong the period cruits and medical stores, and to infuse the prescribed for the diplomatic answer; and ardour of the sovereign into every depart. the Austrians marched !" ment of the government.

We shall for reasons already stated “ The efforts obtained full success : volun. omit the detail and discussion of military tary contributions in men and money poured movements and successes which are in from the nobility; and the whole em cursorily criticised, with an air of conpire resounded with the huzzas of triumpb, scious superiority, by the author of the hymns of thanksgiving, and the Pashol, or

Sketch ; and shall pay no regard to marrh word, · for Poland, and Paris.' The Cossacks, enriched will the immense

the opinions and insinuations he has conbooty which their vigilance, activity, and trived to connect with them. As a spevalour, bad acquired, streamed from the cimen of his candour and judgment, it Don; and the oldest veterans, and youngest may, however, be well to mention that he boys capable of wielding a lance, were seen daily amongst the reinforcements arriving to

* Napoleon, who knew this anecdote, and alluded to

it in one of his bulletins, always spoke of the good range themselves under the banner of their faith of the King of Prussia with much respect. justly venerated Hetman.

with the protection of ten thousand four wheeled car. * It is computed that Norway furnished ten thou- riages oi' every description, inoving along the same saud sailors to England.



ascribes the capture of Paris, solely to acquired by his policy and mildness, the aftreachery, and thinks that Buonaparte fections of all parties. To the Royalists he who “with sixty thousand brave and in- was the guardian of the roya' dynasty—to the defatigable mea, had baffled the opera

Napoleonists he was the preserver of the intions of two hundred thousand, for more

tegrity of France, and to the Constitutionalthan six weeks,” was just on the point of

ists he was the champion of a liberal govern

ment. But in this moment of triumph he achieving victory-when“ the movement

never forgot Russia, and added largely to on St. Dizier which merited empire, lost former importations for the advancement of him his crown."

the arts, science, and industry in that counThe Allies however, having somehow obtained possession of the metropolis, *** The negociations of Paris regulated the we are next instructed in the process by

points at issue with France, and left the which the Bourbons were reinstated in fate of Naples, Saxony, and Poland, to be the throne, and in divers other mysteries, Belgium, and the destiny of the kingdom of

settled at Congress ; whilst the allotment of of which our author seems to have been the depositary

Italy were definitely arranged, although not “ Alexander had for some time been ob.

officially promulgated. liged to relinquish the proposed arrange.

" The Emperor of Austria had always de

clared that he would never reoccupy the ments in favour of Bernadotte, who had

Milanese states, in any event of the war ; loitered at Liege, and who, in fact, had

but Alexander, resolved on the acquisition done too much for his character in France, and too little for his interests with the allies.**

of the Duchy of Warsaw, insisted on Aus" Alexander. personally, as it was believed,

tria's taking to fierself those provinces, as ill-disposed to the Bourbon family, reluctant- kingiom of Italy, whose independence bad

compensating aggrandizements; thus the ly acquiesced in the proposition. The king so often been guaranteed by these very pow. of Prussia did not object; but Schwartzen.

ers in their treaties with Napoleon, and berg for a few instants was silent, and Tal

whose moral regeneration had been comlerand was uneasy, if not alarmed. Schwart

mensurate with its political growth, was zenberg, however, probably unwilling to charge himself with the responsibility of a

again reduced to a provincial dependence." refusal (his sovereign and Metternich being

The reply to this groan over Italy is absent) did not finally withhold his assent;

anticipated. and thus, by two foreign sovereigns, a fo

" It may be said, that the kingdom of reign marshal, and an ex-minister,

Italy was a fief to Napoleon-it was so, but Louis chosen-King of France !-legitimale

not to France. The two crowns, after his pretensions, and the subsequently alleged decease, were never to be placed on the right and litle to the throne, not in, the re

same head." motest degree influencing that choice.

Unanswerable logic! " The defection of Marmont, accompanied

6. The two crowns after his decease, with the contingent events, terminated the were never, &c." war; and Napoleon, still an emperor, pro

Profound statesman ! ceeded to his asylum, overthrown, but not The lament over the fallen fortunes of overcome.

Italy, and the panegyric on the virtues of “ Alexander, who had been ambitious at Napoleon which ensue, are most unforChatillon to stipulate for the entrance of tunately conjoined, if the writer really some battalions of his guards into Pariz, ebat he might in some degree balance parades at

meant to appeal to the condolence of hothe Thuilleries against those of the Kremlin,

nest hearts; for that breast which could and whose anxiety on this point had been

beat with tenderness for the miseries of one of the real obstacles to the conclusion a subjugated and degraded people, must of peace, now saw himself in possession of always throb with indignation at the the French capital, the creator of its new mention of a stern and selfish tyrant, monarchy, and the arbiter of its destinies ! whose crimes ought never to be forgotten

" Gratified in his vanities, but not intoxi- in his punishment. cated by his successes, he sought after, and "Whilst the congress was reconstructing Eu

rope, not according to rights, natural affiances, * Nevertheless, England was true to her engage

language, habits, or laws; but by tables of ment, nay, to the constructive spirit of it; for she em- finance, which divided and subdivided her ployed her fleet, the fleet of a free people, in blocka- population into souls, demi-souls, and even ding the Norwegian ports, to compel a reluctant nation, by famin, to receive the yoke ; although that fractions, according to a scale of the direct nation only required neutrality from England, that duties or taxes which could be levied by the she might negotiate or fight for her independence. The Swedish government seems to have acted towards * Alexander had at that time determined to make the Norwegians, wben obliged to capitulate, with himself King of Poland, and recommended the Emgreat liberality and good sense : but this conduct does peror of Austria to preserve the Italian monarchy, not affect the question of the right of England to and wear the iron crown; but the Emperor refused, make over a nation to another power, because its as he was afraid to keep alive the recollections of in. own government refused to break its neutrality ; nor dependence. But the debarkation of Napoleon in does it mitigate the reproach of England for em- 1815, forced acquiescence in a measure, which we ployiog her arms in such a service

Italians had much at heart, VOL. II.



No. III.

acquiring state, the fostivities of victory were tain the plighted faith, as much, and even not suspended; but, if Alexander wbirled, more than she was to avenge political inafter the fashion of his country, in the cir- juries. cling dance, his head never lost its equipoise, “ An English nobleman, whose acquainthis revelry never encroached on his hours of ance with the public laws of nations and the business, nor did his amusements divert his duties of honour is commensurate with his mind from more grave occupations." natural benevolence, when writing on that

The invasion of Buonaparte from Elba, subject, to produce a decision in unison with which broke the up congress,

his sense of justice, observed:

caused the Allies once more to occupy Paris. They

“What is passing at Paris distresses me obtained possession of this city by a con- the score of private acquaintance, though

more than I can describe--for Lavalette, on vention, containing the following stipu- slight, I am much concerned; but from relations.

gard to the character of our country, I have "ART. X1. Private persons and property conceived more horror at the trials and exeshall be equally respected. The inhabitants, cutions going on in the teeth of our capitulaand, in general, all individuals, who shall be tion than mere humanity could create. How in the capital, shall continue to enjoy their can it be asserted that the impunity for politiriglets and liberties, without being disturbed cal conduct extends only to impunity from or called to account, either as to the situa. the allies for offences committed against tions which they hold or may have held, or them? Where ships strike-where garrisons as to their conduct or polilical opinions. surrender-do the captains or commanders

ART. IV, Jf difficulties arise in the execu- stipulate, that the foreign conqueror shall not tion of any one of the artių les of the present molest their foriner political exertions! With Convention, the interpretation of it shall be or without such stipulations, what shadow of made in favour of the French army and of the right has a foreign enemy to punisb individucity of Paris.

als for opinions held, or conduct pursued in Notwithstanding this express guarranty their own country? of oblivion and indemnity, Labedoyere, "It is clear, the impunity promised was imNey, Lavalette, &c. were arraigned by punity for crimes, real or supposed, against a the Bourbons, for their concern in the Freuch government. If the French governrevolution, and, with the exception of the ment was a party to that promise, by that last, who was rescued principally by the allies are bound in honour not to deliver over

proinise it must abide. If not, the other intrepidity of the reputed author of this

a town taken in virtue of it, without exacting very work, were ignominiously executed the same terms from those to whom they de in the face, nay under the countenance, of liver it. the allied armies. We would not miti- · Had we taken Martinique in 1795 or gate the terms of reproach in which our 1794, on a promise of not molesting individuauthor vents his detestation of this dere als for political operations or conduct, should liction of truth and honour.

we have been at liberty to cede it, had Louis

XVIII. been then restored, without insisting “The Royalists of France say, the king was

on the impunity of all political offences; or, no party; and that a king cannot be bound by the arrangements or promises of foreign country for such as might have so offended?

at the very least, on the right of leaving the generals, that he should not administer his own

“In Egypt, the French stipulated, that nu laws: but a convention, according to all the writers on the laws of nations, and the usages

persons should be molested for their conduct

or opinions during the war. We took militeof war, is binding on those who sign and on those who benefit by the instrument; for no

ry possession of the country on those terms,

and delivered it over to the political authority party in law can select the advantage, and of the Ottoman Porte. When, however, the then reject the inconvenience by denial of Captain Pacha acting under that authority participation in the contract. Count Maci. began murdering the Beys, and proceeding roni, however, says, and his assertion has against the adherents of ihe French, we not never been contradicted, that Talleyrand, the only remonstrated and threatened, but we minister of Louis, was present on the morning of the 4th of July, when the Duke of actually protected the persecuted men


our lines,''* (and Lord Hutchinson marched Wellington, Sir Charles Stuart, and Pozzo di Borgo were assembled in council; and that guns, on the Pacha's camp, giving to the

the British arıny in line of battle, with loaded Talleyrand, turning to the Duke, requested Captain Pacha but five minutes to surrender bim to read to the Count the capitulation they the liring and the dead in his possession.!) had just concluded.

What would bave been done by the English "it was, however, of no consequence to the commander in Spain if the troops bad surpeople of Paris whether the king agreed or not. The allied commanders had guaranteed similar stipulation, and if, on the flimsy and

rendered any town to the French with a their safety against all persecutions for polili hypocritical subterfuge of a distinction beaut opinions and conduct; and, if remonstrance failed, they were bound to protect

* Observation of the Author. them by force of arms! Europe was also

| Sir Sidney Smith had already consecrated in obliged to support these measures, and main- Egypt and Arabia the good faith of Eng; and,

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