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15 And I will put enmity be- seed : • it shall bruise thy head tween thee and the woman, and and thou shalt bruise his heel. between thy seed and

i her

r Matt. 3. 7. & 13. 38. & 23. 33. John 8. 44. Acts 13. 10. 1 John 3. 8. s Ps. 132. 11. Is. 7. 14. Mic. 5. 3. Matt. I. 23, 25. Luke 1. 31, 34, 35. Gal. 4. 4.

t Rom. 16. 20. Col. 2. 15. Hebr. 2. 14. 1 John 5. 5. Rev. 12. 7, 17.

eat dust alone of, or more than, other | between men and snakes.

Such a creatures ; but that it should eat dust, punishment wonld be utterly disproporwhich is certainly the fact. But the tioned to the crime; and it would be phrase has a tropical import. 'Eating signally unworthy the divine majesty the dust is but another term for grov- to array itself in all the terrors of avenelling in the dust, and this is equiva- ging wrath in order to declare so unlent to being reduced to a condition of important a fact. Some further and meanness, shame, and contempt. Thus higher meaning then it must have been the prophet Micah speaking of the na- | intended to convey, and what else tions being confounded, says ch. 7. 17, could that be than a symbolical pre"They shall lick the dust like a ser- diction of Satan's continued hostility pent,' i. e. they shall be utterly over- to man, and of the final subjugation of thrown and made vile, debased, and his empire in the world by the Redeemcontemptible.

er, here pointed out as the seed of the 15. And I will put enmity, &c. The woman.' It is clear, however, beyond double sense or twofold application of all contradiction that the sentence does, the terms of the serpent's curse, the in the first instance, apply to the natone having reference to the instrument, ural serpent. Between thy seed the other to the agent, is to be recog- and her seed. That is between thy nised here also. Nothing is more no- posterity and her posterity, as seed is torious than the fixed and inveterate often used for children. By the seed antipathy which naturally subsists be- of the serpent is to be understood all tween man and the whole serpent tribe. wicked men who are called serpents, A hatred of serpents is apparently inhe- generation of ripers, children of their rent and instinctive in every human father the devil; and as the seed of the breast, and may be considered, as per- woman is set in opposition to these, it haps it was designed, as a shadow of must necessarily follow', since Eve is that deeper and more irreconcilable ha- the natural mother both of good men tred which was henceforth to exist be- and bad men, that it denotes a limited tween the seed of the woman and their portion of the human race, including great enemy, the devil, the old serpent. first and chiefly the Lord Jesus Christ, It could be no present consolation, nor who in allusion to this promise is called ground of future hope to Adam, to learn by way of eminence the seed, Gal. 3. that serpents should sometimes bite 16, 19, who came 'to destroy the works the heels of his posterity, while they of the devil,' Heb. 2. 14. 1 John, 3. 8, in return, should sometimes trample and secondly, all the members of Christ these disgusting creatures to death. his true people, the sincerely pious in Nor in this can we discover any par- every age and couniry. These constiticular connection or correspondency tute the spiritual body here called the with the offence; for so dire an aposta- seed of the woman, and they all bear the cy would certainly be visited with some most implacable hatred to the wicked greater vengeance than the antipathy I one, while he on the other hand is ac

16 Unto the woman he said, I wand thy desire shall be to thy will greatly multiply thy sorrow husband, and he shall rule over and thy conception ; u in sorrow thee. thou shalt bring forth children:

u Ps. 48. 6. Isa. 13. 8. & 21. 3. John 16. 21. 1 Tim. 2. 15.

w cb. 4. 7. x 1 Cor. 11. 3. & 14. 34. Eph. 5. 22, 23, 24. 1 Tim. 2. 11, 12. Tit. 2. 5. 1 Pet, 3. 1. 5, 6.

his people.

tuated by an equally deadly hostility or injury would be attended with most against them, and is incessanıly plot-trifling consequences. In a serpent, on ting their injury and ruin. The war

the other hand, the life is more concenfare between these contending parties trated in the head. It is the head that now commenced which has ever since is always struck at in the attempt to been kept up, and will continue till a kill, and that which the serpent when complete victory over the devil and his in danger is most anxious to protect. angels shall be obtained by Christ and From the malice of Satan he might

-IT It shall bruise thy head. suffer afflictions and p rsecutions, but Heb. WN7 70 707 877 it, or he, shall in comparison with his better part they bruise, smite, or crush these as to thy should be but as a bruise of the heel kead; the masculine he denoting that which could not endanger the spiritual Christ is more especially to be under- and eternal life of the soul. This was stood by the secd here spoken of. It out of the reach of the utmost efforts of was to be in consequence of his suffer- the enemy. But as to him, his most ings and death, and the power with vital part was most exposed, and upon which he was to be invested as Me that would the crushing foot of the diator, that the power of Satan was to promised seed fall with all its weight. be broken and a signal victory obtain- 16. I will greatly multiply thy sored over him. This was in fact the first row and thy conception. Meaning acgospel promise, and though Adam and cording to the Hebrew idiom, thy sorEve'did not then probably understand row in conception, i. e. the sorrow and its full import, yet it must have been a pain of pregnancy and parturition. In great consolation to them to be assured this sense the term 'conception,' octhat the present advantage gained by curs in several instances. See Gen. 16. the adversary was not to be a perma- 4. Judg. 13. 3. - Thou shalt bring nent one; that their posterity, though forth children. Heb. Onda sons, under they might suffer in the struggle, should which term daughters also are compreyet finally prevail and crush his evil hended, as appears from Ex. 22. 24. empire in the world. Subsequently Ps. 128. 6. - TT Thy desire shall be to they were no doubt both instructed thy husband. Heb. aprun teshukah. more largely in the bearing of the prom- That is, thy desire shall be subject to ise, and it is reasonable and charitable the will and pleasure of thy husband; to presume that by fuith in its provis- thine obedient regards shall be to thy ions they received the pardon of their husband; he shall be the lord of thy personal transgression, and again be- wishes and thus mainly control thy coming heirs of that eternal life which happiness. Arab. "The direction of thee they had forfeited by sin, were received shall be with thy husband.' The same at death into a far more glorious Para- phrase occurs ch. 4. 7, to express tno dise than that which they lost on earth. deference and obsequious respect wnicn

- Shall bruise his heel. The least Abel should evince towards Cain his vital part in man, and where a bruise l elder brother, who was to possess this

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17 And unto Adam he said, I ground for thy sake; in sorrow , Because thou hast hearkened shalt thou eat of it all the days unto the voice of thy wife, "and of thy life; hast eaten of the tree a of which 18. Thorns also and thistles I commanded thee, saying, Thou shall it bring forth to thee; and shalt not eat of it: 'b cursed is the thou shall eat the herb of the

field :

y 1 Sam. 15. 23. Z ver. 6. a ch. 2. 17. b Eccl. 1. 2. 3. Isa. 24. 5, 6. Roni. 8. 20.

c Job. 5. 7. 104. 14.

Eccl. 2. 23. d Job 31. 40.

e Ps.

superiority in virtue of his birthright. whenever it shall universally prevail The latter clause, therefore, he shall we may confidently hope that this part rule over thee,' is explanatory of the of her severe sentence will be done words. The sentence we understand away. as a prophecy rather than as an enact- 17. Hast hearkened unto. Hast givment which was to be always binding. en heed to, hast obeyed. - Cursed It is, if we mistake not, the announce- | be the ground for thy sake. As the ment of a fact that should occur with blessing of God upon any of his crearespect to a large portion of the sex and tures usually carries with it the idea of through a long period of time, but not increase, abundance, multiplication, so one that should hold universally or on the contrary the curse involves the perpetually. As Eve in yielding to the opposite of all this, and in relation to tempter acted alone without subjccting tne earth implies, that it should be deher desires to the counsel or consent of prived in great measure of its feruility, her husband, so now as a penalty for that it should not pour forth its proher perverseness it is announced, that ducts in the same profusion, nor should she, in the persons of her descendants, man avail himself of them with the should be made to suffer from the cruel same ease, as before. Its productiveand tyrannical treatment of the other ness should be so far impaired that the sex. Instead of being considered as an fruits necessary to his subsistence equal and a companion, woman should should be, as it were, extorted from it be subjected to degradation and viewed with labour and toil, with weariness as little better than the slave of an im- and sweat. Extensive regions should perious master. We have only to con- be condemned to utter barrenness, sult the history of the race to see how while its spontaneous productions completely this has been fulfilled, par- should be thorns, and thistles, and briticularly in the East, in all ages down ers, and weeds. That which in his state to the present time. Wherever the of innocence would have been merely light of Christianity has not penetrated, a pleasant recreation, was henceforth women have been invariably the sub- to become a drudgery and a burden jects of oppression and have groaned in scarcely to be borne. This was to be the bitterness of their lot, though often for man's sake, or on account of his unaware that any higher destiny was sin, or as far as he was concerned ; and ever designed for them. But the spirit as the earth was created for his use and of Christianity opposed to this bar- made a part of his possession, it was Axvus lordship, and in proportion as it right that it should become in consepersevails never fails to relieve woman quence of the curse pronounced upon

11 marital authority and restore her it instrumental in the punishment of to her proper grade in society; and I its offending lord-one who had so 19 ' In the sweat of thy face thou art, and hunto dust shalt shalt thou eat bread, till thou re- thou return. turn unto the ground; for out of 20 And Adam called his wife's it wast thou taken: for dust

b Job 22. 26. & 34. 15. Ps. 104. 29. Eccl. 3. 20. & 12. 7. Rom. 5. 12. Heb. 9. 27.

f Eccl. 1. 13. 2 Thess. 3. 10. g ch. 2. 7.

greatly abused its bounties and shown had before called her 'Isha' as a wife; himself unworthy of the provision made here he calls her 'Havah' as a mother, for his happiness. - In sorrow shalt though as yet in anticipation only. But thou eat of it. That is, in painful and the bestowment of the name indicated exhausting labour; whence the Psalm- his faith in the promise of a future seed. ist Ps. 127. 2, speaks of eating the Some however suppose that though the bread of sorrow, i. e. bread procured by name was given by Adam, the reason excessive care and toil. Thou here assigned for it was given by Moshalt eat the herbs of the field. As a ses. But we may properly understand vegetable diet was undoubtedly design the phrase ' was the mother' as equived for man from the beginning, by his alent to 'was to be the mother,' and here being appointed to eat of the herb whether the clause be referred to Adam of the field as a part of his punishment or Moses is of little moment. It is is implied probably that there was to plain it is spoken by divine inspiration. be a change, a coming down, from the It is a question of more importance to more grateful and delicious kinds of determine whether Adam, in the bestowfood to which he had been used in par- ment of this name, had respect to any adise. The original for field often thing farther than her being the natural signifies a cultivated field, and the im- mother of all mankind. The probabilplication may be, that he was hence ity, we think, is, that Adam had an eye forth to eat of the fruit of those herbs more especially to the promise just give or grains which require the hand of til- en, that she was to be the mother of a lage for their production.

seed that was to bruise the serpent's 19. Shalt thou eat bread. Heb. 0773 head, and so by being the progenitor of lehem. A general term for all kinds of Christ was to be the mother of all that food by which life is sustained. The sen- should have spiritual life in and through tence does not imply that all men were him ; for 'as in Adam all die, so in to devote themselves to the labours of Christ shall all be made alive ;' the agriculture, for there are various me- second Adam is made a quickening chanical and other employments which (i. e. life-giving) spirit;' 'in him was it was foreseen would be equally essen-life, and he is the life.' All mankind tial to our highest well-being; but we by the first Adam are in a state of are taught by the words that as a gen- death, dead in trespasses and sins, but eral rule some species of toilsome occu- Christ is a fountain of life by bruising pation is the appointed lot of all men; the head of the serpent, and destroying that they are not allowed to spend their him that had the power of death. All lives in idleness and sloth. This is con- bis spiritual seed are the truly living firmed under the Christian dispensation, ones, and we see no reason why a spe2 Thess. 3 10, 'For when we were cial reference may not have been had to with you tnis we commanded you, that them in the prospective maternity here if any would not work neither should affirmed of Eve. The name in itself he eat.'

considered is indicative rather of the 20. And Adam called his wife's name quality of her posterity, viz. the living, Ede. Heb. 071 Hapah, life. Adam I than of the universality of the relation [B. C. 4004.

name Eve, because she was the wife did the LORD God make mother of all living.

coals of skins, and clothed them. 2) Unto Adam also and to his

which she was to sustain; and as a is evident that he had respect to her name is given for distinction's sake, it honour in giving her this name.

The would seem that the name liurah must name itself, Life, is honourable; and have been expressive of something that which he mentions concerning her which should distinguish her both from being the mother of eve, living one, Adam and from all other mothers, which is doubtless something he had respect it does not, if its meaning be restricted to as honourable to her. Since he 81mply to the sense of natural life. changed her name from a rd to her The annexed remarks of President Ed-honour, it is most likely I would sig. wards on this passage go to set this nify it in that which was her peculiar subject in a still stronger point of view. honour; but that was the most hon'It is remarkable that Adam had before ourable of any thing that ever happengiven his wife another name, viz. Isha, ed, or that ever would happen concernwhen she was first created and brought ing her—that God said that she should to him; but now, that on the occasion be the mother of that seed, that should of the fall, and what God had said up-bruise the Serpent's head. This was on it, he changes her name, and gives the greatest honour that God had conher a new name, viz. Life, because she ferred on her: and we find persons' was to be the mother of every one that names changed elsewhere to signify has life; which would be exceeding something that is their peculiar honour, strange and unaccountable if all that as the new names of Abraham, Sarah, he meant was, that she was to be the land Israel.' Notes on the Bible, in loc. mother of mankind. If that was all 21. Did the Lord God make coats. that he intended, it would have been Not immediately or by direct agency, much more likely to be given her at but he was the author of its being done; first, when God gave them that bless- he prompted, tanght, or ordered them ing, viz. 'Be fruitful and multiply,' by to do it for themselves. God is often virtue of which she became the mother said to do that which he merely comof mankind; and when mankind was mands, causes, or permits to be done. hitherto in a state of life, and death had | The institution of animal sacrifice was not yet entered into the world. But doubtless of divine appointment, and in that Adam should not give her this consequence of this Adam was enabled name then, but call her Isha, and then, to provide himself with clothing. after that, change her name, and call like manner it is said of Jacob, Gen. 37. her name Life, immediately upon their 3, 'Now Israel loved Joseph more than losing their life and glory, and coming all his children, because he was the son under a sentence of death, with all their of his old age, and he made him a coat posterity, and the awful, melancholy of many colours ;' i. e. he ordered or shadow and darkness which death has procured it to be made. See also Lev. brought on the whole world, occasion- 17.8. Adam and his wife are mentioned ed by Eve's folly, is altogether unac- severally and distinctly that it might be countable, if he had only meant, that intin.ated that the clothing was adapted she was the mother of mankind. It is to the respective sex of each. On this moreover most probable, that Adam was probably founded the prohibition would give Eve her name from that Deut. 22. 5, The woman shall not wear which was her greatest honour, since it that which pertaineth unto a man, nej


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