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chain; hence the last syllable of a verse was not indifferently long or short, but necessarily one or the other, as if it occurred in the middle of a verse. Thus Grotius had written :

“Quas prisca domos dedit indigena

Quercus Chalyba secta bipenni." Here the short a at the end of indigena should be a long syllable, in order to make an anapæst (vv-). This is known as Bentley's discovery of the synaphea (“connection") in anapæstic verse. He further illustrates the metre from fragments of the Latin poet Attius—which ho amends; one fragment, indeed, be recognises in the prose of Cicero's Tusculans. Returning to the fragment of The Cretans in Porphyry, which Grotius bad handled amiss, Bentley corrects it-with certainty in some points, with rashness in others, but everywhere brilliantly. Nor has he done with the verses yet. They mention the cypress as "native" to Crete. This leads Bentley to discuss and amend passages in Pliny's Natural History, in the History of Plants by Theophrastus, and in the geographical work of Solinus.

Elsewhere Malelas refers to the lost Meleager of Euripides. Having quoted another mention of it from Hesychius, Bentley takes occasion to show at length the principal causes of error in that lexicon. This is one of the most striking parts of the Letter. Then, in numerous places, he restores proper names which Malelas bad defaced. The chronicler

that the earliest dramatists were Themis, Minos, and Auleas. Bentley shows that he means Thespis, Ion of Chios, and Æschylus. Thespis leads him to quote Clement of Alexandria, and to explain some mysterious words by showing that they are specimens of a pastime which consisted in framing a sentence with the twentyfour letters of the alphabet, each used once only. Speaking of Ion, he gives an exhaustive discussion of that poet's date and writings, verse and prose. The Letter ends with some remarks on the form of the name Malelas. Hody had found fault with Bentley for adding the final s, which no previous scholar used. Bentley replies that a at the end of a foreign name ordinarily became as in Greek-as Agrippas. And Malelas being the Greek form of a Greek writer's name, we should keep it in Latin and English, just as Cicero says Lysias, not Lysia. The Latin exceptions are the domesticated names~ -those of slaves, or of Greeks naturalised by residence: as Sosia, Phania. But it was objected that Malela was a "barbarian " name, and therefore indeclinable. Bentley answers, that the Hun Attila appears in Greek writers as Attilas-adding balf a dozen Huns, Goths, and Vandals. The prejudice in favour of Malela arose from a simple cause.

says

The chronicler is mentioned only thrice by Greek writers: two of these three passages happen to have the name in the genitive case, which is Malela; the third, however, has the nominative, which is Malelas. Mr. Hody was not convinced about the 8. The note—in four large pages of small print-which precedes his Prolegomena was written after he had read Bentley's argument; and ends with a prayer. Mr. Hody's aspiration is that he may always write in a becoming spirit; and, finally, that he may be a despiser of trifles (nugarum denique contemptor).

Taken as a whole, Bentley's Letter to Mill is an extraordinary performance for a scholar of twenty-eight in the year 1690. It ranges from one topic to another over almost the whole field of ancient literature. Upwards of sixty Greek and Latin writers, from the earliest to the chain; hence the last syllable of a verse was not indifferently long or short, but necessarily one or the other, as if it occurred in the middle of a verse. Thus Grotius had written :

“Quas prisca domos dedit indigena

Quercus Chalyba secta bipenni." Here the short a at the end of indigena should be a long syllable, in order to make an anapæst (vu-). This is known as Bentley’s discovery of the synaphea (connection) in anapæstic verse. He further illustrates the metre from fragments of the Latin poet Attius—which he amends; one fragment, indeed, he recognises in the prose of Cicero's Tusculans. Returning to the fragment of The Cretans in Porphyry, which Grotius bad handled amiss, Bentley corrects it-with certainty in some points, with rashness in others, but everywhere brilliantly. Nor has he done with the verses yet. They mention the cypress as

native" to Crete. This leads Bentley to discuss and amend passages in Pliny's Natural History, in the History of Plants by Theophrastus, and in the geographical work of Solinus.

Elsewhere Malelas refers to the lost Meleager of Euripides. Having quoted another mention of it from Hesychius, Bentley takes occasion to show at length the principal causes of error in that lexicon. This is one of the most striking parts of the Letter. Then, in numerous places, he restores proper names which Malelas bad defaced. The chronicler says that the earliest dramatists were Themis, Minos, and Auleas. Bentley shows that he means Thespis, Ion of Chios, and Æschylus. Thespis leads him to quote Clement of Alexandria, and to explain some mysterious words by showing that they are specimens of a pastime which consisted in framing a sentence with the twenty

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latest, are incidentally explained or corrected. There are many curious tokens of the industry with which Bentley had used his months at Oxford. Thus, referring to a manuscript of uncertain origin in the Bodleian Library, “I have made out,” he says, “from some iambics at the beginning—almost effaced by age—that it contains the work of the grammarian Theognotus, whom the author of the Etymologicum Magnum quotes several times;" and he gives his proof.

It is interesting to see how strongly this first production bears the stamp of that peculiar style which afterwards marked Bentley's criticism. It is less the style of a writer than of a speaker who is arguing in a strain of rough vivacity with another person. The tone is often as if the ancient author was reading his composition aloud to Bentley, but making stupid mistakes through drowsiness or inattention. Bentley pulls him

short;

remonstrates with him in a vein of good-humoured sarcasm; points out to him that he can scarcely mean this, but-as his own words elsewhere prove-must, no doubt, have meant that; and recommends him to think more of logic. Sometimes it is the modern reader whom Bentley addresses, as if begging him to be calm in the face of some tremendous blunder just committed by the ancient author, who is intended to overhear the “aside"-"Do not mind him ; he does not really mean it.

He is like this sometimes, and makes us anxious; but he has plenty of good-sense, if one can only get at it.

Let us see what we can do for him.” This colloquial manner, with its alternating appeals to author and reader, in one instance exposed Bentley to an unmerited rebuke from Dr. Monk. Once, after triumphantly showing that John of Antioch supposed the Bæotian Aulis to

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