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still (i. 1. 17; iii. 2. 74), 'always,' Cf. Tempest, i. 2. 229, "The still-vexed Bermoothes."

sufferance (i. 3. 102; iii. 1. 60), through French from Latin sufferre, (1) endurance,' as here (cf. Julius Cæsar, i. 3. 84); (2) ‘suffering,' as Coriolanus, i. 1. 22.

Ꭲ .

than (conjunction), the same word as then, but differentiated by usage. The early copies usually print then for than.

thrift (i. 1. 175, 3. 82), noun from 'thrive.' (i. 3. 81; ii. 7. 60.) Cf. Hamlet, iii. 2. 67, “Where thrift may follow fawning;' Winter's Tale, i. 2. 311, "Their profits, their own particular thrifts.'

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throughfare (ii. 7. 42), the more modern form is 'thoroughfare;' thorough is only a later form of through. Shakespeare uses them both. Cf. Midsummer Night's Dream, ii. I. 3, "Thorough bush, thorough brier."

troth (i. 2. 1), merely a variant of truth.

tucket, a flourish on the trumpet, from Ital. toccata, which Florio defines as a "præludium that cunning musicians use to play, as it were voluntary before any set lesson."

V

venture (i. 1. 15)-shortened form of aventure, which also took the form of adventure, from Latin advenire-'hazard.' Used especially for what a merchant ventures on board ship.

vild, a common form of vile. So Spenser, Faery Queen, i. 6. 3.

W

waft (v. 11), a verb formed from the part. of wave, as hoist from hoise, and graft from graff It is used, as here, of 'beckoning' in Timon of Athens, i. 1. 70, "Whom Fortune with her ivory hand wafts to her. Cf. wafture (Julius Cæsar, ii. I. 246). Its more usual sense is to 'carry over sea.' There is a curious use in Winter's Tale, i. 2. 372.

wealth (v. 239), an extended form of weal, by the suffix -th denoting state, as health, from heal, dearth, from dear. Frequent in this sense in Prayer Book.

weather (ii. 9. 29), weather and wind mean much the same thing, that which blows,' from root WA., and they are constantly

associated in the phrase 'wind and weather.'

"A weather-cock means a wind-cock."-SKEAT. Cf. Cymbeline, iii. 3. 64, "Left me bare to weather;" Tempest, v. Io, "In the line grove that weather-fends your cell."

withal (iii. 4. 72; iv. 1. 407), compounded of with, and alle dat. case of al, 'all.' Used for 'with it.'

wroth (ii. 9. 78) is strictly the adjective from which the sb. wrath is formed.

Y

yond (iii. 2. 238), strictly an adverb (O.E. geon-d), as in Tempest, i. 2. 409, "Say what thou seest yond," but also used incorrectly, as here, for the adjective yon (iii. 2. 232, where, however, H. and F. read yond). Cf. Tempest, ii. 2. 20, "Yond same black cloud, yond huge one."

ywis (ii. 9. 68), E. 'certainly.' Y is the common A.S. prefix ge, as in y-clept, e-nough, a-ware. G. ge-wis. "The commonest form in MSS. is iwis, in which the prefix (like most other prefixes) is frequently written apart from the rest of the word, and not unfrequently the i is represented by a capital letter; so that it appears as I wis. Hence the vb. wis, to know,' has been created. But it is a pure fiction."-SKEAT.

APPENDIX I.

On Scansion.

1. A regular Shakespearian blank verse line is made up of ten syllables, so arranged as to bear five stresses. In a typical verse the stresses fall on the alternate even syllables. Stress has nothing to do with quantity; both stressed and unstressed syllables may be either long or short. The following is an example of a regular line :

"You shall not seál to súch a bónd for mé." (i. 3. 146.)

2. One or two of the stresses may be slight, especially that in the last place; but two slight stresses very rarely come together.

“Commíts itsèlf, to yóurs to bè dirécted.” (iii. 2. 164.)
"To ríb her cérecloth in the obscure gráve." (ii. 7. 51.)
"Go with me tò a nótary. Seál me thére." (i. 3. 136.)
"I'd rather dwell in my necéssity." (i. 3. 147.)

"By the exáction òf the fórfeitùre." (i. 3. 156.)

The character of blank verse rhythm varies very much according to the use made of such slight stresses.

3. For the sake of emphasis the stress is often shifted back from the even to the odd syllable. This inversion is most frequent after a pause, especially at the beginning of a line or a

sentence.

“Fétching mad bounds, béllowing and néighing loúd.” (v. 1. 73.) "Would make me sád. My wind coóling my broth.” (i. 1. 22.) "What, áre there másques? Heár you mè, Jéssicà.” (ii. 5. 27.) “ O sínful thought, néver so rích a gém.” (ii. 7. 54.)

"And here choose I. Jóy be the consequence." (iii. 2. 107.) "Let them be free; márry them to your heirs." (iv. 1. 91.)

4. Sometimes there are (a) more, or (b) fewer, syllables than ten, the stresses being still five.

(a) A strong stress will carry with it more than one syllable, and advantage is taken of this to vary the verse. The accompanying syllables must be short:

"Not in love neither? Then let us say you are sád.” (i. 1. 46.) "Of god-like ámity; which appears most strongly.” (iii. 4. 3.) "I would you had won the fleece that he hath lost.” (iii. 2. 237.) "To cut the forfeiture from that bankrupt there." (iv. 1. 119.) An of poverty; from which lingering penance."

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(iv. I. 266.)

I am never merry when I hear sweet music." (v. I. 69.) "I did, my lord. You are welcome, take your place."

(iv. 1. 165.) "How could he see to do them? Háving made one." (iii. 2.124.) "And so riveted with faith unto your flesh." (v. I. 169.)

(b) A stressed syllable may stand without its usual unstressed syllable.

"This is kind I offer. This were kindness." (i. 3. 134.) A better example ís:

"Lét me tell you, Cássius, you yourself." (Julius Cæsar,iv. 3.9.)

5. Occasionally, when the sense is broken, there are fewer stresses than five.

"I'll watch as long for you then (−) Approách.” (ii. 6. 18.) “That shé did gíve me (—) whose pósy wás.” (v. I. 148.)

6. Blank verse allows an extra-metrical syllable at the end of the line. In Italian blank verse this is the rule. In English the licence is commoner with some writers than with others. With Fletcher, for instance, it is habitual. With Shakespeare it becomes more frequent in later plays. Mr. Fleay (Manual, p. 135) gives the number of double endings, as they are called, in Merchant of Venice as 297 against 9 in Love's Labour's Lost, and 726 in Cymbeline.

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"I'll end my exhortation after din | ner. (i. I. 104.) "This was a venture, sir, that Jacob served | for." (i. 3. 83.) The extra syllable is especially common with proper names. "The rate of usance here with us in Ven | ice." (i. 3. 41.)

Sometimes two syllables are extra.

"With purpose to be dressed in an opin | ion.” (i. 1. 91.) "But who comes here? Lorenzo and his in | fidel.” (iii. 2. 213.) "What, and my old Venetian friend Saler | io." (iii. 2. 214.)

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As blank verse runs on without a regular pause at the end of the line, the verse may be supposed to end anywhere. (Hence Shakespeare can use lines of four, five, six, or seven syllables. See §7.) This may explain why extra-metrical syllables, whether one or two, may occur at any place in the line.

(i) "By being pee | vish. I tell thee what, Anto | nio."

(1. 1. 86.) "May stand more pro | per, my eye shall be the stream." (iii. 2. 46.)

"And leave itself unfurnished. Yet look how far."

(iii. 2. 126.)

(ii) "Is not so estim | able, profitable neither.” (i. 3. 158.)
"I lose your company. Therefore forbear awhile.
"My lord Bassa | nio, since you have found Anto | nio.'

(iii. 2. 3.)

(i. 1. 69.)

7. Besides the ten syllable line, Shakespeare admits lines of six syllables (ii. 5. 10; 6. 22; iii. 2. 231; 292; 3. II; iv. I. 106), especially in couplets (i. 1. 50; 143; ii. 9. 51; iii. 2. 154); lines of four syllables (ii. 4. 3; 5. 53; 6. 40; 7. 3; iii. 4. 45; iv. I. 296); half lines (ii. 4. 26).

8. Such words as "Soft" (iv. I. 315), "Fie, fie" (i. 1. 46), "Lastly" (ii. 9. 14), are allowed to be extra-metrical.

9. When a line is divided between two speakers, various expedients are often adopted to avoid an insipid regularity; e.g. (i) The lines overlap each other.

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