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22 And God blessed them, say- and let fowl multiply in the earth. ing, Be fruitful, and multiply, 23 And the evening and the and fill the waters in the seas, morning were the fifth day.
w ch. 8. 17.
07379.7 0.9997. Gr. Ta knin ta mezala. tannuth) of the wilderness. On the The execution or effect of the command whole, the probability, we think, is, that contained in the preceding verse is the original is a generic term more pehere described. The rendering adopt-culiarly appropriate to the serpent or ed in our translation has evidently been lizard tribes, but applied also without governed by that of the Septuagint, but much regard to scientific precision to difit decidedly fails to represent the true ferent kinds of animals of large dimenimport of the original. Indeed, neither sions and fearful properties whether the Greek nor the English translators aquatic or terrestrial or both. Without, have been consistent with themselves therefore, absolutely condemning the in rendering the Heb. word 77 tan or present translation, 'great whales,' we Dun, tannim, in both which forms it may still admit that great reptiles'
We find them in other places, would have been better; and if there for instance, severally translating it by be any term in the sacred narrative dparwy and 'dragon.' Thus Ezek. which can be fairly sapposed to em29. 3, 'I am against thee, Pharaoh, brace the extinct tribes of the Saurian king of Egypt, the great dragon. (Heb. and other species of animals whose 3779009:07. Gr.Tov dpaxovta tov peyar), huge remains are among the principal that lieth in the midst of the rivers.' wonders of geological discovery, it will The figure in this passage is evidently scarcely be questioned that intan, an borrowed from the crocodile of the Nile, tannim,or, un tannin, with which yn 73 for to what could a king of Egypt be Leviathan is closely connected,'may more properly compared than to the claim that distinction. The result to crocodile? A similar allusion is doubt which we are brought is, that the work less to be recognised, Is. 51. 9, ‘Art of the fifth day was the creation of the thou not it that hath cut Rahab, and inhabitants of the waters; of the birds wounded the dragon (90390 tannin)?' and the winged insects; and also of Yet in numerous other passages the the amphibious reptiles. - Living term is applied in such connections that creature that moreth.
. neither whale, crocodile, nor dragon creeping. Theoriginal, though properly would seem to be intended. Thus in signifying to tread, is applied both to Job 30. 29. Ps. 44. 19. Is. 13. 22—34. things which creep on the earth, and 13.-35. 7.-Jer. 9. 11.-14. 6.-49. 33. which swim in the waters, Lev. 11. 44, Mic. 1. 8, the scene of the animal's re- 46 Ps. 69. 34. Gen. 1. 25. In the lansidence is one of utter desolation, and
of modern zoology, fishes are the animal himself is described as snuf- not ranked among reptiles, but the anfing the wind, wailing, and belonging cient writers whether sacred or profane to the desert. In Lam. 4. 3, it is term-made not such nice distinctions. ed in our translation sea monster,' 22. God blessed them. That is, gave though from its being said to ‘draw out them power to propagate their several the breast to its young,' the term would species by generation, and thus to inappear to denote some kind of wild crease into a countless multitude. This beast, rather than a tenant of the deep. idea of increase or multiplication is of In Mal. 1. 3. it is said, 'And I hated ten conveyed by the word blessing in Esau, and laid his mountains and his the sacred writers, as Gen. 26. 60, 'And beritage waste for the dragons (niin "they blessed (i. e. invoked a blessing
24 | And God said, Let the 25 And God made the beast of earth bring forth the living crea- the earth after his kind, and cattle ture after his kind, cattle, and after their kind, and every thing creeping thing, and beast of the that creepeth upon the earih after earth after his kind : and it was his kind : and God saw that it
upon) Rebekah, and said unto her, is by no means limited in its applicaThou arı our sisiër, be thou the molher tion to insects or reptiles. Thus we of thousands of millions, and let thy find it, Ps. 104. 20, applied to the beasts secd possess the gate of those that hate of the forest, “Thou makest darkness them.' Ps. 128. 3, 4, Thy wife shall be and it is night, wherein all the beasts a fruitful vine by the sides of thy house; of the forest do creep. forth ( war...' thy children like olive plants round | Yet that it occasionally used of the about thy table. Behold that thus shall inhabitants of the water is clear from the man be blessed that feareth the Lev. 11. 46, This is the law of every Lord.' It is in virtue of this 'blussing' living creature that moreth (122) in of God that the almost infinite increase the waters; and from Ps. 69. 34, 'Let of the various animated tribes of the the heavens praise him, the seas, and creation has hitherto resulted, and is every thing moreth (w27) therein. In still perhaps going on ; though the fact the present case, as the whare grouped of a continued multiplication whether of with the rinna and y78 1797, i.e. the animals or men is a matter not easily larger herbivorous cattle and the largdetermined.--|Fill the waters in the er beasts of prey, it is probable that the seas. The word “seas' here evidently term refers to the smaller classes of has the meaning of gulfs or cavities land animals whose bodies are brought forming the reservoir of the waters of by means of short legs into closer conthe ocean. See note on v. 10. Thus too
tact with the earth. If reptiles are inare we to understand the term, Is. 11. 9, cluded, they must be exclusively land"The earth shall be full of the know- reptiles, as the amphibious species were ledge of the Lord as the waters cover the embraced in the previous day's work. sea,' i. e. the bed of the sea.
- 1 Beast. Heb. 1977 hayah. This 24. Living creature. Heb. 1776.59 term in Hebrew is derived from a word living soul; collective singular for 'living signifying 'life' or 'living,' and is the souls.'
-9 Cattle. Heb. Aga behe- term usually applied to wild beasts in mah. Under this term are included the contradistinction from the tame, which; various species of tame and domestic
asjust remarked, are usually, though not animals, especially such as are herbi- always, denominated cattle. Although vorous.-- Creeping thing. Heb. it is probable that none of the animal
remes. In our translation we i tribes at the creation or before the fall here find creeping things again men- were wild in the sense of fierce and tioned and included among the objects ravenous, yet the different species unof the sixth day's creation. The Eng- doubtedly possessed different natures, lish phrase in its common acceptation some being originally more vivacious, undoubtedly implies some of the in- active, and vigorous, and less adapted sect or reptile tribes; and this sense is to man's dominion than others. plainly favored by the Septuagint ren- 25. And God made. It is to be redering épneta ; but the Heb. wran is de- marked that although the earth and the rived from a verb signifying in a more water are commanded to bring forth general sense, to more or to tread, and respectively the creatures which were to 26 ss And God said, “Let us and over the fowl of the air, and make man in our image, after over the cattle, and over all the our likeness: and v let them have earth, and over every creeping dominion over the fish of the sea, thing that creepeth upon the earth.
x ch. 5. 1. & 9. 6. Ps. 100. 3. Ec. 7. 29. Acts, 17.
20, 28, 29.
1 Cor. 11. 7. y ch. 9. 2. Ps. 8- 6.
inhabit them, yet in speaking of the ac- the Jews belonged, its ruddy blush tual execution of the work, it is not or flesh-tint. Others, with less like said the earth created, or the waters lihood. trace its origin to na adacreated, their several tenants, but that God created them one and all. No mah, ground, earth, while Josephus up
on very insufficient authority combines creative power was delegated to the el- both; "This man was called Adam, ements in any degree. Omnipotence which in the Hebrew tongue signifies alone was adequate to the result, and one that is red, because he was formed omnipotence only effected it.
out of red earth compounded together ; 26. And God said, let us make man. for of that kind is virgin or true earth.' The remaining and crowning work of Ant. B. I. C. I. It is also the generic the sixth day, the creation of man, is
name for the whole race, who are call. nere described. The habitation having ed · Adam,' Gen. 9. 6, and 'sons of been duly prepared, the destined ten- Adam,' Ps. 11. 4. - In our image ant was now to be ushered into it. and after our likeness. It does not apThis purpose is expressed by a peculiar pear that these two words materially phraseology, 'Let us make man; as differ in import from each other. They if by way of consultation. Instead of
are probabiy used together merely for saying, "Let there be man,' as he had the purpose of making the expression before said, 'Let there be light,' or
more emphatic. That the image of giving a command to the elements to God' implies a likeness to him in morbring forth go noble a creature, he al attributes is plainly intimated in the speaks of the work as immediately his words of the Apostle, Col. 3. 10, where own, and in the language of delibera- he exhorts christians to put off the old tion; implying thereby not any more
man with his deeds, and to put on the intrinsic difficulty in this act of his new man which is renewed in knowpower than in the creation of the small
, ledge after the image of him that creaest insect, but the superior dignity and ted him. See also Eph. 4. 24. But excellence of the creature he was about there can be as little doubt that the to form. The language employed is not, however, in itself any more a de phrase in this connection denotes pn cisive argument in favor of the doctrine marily the possession of dominion and of the Trinity than the use of the plu- of the ensuing clause, let them have
authority. This is evinced by the words ral term Elohim, v. 1, on which we have already remarked. Comp. Job, 18. dominion,' which is to be regarded as 2, 3. 2 Sam. 24, 14. The original for the Apostle, 1 Cor. 11.7, denominates
explanatory of the term 'image.' So man Tp adam is from a root signify the man the image and glory of God,' ing to be red, and is closely related to especially on the ground of his being the Hebrew word for blood, which the head of the woman,' or having prethe Scriptures speak of as the seat eminence over her. The expression of vitality, Gen. 9. 4, and which implies that man was appointed by the gives to the human countenance in Creator to sustain towards inferior inany countries, particularly those in animals a relation strikingly similar to habited by the Caucasian race, to which I that in which he himself stands tow
27 So God created man in his earth, and subdue it: and have own image, in the image of God dominion over the fish of the sea, created he him ; * male and fe- and over the fowl of the air, and male created he them.
over every living thing that t moy28 And God blessed them, and eth upon the earth. God said unto them, Be fruitful, 29 | And God said, Behold, I and multiply, and replenish the have given you every herb bear
Z I Cor. 11. 7. a ch. 5. 2. Mal. 2. 15. Mat. 19. 4.
Mark, 10. 6. bch. 9. 1, 7. Lev. 26. 9. Ps. 127. &
ards man; and hence that man upon
27. Male and female created he them. earth represents or bears the image of That is, the destined human race was God nearly in the same sense in which to be constituted male and female. the governor of a province is said to re- The allusion to the other sex is evidentpresent or bear the image of his sover-ly proleptical, as nothing had yet been eign.- Let them have dominion. said of the creation of woman. This is From the use of the plural pronoun detailed in all its particulars in the next here it is evident that 'man' is taken chapter. in a collective sense implying the whole 28. And God blesssd them, &-c. Here race. It was not Adam alone who was again the term 'blessing' has reference 10 exercise this dominion, but his pos- to the multiplication of seed as explainterity also. In virtue of this delegated ed above, v. 22.- -I Subdue it. Heb. authority it is probable that Adam's was. This may be understood either control over the animal creation was of bringing the earth, the material globe, much more complete before the fall into subjection to the uses of man by than that which his descendants have the labors of agriculture, by obtaining exercised since; but that in conse- possession of its mineral treasures, by quence of his transgressi un this ascen- levelling its hills and filling up its valdancy or lordship was in a great mea- lies, and making it in every possible sure forfeited, and his rebellion against way to conduce to his well-being; or God punished by the rebellion of the the earth' here may be taken as sysubject creatures against himself. Still nonymous with its brute inhabitants there appears to have been an original and to subdue' it is but another term difference in the constitution and in- for obtaining and exercising that mas stincts of the 'cattle' and the 'beasts,'tery over them which was especially and we see no reason to suppose that designed for man at his creation, v. 26. the lion and the tiger were ever so com- Interpreted in this sense the last clause pletely subject to the dominion of man of the verse is merely explanatory of as the ox and the sheep. Probably the the meaning of the term 'subdue.' leading idea is, that man was invested 29. Behold, I have given you, foc. It with a dominion over the animal tribes is not perhaps to be understood from by being created with powers of a high- the use of the word "give that a simer grade, such as gave him immense ple permission was now granted to advantages over them, and made him man of using that for food which it capable, in great measure, of reducing would bave been unlawful for him to them to subjection, and thus of making use without it ; for by the very constithem subservient to his pleasure or tution of his nature he was made to be
-1 Orer all the earth. That is, sustained by that food which was most over all the creatures and productions of congenial to his physical economy; and the earth, and over the earth itself, to this it must have been lawful for him to manage it as they should see fit for their employ unless self-destruction had been own advantage and comfort.
his duty. The true iniport therefore of
ing seed, which is upon the face eth upon the earth, wherein of all the earth, and every tree, in there is life, I have given every the which is the fruit of a tree green herb for meat, and it was yielding seed ; ¢ to you it shall be so. for meat.
31 Andi God saw every thing 30 And to every
beast of the that he had made, and behold, it earth, and to every efowl of the was very good. And the evenair, and to every thing that creep- ing and the morning were the
sixth day. 23. & 146. 7. Acts, 14. 17. d Ps. 145. 15, 16, &
cch. 9. 3. Job, 36. 31.
Ps. 104. 14, 15, & 136.
f Ps. 104. 24. 1 Tim. 4. 4.
147. 9. e Job, 38. 41.
the phrase doubtless is, that God had rally speaking, in Asia, at the present appointed, constituted, ordained this day. The mass of the people have it as the staple article of man’s diet. He only occasionally, and in small quanhad formed him with a nature to which tities, and many do not eat flesh-meat a vegetable aliment was better suited more than two or three times in a year.' than any other. That we do no vio- Pictorial Bible. lence to the historian's language in put- 31. Behold it was very good. This is ting this sense upon it, will be evident the divine testimony respecting the from the following instances of parallel works of the creation when all was usage.
Gen. 9. 13, 'I do set my bow finished. God saw that every thing in the cloud.' Heb. 'I do give my bow was good, because it perfectly answer. in the cloud ;' i. e. I appoint, constitute ed the end for which it was made. my bow as a sign of the covenant. The reason of these words being so 1 Chronicles 17. 22, 'For thy peo- frequently repeated throughout the preple Israel didst thou make thine own ceding narrative is, to direct attention to people for ever. Heb. "Thou hast the contrast between the original state of given (i. e. appointed, constituted) thy things and the present, and to intimate people Israel for thyself for a people for that whatever disorders or evils now exever; thus rendered in the parallel pas- ist to mar the works of God, they dia sage, 2 Sam. 7. 24. 'For thou hast not originally belong to them, but have confirmed to thyself thy people Israel been introduced in consequence of man's to be a people unto thee for ever.' It transgression. If it be asked why the cannot perhaps be inferred from what space of six days was employed in the is here said that the use of flesh-meat work of creation when omnipotence was absolutely forbidden, but it clearly could have effected every thing in a moimplies that the fruits of the field formed ment, it may be answered, that one the diet best adapted to the constitu- reason probably was, that all to whom tion which the Creator had given him. the record should come might be able This view of the sense of 'giving' is more leisurely and distinctly to conconfirmed by the ensuing verse, where template the Creator's works as they the same phraseology is employed, and proceeded successively froin his hand. God is said to have given the green Another reason perhaps was that he herb to the beasts and birds. This might lay the foundation of the weekly cannot mean a permission, but an ap- division of time, and of the institution pointment, as explained above. "There of the holy Sabbath, an ordinance to is no difficulty in supposing animal be perpetually observed to thc end of food not in use in the primitive times ; the world. for it can hardly be said to be so, gene- REMARKS.--The reflections naturally