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the same time. But a large portion of the Service of our Church is to be said by the people, and ought to be joined in by every member of the congregation. Does this then produce indistinctness ? It must, in some degree, if every body speaks or reads in his usual tone of voice. We may not generally perceive that it does so, because, in fact, unfortunately, so few congregations do heartily, everybody in them, join in saying the parts of the Service appointed for them; and because as we have our prayer books before us, or at any rate are more or less familiar with the words so said, we do not depend merely on our outward ears to receive them. But could a blind person, or one who cannot read distinguish clearly the alternate verses of the Psalms for instance, when they are read by a large congregation in the usual voice? There is some reason to fear they could not; and yet such a person has a claim to hear and to be edified by every word of the Service. But if every person were to make his responses and say those portions of the Service which are io be said by the people, on the same note or tone and in the same time, no confusion would be produced, and great distinctness would be obtained; for though in intensity and

response of such a congregation is “the voice of a great multitude,” yet, (as all say their words in the same pitch or tone, and simultaneously, or at the same time) in distinctness it is as the voice of one man.

The Service, then, we may answer to the question at the head of this article, is Chanted, because in addressing God we ought to employ the highest powers and use of our voice ; because we desire to make a great difference between the tone and manner of voice in which we converse with men, and that in which we address God; and because we thereby avoid confusion, and make the Service distinct, solemn, and reverent.


power the

He who has known no sorrow knows no joy.
He who builds by the road side will have many teachers.
He who wants honey must not fear the sting of a bee.
He who wants fire must endure smoke.
When need is eatest, God is nighest.
Forgetfulness and sloth are twin-sisters.
Prayer makes a fence round the widow's hut.
The wise man begins where a fool ends.



Church Architecture. No. 2. The Ground Plan of an English Church.-Having entered one of our old churches, and gazed around, and noticed its general effect, the first important point of observation to which the eye and attention of the amateur architect should be directed, is the Ground Plan. By the Ground Plan is meant, the several principal parts into which the church is divided out, as the nave, the aisles, the chancel, and the like; the size and position of which, of course, have accurately to be considered before laying down the foundations ; which, therefore, must be sketched out on paper as the first step in drawing a design for a church. The beauty, and grandeur, and religious character of a church will very much depend upon the arrangement and relative proportion of these parts, which are, as it were, the skeleton of the whole building, and bear the same relation to it as figure and stature to the human body; or as features to the human face. It is right, therefore, to take a survey of the Ground Plan first.

Now, one remarkable circumstance at once strikes us on turning our attention to the Ground Plan. How is it that Christian churches, in every part of Christendom, are so exactly built alike in this respect ? are all, not only in every parish of England, as we know to be the case, but all the world over, wherever an ancient church is found, divided out into the several principal parts above mentioned, ---into nave, for instance, and chancel always, and almost always into aisles, tower, and the other well-known parts ? History informs us, that this has ever been the case since the time when Christian churches began first to be erected. Three causes, principally, seem to have concurred in determining their universal type. (1) The first places set apart for the worship of assembled Christians (not to mention the 56

upper chamber," and he burial places underground, whither, during the ages of persecution, they secretly resorted), were the Roman law courts and halls of commerce, called Basilicas. These were always, or mostly, of an oblong shape, with a semi-circular recess at the end where the judges sat; this latter afterwards became the place for the altar, and was called the apse, corresponding to our chancel. There are a few of these circular or apsidal chancels still to be found in this country; and they are almost universal on the continent. The oblong portion of the Basilica was occupied by the worshippers, and corresponded to our Nave. And as it was commonly divided into three parts, by rows of pillars and arches running down on either side, we may plainly hence derive the original idea of Aisles, as well as nave and chancel. (2) The pagan temples also, as the Roman empire became evangelized, were either consecrated and converted into churches, or furnished materials from their ruins for building new ones. No doubt, this operated as a further cause in determining some particulars in their architectural construction. (3) But the principal idea of church arrangement appears naturally to have been gathered from the Temple at Jerusalem. The design of this, we know, was revealed by Almighty God Himself to Moses on the Mount, when he was commanded to build the Tabernacle after the exact fashion shown him, expressly on the ground that it was the Pattern of Heavenly Things, skill more than human being inspired into the workmen for the purpose. The same design was afterwards more elaborately and permanently wrought out, first in King Solomon's, afterwards in Zerubbabel's and Herod's Temple, No wonder that the early Christians, especially such of them as had been Jews, should have wished to preserve among

themselves the idea of God's House, which He Himself had given them, which our Blessed Lord had further sanctioned with His Presence, and from which, as if to leave no doubt that it is properly continued under the Gospel dispensation, the Evangelist, St. John, derives the greatest part of his imagery in the Book of Revelation, when he describes the worship of Saints and Angels around the Throne.

From the Jewish Temple evidently was derived—perhaps the principal feature of a Christian church—its triple division into Nave, Chancel, and the space within the Altar-rail, corresponding to the Inner Court, the Sanctuary, and Holy of Holies, of the Temple. This arrangement has universally prevailed, and is mentioned by the early Christian writers. The division is effected partly by the architectural construction, the chancel, for instance, being of narrower space than the nave, and marked off from it by an archway; partly, by a difference in the level of the pavement, the floor of the chancel being raised two or three steps above that of the nave, and that again of the space


the altar, a step or two higher ; while the parts, generally speaking, are still more completely separated by a partition, such as the chancel-screen or rails. The very name of Chancel is taken from the Latin word cancelli, which signifies such rails. In many churches, as still generally in the East, over the screen was suspended a kind of hanging drapery, which shut out the view of the altar, and bore a closer resemblance to the veil of the Temple. The elevated space about the altar was formerly called the Sacrarium, or Presbytery, being the place where the Presbyters, or Priests, officiated in the Service of the Holy Communion. The rails by which it is almost always separated from the chancel in our English churches, are said to have been first introduced by Archbishop Laud. The portion of the chancel between them and the nave, was also called the choir, or cantus cantorum, because occupied by the stalls or seats of the clergy and choristers, who there chanted the service.

It should be noticed, that the chancel was always placed at the East end of the church ; as you will find to be the case in all our old churches. The reason for this arrangement is thus stated by Wheatly in his standard treatise on the Book of Common Prayer :-" The nave was common to all the people, and represented the visible world ; the chancel was peculiar to the priests and sacred persons, and typified heaven: for which reason they always stood at the east end of the church, towards which part of the world they paid a more than ordinary reverence in their worship; wherein, Clemens Alexandrinus tells us, they had respect to Christ ; for as the east is the birth and womb of the natural day, from whence the sun (the fountain of all sensible light) does arise and spring, so Christ, the true Sun of righteousness, who arose upon the world with the light of truth, when it sat in the darkness of error and ignorance, is in Scripture styled the East” (or Day Spring, St. Luke i. 78): “ and therefore, since we must, in our prayers, turn our faces towards some quarter, it is fittest it should be towards the East; especially since it is probable, even from Scripture itself, that the majesty and glory of God is in a peculiar manner in that part of the heavens, and that the throne of Christ and the splendour of His Humanity has its residence there.”

It has already been observed, that the naves of churches are generally oblong, upon the plan of a Roman Basilica. There are, however, four or five exceptions even in this country, of which the Round Churches of the Temple, in London, and of

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the Holy Sepulchre at Cambridge, are well-known examples A third, at Little Maplestead, in Essex, with a circular west-end and a semi-circular chancel, evidently built in imitation of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, is about to undergo a thorough restoration. It may not be amiss, by the way, if we conclude the present paper by recommending this object to the notice of our friends, especially to the lovers of Church Architecture.

[The restoration, owing to the poverty of the parish, is entirely dependent on the offerings of strangers interested in the work. A Committee has been formed for carrying out the undertaking; and plans are prepared by the eminent church architect, Mr. R. C. Carpenter, of London. Information on the subject will be given, and contributions received, by the publisher of the “ Penny Post."--ED. P. P.]



THOMAS HOOPER. that, with God's help, will in

the end be well. I shall have many A Sketch.

opportunities, I hope, of talking to

you, when you will be better able A slight appearance

uneasiness to enter into what I have to say: passed over Thomas Hooper's coun- in the meanwhile, be assured that I tenance, when his eye first fell on shall be most ready to help you to the Clergyman, Mr. Pearson.

He the utmost of my power; and above felt abashed, and almost afraid, to all, remember that there is One insee him. It recalled former days, finitely more willing, and infinitely when he had slighted and scorned more able to lielp you, and Who him. But his kind pastor made haste has said, “Come unto Me, all ye to remove any such painful impres- that labour and are heavy-laden, sion. He spoke to him at once as and I will give ou rest. Observe to an old friend, saying how thank- He says "all'; and therefore you ful he was, both on his own and his cannot be wrong in believing that parents' account, that it had pleased you are included in the invitation. God so far to raise him up again, And while of course I would not on and that he had good hope that this any account that you should think sickness would prove in the end to lightly of your sins, I entreat you have been of incalculable blessing not to dwell on them alone, but to him. He added, “Your mother also on the love and pardoning has told me, Thomas, that you have grace of Him, who died upon the by God's mercy come to feel the Cross to be your Saviour. I must sinfulness of your past life, and you not say more to you now; but let may depend upon it that this feel

us join together in calling on Him ing of sorrow and compunction is a who is the merciful receiver of all sure proof of God's good will to- true penitent sinners." wards you. I beg you therefore to After a few prayers and Psalms, be of good cheer, and to believe | Mr. Pearson went away, leaving

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