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faith in the truths of religion. At the commence. men, and more than 1000 apprentices, who nament of all his scores, the following words are vigate 200 large ships, in fitting out which near described : In Nomine Domini, or Soli Deo 100,000 persons are benefitted, as boat and gloria ; and at the conclusion of all of them, is ship builders.
English Magazine. written-Laus Deo.
" When, in composing, he felt the ardour of his imagination decline, or was stopped by some WARS BETWEEN FRANCE AND ENGinsurmountable difficulty, he rose from the piano
LAND. forte, and began to run over his rosary. He
The following account of wars between said, that he never found this method fail.
France and England, is taken from the Evan"When I was employed upon the creation,' gelical Magazine, printed in London, January, said he, “I felt myself so penetrated with reli- 1813. The left hand column gives the year ia gious feeling, that, before I sat down to the
which the several wars commenced, from the piano-forte, I prayed to God with earnestness, year 1110 to 1813—the right hand column give ihat he would enable me to praise him worthily.'
the duration of each war.
A. D. years.
A. D. years. There are now living sixteen Sovereigns in" 1110 contin'd.
1519 contin'd 1 Europe, who are of or above three-score years 1141
1557 of age! The British king is the oldest, having 1161
1562 almost completed his 79th year. The Duke of 1211
1627 Anhault Dessau is 77 years old—the Pope 75– 1224
1665 the Elector of Hesse 74.--Henry XII. of Reuss 1294
10 70; the King of Sweden 69 ; the Langrave of 1332
11 Hesse-Homburg 69; the King of Saxony 67; 1368
1744 the King of the iwo Sicilies 66; the King of Sar- 1422
1756 dinia 66; the King of France 62; the king of 1492
1m. 1776 Bavaria 61; the Duke of Oldenburg 61; the 1512
9 Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin 60 ; the 1511
10 Grand Duke of Hesse 60; and the Grand Duke From this shocking account it appears, that of Saxe-Weimar 60.
the number of wars was 24 ; that 260 years of It may amuse the reader to learn the ages of the 700 were employed by these nations in the other Potentates of the world :
butchering one another ; that from 1161 to The King of Portugal is 50 years of age; the 1471, a term of 310 years, 186 were spent in Emperor of Austria 49; the King of Denmark war; that from 1368 they were at war 100 years 49; the King of Prussia 47 ; the King of the in 103-having a peace only of two years duNetherlands 45 ; the Emperor of Russia 40; the ration. King of Wurtemberg 36; the King of Spain 33 ; the Sultan Mahomet 32; the Duke of Saxe-Coo bourg 31 ; and the Dutchess of Parma flate Em. press of France) 26. The latter has renounced
TO CORRESPONDENTS. her title of Empress. A proclamation before us begins :-“ We, Maria Louisa, Imperial Prin
It is with no little mortification that we are cess and Archduchess of Austria, by the Grace of God, Duchess of Parma, Placentia, Guas. again obliged to apologize to our mathematical tella," &c. &c.
friends for the omission of their favours this
month, which is done for the accommodation of GAS LIGHTS AND WHALE FISHERY.
our printer, to whom the Mathematical Lucu
brations were furnished at so late an hour, that The Engineer of a Gas Light Company, has
it would have occasioned bim an inconvenient stated before a Committee of the house of Commons, that every mile of pipe, or conductor of delay to complete the department. As we are
now provided with proper types, the questions the gas, costs the Company 20001. ; that the
and solutions will, hereafter, appear regularly. Company at this time, consumes about 28 chaldrons of coal per day; that if they increased their capital by about 200.0001. their probable consumption will be about 30,000 cbaldrons annually. A coal merchant who was examined, thought it would require 100 men to raise from the pits 30,000 chaldrons of coal in the year, and
ERRATA. to put them on board the vessels ; it would require about 40 horses, and 17 ships of 300 tons,
We hope cre long to be able to dispense with to convey them to London ; each ship to make
this table altogether. We have to notice the eight voyages annually; there would be re
following errors only, as material, which may quired also ten men for each vessel. That the
be found in a few copies. Company burning annually 30,000 chaldrons of
Page 94, col. 2, line 15 from bottom, for plan coals, they would pay annually to government read place ; page 106, col. 1, line 19 from top, for 13,0001. duty per annum.
probaque read proboqic. The Whale Fishery employs eleven thousand
have been describing, it 'furnishes a glimpse I have already called the attention of of the horrors of war. I trust it may warn your readers to the story of Lady Harriet my charming countrywomen against the miseAckland, as related by General Bur- ries to which the highly accomplished augoyne in his “ State of the Expedition - sufferer, Lady Harriet Ackland, were so immi.
thoress, and her interesting friend and fellow from Canada,” laid before the British nently exposed. Would to heaven that it House of Commons in 1780, and by might produce another effect, which I consiGeneral Wilkinson in_his interesting der vitally essential to the permanent tran« Memoirs of his own Times.” A not quillity of these states; were my honoured less vivid nor less intimidating picture of country women to consult patriot duty and the horrors of war is exhibited in the personal happiness, they would avert their following extract from the Memoirs of eyes from, and shut their ears to the Baroness de Reidesel, for which we
“ The neighing steed and the loud trump, are again indebted to General Wilkinson. " The spirit stirring drum, and the shrill fise, An apology may be due to him, for “ The royal banner, and all quality, availing myself so largely of his labours ; " Pride, pomp, and circumstance of glorious none I am sure will be required from me by your readers for the liberty I have And then no more would exterior trappings taken. General Wilkinson's introduce and a flippant air seduce the heart from the tory remarks, I shall also borrow, as
contemplation of the social virtues, of im. more appropriate than any thing I could bility; robbed of their praise and their pa
proved understanding and refined sensisay.
TRONAGE, the overwhelming thirst for mili- 1 shall conclude this chapter,” says Gen. tary glory would be allayed, and excellence eral Wilkinson, “with the following extract in the more solid and useful pursuits of civil from a narrative published in the German life would excite the rivalry of the rising language at Berlin, in 1800. It is from the generation; and the great cause of morality pen of the amiable, the accomplished and and religion would be prompted to support dignified Baroness Reidesel, whose charm- the constitution of our country; and to the ing blue eyes I have more than once seen honour of the American fair it might be said, bedewed with tears at the recital of her that they tamed sufferings. This lady, with two infant chil
the spirit of wild war, dren, accompanied her husband Major-Gen
“ That like a lion fosiered up at hand, eral the Baron Reidesel from Germany to " It may lie gently at the foot of peace." England, from England to Canada, and from the last place to the termination of General Burgoyne's campaign, in which she
Extract from the Baroness Reidesel's suffered more than the horrors of the grave
Narrative. in their most frightful aspect ; an imperfect translation does not render justice to the “ As we had to march still further, I orderstyle of Madame Reidesel, but the artless in- ed a large calash to be built capable of hold. · teresting tale furnishes strong proof of its ing my three children, myself, and two feauthenticity. I trust I shall be pardoned for male servants; in this manner we moved with presenting it to my fair readers, and whilst the army in the midst of the soldiery, who it serves to explain and wind up some of the were very merry, singing songs and panting distressing scenes which were passing in for action. We had to travel through almost the enemy's camp, at and after the actions I impassable woods and a most picturesque Vol. i1.-No. II.
and beautiful country, which was abandoned his limb was amputated, but it was too late, by its inhabitants who had repaired to the and he died the following day. As he lay standard of General Gates ; they added much in the next room to me, and the partition was to his strength, as they were all good marks. very thin, I distinctly heard his last sigh, men, and fitted by habit for the species of when his immortal part quitted its frail tenewarfare the contending parties were then ment, and I trust, winged its way to the engaged in and the love of their country mansions of eternal bliss. inspired them with more than ordinary cou- * But severer trials awaited us, and on the rage. The army bad shortly to encamp: 17th October our misfortunes began ; I was at generally remained about an hour's march in breakfast with my husband. and heard that the rear, where I received daily visits from something was intended. On the same day my husband ; the army was frequently en- I expected Generals Burgoyne, Phillips, and gaged in small affairs, but nothing of impor- Fraser to dine with us. I saw a great more. tance took place; and as the season was get- ment among the troops ; my husband toid ting cold, Major Williams of the artillery pro me it was merely a reconnoisance, which posed to have a house built for me with a gave me no concern, as it often happened. chimney, observing that it would not cost I walked out of the house and met several more than five or six guineas, and that the Indians in their war dresses, with guns in frequent change of quarters was very incon- their bands. When I asked them where they venient lo me: it was accordingly built, and were going, they cried out War! War! was called the Block house, from its square (meaning that they were going to battle.) form, and the resemblance it bore to those This filled me with apprehension, and I had buildings.
scarcely got home before I heard reports of On the 19th September an affair happen. cannon and musketry, which grew louder by ed, which, although it turned out to our ad- degrees, till at last the noise became exces. vantage. yet obliged us to halt at a place sive. About 4 o'clock in the afternoon, incalled Freeman's farm ; I was an eye wit- stead of the guests whom I expected, Gen. ness to the whole affair, and as my husband eral Fraser was brought on a litter mortally was engaged in it, I was full of anxiety, and wounded. The table, which was already trembled at every shot I heard; I saw a great set, was instantly removed, and a bed number of the wounded, and what added to placed in its stead for the wounded general. the distress of the scene, three of them i sat trembling in a corner ; the noise grew were brought into the house in which I took louder, and the alarm increased; the thought shelter ; one was a Major Harnage of the that my husband might perhaps be brought 62d British regiment, the husband of a lady in, wounded in the same manner, was terriof my acquaintance, another was a Lieuten. ·ble to me, and distressed me exceedingly. ant married to a lady with whom I had the General Fraser said to the surgeon,
tell me honour to be on terms of intimacy, and the if my wound is mortal, do not flatter me." third was an officer of the name of Young. The ball bad passed through his body, and
" In a short time afterwards I heard groans unhappily for the General, he had eaten a proceeding from a room near mine, and very hearty breakfast, by which the stomach knew they must have been occasioned by the was discended, and the ball, as the surgeon sufferings of the last mentioned officer, 'who said, had passed through it. I heard him lay writhing in his wounds.
often exclaim with a sigh, OH FATAL AN " His mournful situation interested me BITION! POOR GENERAL BURGOYNE! OH MY much, and the more so, because the recol- POOR WIFE!". He was asked if he had any lection of many polite attentions, received request to make, to which he replied, that from a family of that name during my visit IF GENERAL BURGOYNE WOULD PERMIT IT, to England, was still forcibly impressed on TE SHOULD LIKE TO BE BURIED AT 6 o'cLOCK my mind. I sent to him and begged him to IN THE EVENING, ON THE TOP OF A MOUNTAIN, accept my best services, and afterwards fur.
BUILT nished him with food and refreshments; he
I did not know which way to tura, expressed a great desire to see me, politely all the other rooms were full of sick. To. calling me his benesactress. I accordingly wards evening I saw my husband coming, visited bim, and found him lying on a litle then I forgot all my sorrows, and thanked straw, as he had lost his equipage. He was God that he was spared to me. He ate in a young man 18 or 19 years of age, and great haste with me, and his aid-de-camp bereally the beloved nephew of the Mr. Young, hind the house. We had been told that we the head of the family I have mentioned, had the advantage of the enemy, but the and the only son of his parents. This last sorrowful faces I bebeld told a different tale, circumstance was what he lamented most, and before my husband went away be took as to his pain be thought lightly of it. He me on one side, and said everything was nad lost much biood, and it was thought ne- going very bad, that I must keep myself in cessary to amputate ihe leg, but this he would readiness to leave the place, but not to mennce consent to, and of course a mortification tion it to any one. I made the pretence that took place. I sent him cushions and cover. I would move the next morning into my ings, and my female friends sent him a mat- new house, and had every thing packed ress. I redoubled my attention to him, and up ready. visited him every day, for which I received Lady H. Ackland had a tent not far from & thousand wishes for my happiness. At last our house, in this she slept, and the rest of
IN A REDOUBT WHICH
the day she was in the camp. All of a sud. Reidesel saw me in the midst of danger, he den a man came to tell her that her husband ordered my women and children to be was mortally wounded and taken prisoner; brought into the calash, and intimated to me on bearing this she became very miserable, to depart without delay. I still prayed to we comforted her by telling her that the remain, but my husband knowing my weak wound was only slighi, and at the same time side, said, “ well then your children must go, advised her to go over to her husband, to do that at least they may be safe from danger.” which she would certainly obtain permission, I then agreed to enter the calash with them, and then she could attend him herself; she and we set off at eight o'clock. was a charming woman, and very fond of " The retreat was ordered to be conducted him. I spent much of the night in comfort with the greatest silence, many fires were ing her, and then went again to my children, lighted, and several tenis left standing; we whom I had put to bed. I could not go to sleep travelled continually during the night. At As I had General Fraser and all the other six o'clock in the morning we halted, which wounded gentlemen in my room, and I was excited the surprise of all; General Burgoyne sadly afraid my children would awake, and by had the canoon ranged and counted'; ihis their crying disturb the dying man in his last delay seemed to displease every body, for if moments, who often addressed me and apo. we could only have made another good logised " for the trouble he gave me.' About 3 march we should have been in safety. My o'clock in the morning I was told he could husband, quite exhausted with fatigue, came not hold out much longer; I had desired to into my calash and slept for tbree bours; durbe informed of the near approach of this sad ing that time Captain Willoe brought me a crisis, and I then wrapped up my children in bag full of bank notes, and Captain Geismar their clothes, and went with them into the his elegant watch, a ring, and a purse full of room below. About 8 o'clock in the morn- money, which they requested me to take care ing he died. After he was laid out and his of, and which I promised to do to the utmost corpse wrapped up in a sheet we came again of my power. We again marched, but bad into the room, and bad this sorrowful sight scarcely proceeded an hour before we halted, before us the whole day, and to add to the as the enemy was in sight; it proved to be melancholy scene, almost every moment only a reconnoitering party of two bundred some officer of my acquaintance was brought men, who might easily have been made priin wounded. The cannonade commenced soners, if General Burgoyne had given proagain ; a retreat was spoken of, but not the
per orders on the occasion. smallest motion was made towards it. About The Indians bad now lost their courage, 4 o'clock in the afternoon I saw the house and were departing for their homes; these which had just been built for me in flames, people appeared to droop much under adand the enemy was now not far off
. We versity, and especially when they had no knew that General Burgoyne would not re- prospect of plunder. One of my waiting fuse the last request of General Fraser, women was in a state of despair which apthough by his acceding to it, an unuecessary proached to madness ; she cursed and tore delay was occasioned, by which the incon- her hair, and when I attempted to reason with venience of the army was much increased. ber and to pacify her, she asked me if I was At 6 o'clock the corpse was brought out, and not grieved at our situation, and upon my we saw all the Generals attend it to the saying “I was,” she tore her cap off her mountain ; the chaplain, Mr. Brudenell, per head and let her hair drop over her face, say. formed the funeral service, rendered unu- ing to me, “it is very easy for you to be sually solemn and awful from its being ac. composed and talk, you have your husband companied by constant peals from the ene- with you, I have none, and what remains to my's artillery. Many cannon balls flew close
me but the prospect of perishing or losing all by.me, but I had my eyes directed towards I have ;" I again bade her to take comfort, the mountain, * where my husband was and assured her I would make good whatever standing, amidst the fire of the enemy, and she might happen to lose, and I made the of course, I could not think of my own same promise to Ellen, my olber waiting danger.
woman, who, though filled with apprehen"General Gates afterwards said, that if he sions, made no complaints. had known it had been a funeral he would · About evening we arrived at Saratoga; not have permitted it to be fired on.
my dress was wet through and through with “As soon as the funeral service was finish. rain, and in that state I had to remain the ed, and the grave of General Fraser was clos- whole night, having (no place to change it; ed, an order was issued that the army should I however got close to a large fire, and at last retreat. My calash was prepared, but I lay down on some straw. At this moment would not consent to go before the troops. General Phillips came up to me, and I asked Major Harnage, although suffering from his him why we had not continued our retreat, wounds, crept from his bed, as he did not as my husband had promised to cover it and wish to remain in the hospital, which was bring the army through? “ Poor dear woJeft with a flag of truce. When General man," said he. “I wonder how, drenched as
you are, you have the courage still to perse
vere and venture further in this kind of wea• The height occupied by Burgoyne on the 18th, which ran parallel with the river ugul it approached ther; I wish,” continued he, “ you was our General Gates's camp.
commanding general, General Burgoyne is
tired, and means to halt here to-night and ferred being near the door, in case of fire. give us our supper."
Noi far off my women slept, and opposite to "On the morning of the 7th, at ten o'clock, us three English officers, who, though wound. General Burgoyne ordered the retreat to bę ed, were determined not to be left behind; continued, and caused the handsome houses one of them was Captain Green, an aid-deand mills of General Schuyler to be burnt ; camp to Major-General Phillips, a very valu. we marched however but a short distance, able officer and most agreeable man. They and then halted. The greatest misery at this each made me a most sacred promise not to time prevailed in the army, and more than leave me behind, and in case of a sudden rethirty officers came to me, for whom tea and treat, that they would each of them take one coffee was prepared, and with whom I shared of my children on his horse, and for myself, all my provisions, with which my calash was one of my husband's was in constant readiin general well supplied; for bad a cook ness. who was an excellent caterer, and who often “Our cook, whom I have before mentioned, in the night crossed small rivers and foraged procured us our meals, but we were in want on the inhabitants, bringing in with him of water, and I was often obliged to drink sheep, small pigs, and poultry, for which he wine and to give it to my children. It was very often forgot to pay, though he received the only thing my husband took, which made good pay from me as long as i had any, and our faithful hunter (Rockel) express one day was ultiinately handsomely rewarded. Our bis apprehensions, that " the General was provisions now failed us for want of proper weary of his life, or fearful of being taken, as conduct in the commissary's depariment, he drank so much wine.” The constant danand I began to despair. About two o'clock ger which my husband was in kept me in a in the afternoon we again heard a firing of state of wretchedness, and I asked myself if cannon and small arms; instantly all was it was possible I should be the only happy alarm, and every thing in motion. My hus- one, and have my husband spared to me unband told me to go to a house not far off; hurt, exposed as he was to so many perils. He I immediately seated myself in my calash never entered his tent, but laid down whole with my children, and drove off; but scarce- nights hy the watch fires; this alone was ly had we reached it before I discovered enough to have killed him, the cold was so infive or six armed men on the other side of tense. the Hudson ; instinctively I threw my chil- The want of water distressed us much: dren down in the calash, and then concealed at length we found a soldier's wife who had myself with them; at that moment the fel: courage enough to fetch us some from the lows fired and wounded an already wounded river, an office nobody else would undertake, English soldier, who was behind me; poor as the Americans shot at every person who fellow, I pitied him exceedingly, but at that approached it, but out of respect for her ses moment had no means or power to relieve they never molested her. him. A terrible cannonade was commenced "I now occupied myself through the day by the enemy, which was directed against the in attending the wounded; I made them tea house in which I sought to obtain shelter for and coffee, and often shared my dinner with myself and children, under the mistaken idea them, for which they offered me a thousand that all the Generals were in it. Alas! it con- expressions of gratitude. One day a Cana. tained none but wounded and wonen; we dian officer came to our cellar, who had were at last obliged to resort to the cellar for scarcely the power of holding himself uprefuge, and in one corner of this I remained right, and we concluded he was dying for the whole day, my children sleeping on the want of nourishment; I was happy in offerearth with their beads in my lap; and in the ing him my dinner, which strengthened him, same situation I passed a sleepless night.- and procured me his friendship. I now unEleven cannon balls passed through the dertook the care of Major Bloomfield,* ano, bouse, and we could distinctly hear them roll ther aid-de-camp of General Phillips, he had away. One poor soldier who was lying on received a musket ball through both cheeks, a table, for the purpose of having his leg am which in its course had knocked out several putated, was struck by a shot which carried of bis teeth, and cut his tongue, he could away his other :' his comrades had left him, hold nothing in his mouth, the matter which and when we went to his assistance we found ran from his wound almost cboaked him, him in a corner of the room, into which he and he was not able to take any nourishment bad crept more dead than alive, scarcely except a little soup, or something liquid; we breathing. My reflections on the danger to had some Rhenish wine, and in the hope which my husband was exposed now agonize that the acidity of it would cleanse his ed me exceedingly, and the thoughts of my wound, I gave him a bottle of it, he took children and the necessity of struggling for a little now and then, and with such effect, their preservation alone sustained me. that his cure soon followed ; tbus I added
“ The ladies of the army who were with another to my stock of friends, and derived me were, Mrs. Harnage, a Mrs. Kennels, the a satisfaction which, in the midst of sufferwidow of a lieutenant who was killed, and ings. served to tranquilize me and diminish the lady of the commissary. Major Har- their acuteness. nage, bis wife, and Mrs. Kennels, made a little room in a corner with curtains to it,
Now member of Parliament for Plymouth, major. general in the
army, lieutenant-colonel of the royal and wished to do the same for me, but I pre- artillery,
chief equerry and clerk martial to the king.