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nine. Now, some such title as the follow- need only refer to his careful inquiry and ing, “ Journal of a Voyage to the South investigation on the subject of the report Sea;” or “Some account of the passage, that these islanders were cannibals, and of H. M. frigate Briton round Cape Horn, the obvious pleasure with which he reand of the various places at which she cords his conviction, that a practice so touched on the coast of Chili and Peru, unnatural and unelean has no existence together with sketches of the Gallapagos among them. And here, if the Quarterly and Washington Islands, and also a brief Reviewers had been actuated by that linotice of Pitcairn's Island, and the situa- berality of spirit so decent in men of tion of the colony planted there in 1789, letters, --if passion had not stifled the by Fletcher Christian;" or "A Cruise in sense of justice, they would, after having the Pacific Ocean in 1814;" would have copied Commodore Porter's refutation of been certainly as honest and far more so wrongful a report, have at least thanked appropriate. But though the narrative him for his faets, if they could find nocontains few new facts, and throws little thing generous in his motives. additional light on the history and condi- While we are on this subject, also, we tion of any of the places visited by the cannot but remark that if Commodore author, and records little, by which the Porter's treatment of the natives had been political speculutor, or the historian of as reprehensible as his enemies would renature, can be aided in his investigations, present it-if he had been as vindictive still, the book is on the whole tolerably and ferocious as some would fain bave well calculated to satisfy the wants of the him believed to have been, the manner in general reader. There is one thing which which he has given the story of his resihas given us a good deal of satisfaction dence and conduct among them, and the in the perusal of it; brief and hasty as temper with which he has drawn their are all the accounts which it contains, as character and described their situation, is, far as they go, they corroborate the mi- upon ordinary principles, unaccountable. nuter statements of Commodore Porter, A man, conscious of such enormous and prove that our fellow-citizen, what- wrong as that, of which he must have ever may have been his errors in the been guilty, provided his own relation of island of Nooaheevah, was both an intel- the cireumstances in which he was placed, ligent and accurate observer. We were and of the motives which governed him, be the more pleased with this corroboration, false, would never have drawn so favourbecause the Quarterly Review, a work able a picture, as the “Journal” exhibits, which is at once the glory and the stain of a people, in his intercourse with whom, of English literature, has thought fit, not he must have committed the most flagrant only to inveigh, with the most velrement outrages upon humanity and honour. indignation and sneering contempt, against We do not deny that there are many Commodore Porter, on account of the things in Commodore Porter's Journal Typee war and the elation with which that we could wish were different: he ex-; he expresses himself on the subject of bibits a vanity that sometimes disgusts, his cruise previous to his capture, but and there is a grossness in parts of his also to derogate from the authenticity of narrative quite unnecessary to the fullest his narrative, and to charge him with is- communication of facts, and from which norance and misrepresentation. Now we the delicacy of his son's sentiments (for do not wish to extol the literary merits of whose instruction the “ Journal” is prothe “ Journal," nor stand forth as the ad- fessed to have been written,) will not be vocates of Commodore Porter's whole likely to receive much encouragement. course of conduct in the Washington We do not, as we have said, undertake islands, but we have no hesitation in suy. the praises of Commodore Porter either ing that we think his narrative fully enti- as a sentimentalist or a politician, but as tled to credit, and that, so far as it con- one of our countrymen, we certainly do cerns the natives of those islands, their well to feel satisfaction at finding his vegeneral character, their manners and cus- racity established, and as one, in whose toms, and the advancement they have care our national flag so long floated in made in their social condition, he has triumph in the Southern Occan, it is spoken of them with intelligence and right to rejoice' at any evidence of the candour. In proof of his candour,--nay falsehood of charges that would blacken more than candour, -of his anxiety not his character, and taint the good name of merely to avoid wrong impressions him- his country.' In proof of what we have self, but also to correct erroneous and in- asserted iö regard to the prejudice and jurious opivions, which had been propa- mistatements of the Quarterly Review, gated by the preceding voyagers, we we give the following extracts from that

work, with their refutation from Porter in great abundance, which were not only and Shillibeer. Page 360 of the Quarter- of an excellent flavour, but were a sovely Review, No. 26, it is said,

reign antiscorbutic. The cotton plant “We have dwelt thus long on these in- was found growing spontaneously, and a teresting creatures (the tortoises of the tree of a very aromatic flavour and taste, Gallapagos) so 'like elephants,' for lack and which indeed was no other than the of better matter, though the Gallapagos one formerly mentioned, found on the supplied other objects, of which a skiliul island of Albemarle, (one of the Gallapatraveller would have availed himself for gos) and producing in large quantities a the instruction and amusement of his resinous substance. Doves peculiar to readers: they are, for instance, all volca- these islands, of a small size, and very nic, and in a state of activity; and these beautiful plumage, were very numerous, volcanoes are apparently fed by a constant The English mocking-bird was also found indraught of the sea towards the group in great numbers, and a small black-bird, of islands ; they abound too with a great with a remarkably short and strong bill, variety of plants and animals, and though and a shrill note; also, teal, pelicans, bootheir situation is directly under the equa- bies, and other birds common to the tor, the climate is so moderate as to re- islands of these seas.” In page 188, semble that of the temperate rather than Commodore Porter mentions his seeing a the torrid zone; but matters of this kind volcano. “On the 6th June, we were are beneath the observation of Mr. Por- abreast of the island of Narborough, and ter.” Who, that reads this passage, and in the afternoon saw a thick column of takes it for granted that the statement smoke rising rapidly as from its centre, which it contains is true, would suppose ascending to a great height in the air, that the “Journal" contains any thing on where it spread off in large white curls the subject of the formation, or the face and presented a grand and magnificent of the country, or the animals, birds, spectacle.” The volcano was ascertained, reptiles, fish, vegetable productions, or the next day, to be on Albemarle island.

currents and the temperature of the Gal- Many more passages might be quoted lapagos Islands ? Yet the fact is, that on from the “Journal” to prove the misreall these points Commodore Porter has presentation of the Quarterly Reviewer, made statements, with not a little parti- and to show that the Commodore is well cularity, and has, moreover, furnished entitled to be denominated “a skilful trahis profession with much interesting in- veller." The Reviewer also speaks in a formation concerning the navigation of very contemptuous manner of what is that region of the Pacific Ocean,-noting said in the “Journal” about the tortoises the direction of currents, the most useful of the Gallapagos, and with a sneer land-marks, and the season of the year doubts the truth of the statement conmost favourable for cruising in that quar- cerning their weight. Page 359, in reter! Thus, page 140 of the “ Journal” serence to what is stated in the “ Jourthe author writes, “These islands are all nal” of the tortoises, it is said, “ we were evidently of volcanic production; every not aware that they weighed 400 pounds mountain and hill is the crater of an ex- each. They have grown, no doubt, since tinguished volcano." On the same page, honest Dampier's time, who thought he speaking of the difficulty of procuring should hardly obtain credit in stating fresh water, he remarks," although it “ one of the largest of these creatures to seldom rains on shore, and never at sea weigh one hundred or two hundred here, yet the tops of the mountains are pounds.". Now the “Journal" informs almost constantly covered with thick us that the tortoises weighed upon an clouds, great part of the moisture from average about sixty pounds, and it is of which, instead of being soaked up by the the sea-turtle that the commodore speaks light and spongy soil of the mountains, when he says, “ some of them weigh upwould find its way, in running streams, to wards of three hundred pounds;" and the sea, were the islands sufficiently fur- Lieutenant Shillibeer, of the Royal Manished with trees to condense more con- rines, says of the turtle, “ some of them stantly the atmosphere, and interlace weighed more than three hundred and their roots to prevent its escape into the seventy pounds.” What is said in the bowels of the mountains.” On page 174 “ Journal of the guanas, also, is ridiculwe find the following: “We were enabled ed and disbelieved by the Quarterly Reto procure here also, in large quantities, viewer, and his wit is couched in numbers, an herb, in taste much resembling spinage, "To give our untravelled readers, who and so called by our people ; likewise va- may not know much about guanas, some rious other pot-herbs, and prickly pears idea of one of these animated plats, (says

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the Reviewer in allusion to the Commo- minated them the “Revolution Islands," dore's having asserted that “in some in honour of the French revolution; and spots half an acre of ground would be gave other French names to the several covered with them,”) it may be necessa- islands which composed the

group.

Not ry to tell them that, supposing each guana long after, the group was styled by Vanto be three feet long and four inches in couver, Hergest's Islands, in remembrance diameter, which is an enormous size,' of his friend Lieutenant Hergest, who there would be in each half acre, 21,780 had, himself, given other Englisb names guanas;" and, having finished his inge- ' to most of the islands separately. This nious calculation, remarks, “such an multiplicity and confusion of the names half acre, we will venture to say, is to be of these islands has arisen, doubtless, found only in the Gallapagos.” Very like- from their having been visited by the subly ;-but that such half acres are to be jects of the several nations abovementionfound there, seems probable from Lieute- ed so near the same time, and it is probanant Shillibeer's account, for he says, ble that each nation will continue to 'empage 31, "the number of guanas we saw ploy the names given by its own navigahere can only be conceived ; they are of a tor, if, indeed, they do not all give place to light red colour and about two or three the aboriginal denominations; though, if feet long.” Indeed, so full and accurate Commodore Porter's prophecy should is the account given by Commodore Por- prove true, and posterity should know ter of the Gallapagos, that if it were not them only as Washington's Group, there for the well-known learning and exten- is no appellation by which they could be sive knowledge of the Quarterly Review- so honoured. Madison's Island, as name er, we should be ready to suppose that ed hy the Commodore, belongs to the he was indebted to the "Journal” itself Washington group, though the Quarterly for his information concerning these Review speaks of it as one of the

Marqueislands.

sas, and is called by the British, Sir Henry But we will take our departure from Martyn's Island, but by the natives Noothe Gallapagos, which name we are kindly aheevah. This is the island on which the informed by the Reviewer, signifies “ The commodore remained so long, and the Islands of Tortoises,” and, in company one which, notwithstanding the title of with the Commodore and the Lieutenant, his book, occupies more of the Lieutetake a brief survey of the Washington nant's pages than other places visited by Islands. There seems to be some confu- him. Some account of this island, which sion on the subject of the names by which is the largest, most fertile and populous of these islands are to be called, in both the the group, will answer for the rest, and, narratives, and it is not cleared up in the indeed-in regard to the general character Quarterly Review. The common sup- of the people, the soil and productions, position appears to be, that all the islands for most of the islands in the Pacific included in the Washington group are the Ocean. Nooaheevah, or Madison's island, same as the Marquesas—but this is a mis- is divided, with considerable regularity, take. There are two groups of islands and quite equally, into fine sweeping valin this region--not far distant, however, leys, separated by steep, rugged and alfrom each other; one, the Marquesas most inacressible hills. These valleys are group, was discovered, in the year 1595, inhabiter by distinct communities, and by Don Alvera Mendana de Neyra, a they ca2in, each, from 2000 to 3000 inSpaniard; the other was first discovered habitants. These tribes are frequently at by Captain Ingraham, of Boston, in May war with each other, but they seldom 1791, and has been laid down on the corre to a general engagement, and when maps by the name of Ingraham's Islands. they do, not much blood is shed--the five, They were visited the year after, 1792, killed by Commodore Porter's party unby Captain Roberts, of Boston, and were der the command of Lieutenant Downs, by him called the Washington Islands. In in the battle with the Happahs, being conthe year 1791, in June, Captain Mar- sidered a great slaughter. As, however, chand, a Frenchman, the narrative of they fight with clubs and slings, and a vawhose voyage was afterwards drawn up riety of missiles, many wounds and bruises by Fleurien, fell in with them on his pas- are the consequence, and these needing sage to the north-west coast; and in surgical atd, the natives of this island March, 1792, they were visited by Lieu- have acquired a skill in the art of surgery tenant Hergest, of the British navy, who truly adinirable. But, though few lives surveyed their coasts and gave a conside- are lost outright, in the contests between rably detailed account of them, together these various tribes, yet the manner in with a chart. Captain Marchand deno- which they seek vengeance by the deVOL. II. NO. 1.

8

struction of the materials of subsistence, line,—the second was composed of spearis, on the whole, as effectual in thinning men, and the slingers were ranged ou the their numbers, and preventing the increase flanks. The bittle commenced by a sinof their population, as would be more gle combat between two chiels, who dissanguinary battles. Their principal wea- played great powers, both in agility and pons of offence,-and they do not appear skill, and were struggling manfully, when to have any defensive armour--are clubs, the signal was given to advance. A terrispears and slings.

“ Their clubs, says fic and hideous shout followed. The Lieutenant Shillibeer, are of two kinds, slingers now began, but were obliged to carved and plain, and both are made from retire on coming within the reach of the a wood, which, though not hard when spears. The advance was rapid, and as first cut, becomes so by being buried in the parties closed, the confusion increased, the mud, which serves as a strong die.” Club came in contact with club, and spear Their spears, also, are of two kinds; with spear, the slingers stood aloof. The " those," says Commodore Porter, “by conch was at length sounded, when each which they set most store, are about four- party separated, the slingers, on each sides teen feet in length, made of a hard, black filing into the rear of their respective wood called toa, which receives a polish sanks to secure their retreat, and throwequal to ivory; these are made with much ing stones until they ceased to be of any neatness, and are never thrown from the effect. Both parties then drew up in hand: the other kind are smaller, of a their original order, and rested on their light sort of wood, and are thrown with arms." much accuracy to a great distance. At Of the religion of this people, the folcertain distances from their points they lowing extract from Shillibeer's Narraare pierced with holes all round, in order tive will furnish a sufficiently circumstanthat they may break off, with their own cial account. weight, on entering the body, and thus be “ Their religion, as well as their mode more difficult to extract. Their slings of performing it, appears to differ but litare made of the fibres of the bark of the tle from the description given in the ap. cocoa-nut tree, and are executed with a pendix to the Missionary voyage to the degree of

neatness and skill not to be ex• Society Islands, excepting that of offering pelled. The stones thrown from them human sacrifices to their Eatooa, or god. are of an oval shape, of about half a I could not find that this custom had pound weight, and are all highly polish- ever been in practice here; if it had, it ed by rubbing against the bark of a tree; must have been very ancient, for it did they are worn in a net suspended about not form any part of their numerous the waist, and are thrown with great ve- traditionary stories.

The Eatooa aplocity and accuracy; and the numerous pears throughout these islands, to be the scars, broken limbs and fractured skulls superior deity, but they have many of of the natives prove that, notwithstand- inferior note, and amongst them I reing their great dexterity in avoiding

those marked Faitu-aitapoo, and two or three missiles, they are used with much effect.” others resembling in sound those menThe following is an account of a sham tioned in the Missionary voyage, but the fight which Lieutenant Shillibeer saw, one here mentioned alone corresponded and which the old chief caused to be per- exactly. Every family bas also a deity formed at the request of Sir Thomas of its own, who is some illustrious relaStaines, commander of the expedition to tive; supposed, from his great actions and which the Lieutenant was attached." The his virtue, to have become an Eatooa. old warrior acceded to the proposal, and To him they dedicate images cut out of took great pleasure in going through all wood, and although the figures are unthe various evolutions. For the club, a couthly represented, they are ingenious. tolerably sized stick was substituted; for These are held sacred, and are princithe spear, a piece of bamboo, and the pally used for the tops of crutches, or slingers, instead of stones, threw the small stilts, as they are superstitious enough to bread fruit. Thus armed, about three suppose, that when they rest on these kundred of the most experienced went images they will be secure from injury; forth to the plain. The king, for the first and if by accident they are unfortunate time, was carried on a superb litter, which enough to stumble, they seldom live long we had made for him on board. He gave afterwards ; for if the priest cannot satisdirections to the chiefs, for the formation factorily appease the anger of the tuteof both armies, which were drawn up in lar Eatooa, they fancy they labour unthe following manner. About thirty prin- der his displeasure, and with an unes cipal warriors, with clubs, formed the first qualled resignation, starve themselves to death. In the performance of all cere- of human hair, tied round the ankles, monies, they exemplify the greatest de- wrist or neck, and always worn in battle, votion, nor do they at any time approach though seldom otherwise. Tattooing is a place sacred to the Eatooa, without the evidently considered among them a spemost marked respect,--the women um- cies of dress, a man without it being held covering their bosoms and the men their in the greatest contempt. The women heads. Of the evil demon, or Veheene- are not exposed as much as the men, and ihee, they have but little dread, being thei. tattooing is very inconsiderable. firmly persuaded that after the soul has Their dress consists of a piece of cloth taken its departure from the body, it will round their waists, answering to a short enjoy a rank among their Eatooas, in an- petticoat, and a mantle, which being tied other world, according as its life has been on the left shoulder, and crossing the bogood or bad in this. Nothing can exceed som, rests on the right hip, and hangs their superstition; they are continually negligently as low as the knee, or call of seeing atoowas, or ghosts, and, in their the leg, as it may accord with the taste of sleep, they fancy the soul leaves the body the lady. Their hair is generally black, to repose among the spirits. Their burial but worn in different ways, sone long places, or morais, consist of a large heap and turned up-others short. They are of stones, very irregularly piled, having all foud of adorning their persons with on the top a small house for the purpose flowers, and many of the wreaths are. of receiving the remains of the king and formed with such elegant simplicity, as his family, or those of the principal chiefs. to contribute not a little to their perThe sacrifices are made here, and the sonal appearance, which is at ali times place being tabooed, or rendered sacred, particularly interesting; the beauty of their the women, who labour under great re- features being only equalled by the symstriction, are precluded from touching, or metry of their figures. They are of a even going to it, under the penalty of bright copper colour, and in the cheeks of death.' A prevalent custom, and one those who were requested to refrain from that is of great importance to strangers,

anointing themselves with oil, and the is that of exchanging names.

When an roots of ireps, the crimson die was very exchange of this kind takes place, be- conspicuous.' tween a chief and a stranger, the adopted The follow ing account of their domesbrother, or tayo, is considered equally tic economy, their food, manners and entitled with himself to whatever his house mode of living, is abridged chiefly from or district affords, and he receives the the

Journal of Commodore Porter. same respect from the people.

The houses of these islanders are built in The clothing, or dress of these peo- the following manner: Four upright posts, ple is very simple, the men having no- of the bread tree, with the upper end thing but the ame or girdle of cloth round forked, and about twenty feet long, are their waist, which is passed between their driven into the ground, and across the tops legs and neatly secured in front. They of these is laid a ridge-pole made of the have also a hat made from the palm tree, cocoa-nut tree; at a convenient distance the simplicity of which gives an inter- from these centre posts, on each side are esting finish to their manly statures. driven other posts, eight' or ten feet long They are excessively fond of ear orna- surmounted in like manner with a ridgements, the men making theirs from sea- pole. The roof and sides are formed of shells, or light wood, which, by the ap- bamboo wicker-work, overlaid with the plication of an earth, becomes beauti- large leaves of the palm and bread-trec, Auly white. The women prefer flowers, and these are secured, as they are inter which at all seasons are to be found. woven, with threads, or strings, twisted Whales' teeth are held in such estima- from the fibres of the inside of the shell tion, that a good one is considered equal of a cocoa-nut. These houses are vari. to the greatest property; they are gene- ously ornamented, --sometimes the co. rally in the possession of the chiefs, who lumos are carved in the form of their wear them suspended round their neck. gods, but more commonly they are co. Their other species of dress consists of a vered with their fine white cloth, which kind of coronet, ingeniously made from a is made of bark, bound on with different light wood, on which is fastened, by coloured cord, made also of bark or of means of the rosin from the bread-fruit the inside of the cocoa-nut. The inte. tree, smal red berries; a great quantity rior of the building is divided lengthwise, of feathers gives the finish. The ruff worn into two equal parts, by placing along round the neck, is made of the same ma- from one end to the other, the trunk of Serials. -Added to these are large bunches the cocoa-nut tree; the part toward the

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