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The simplicity and poverty of these early structures were owing no doubt to the rudeness of the people, and to the infancy of the Church among them. We are at this very moment, from a like necessity, sending out to our several colonies, churches made of wood.
After the mission of S. Augustine and conversion of the Anglo-Saxons, the universal Christian custom of erecting substantial and handsome edifices as Houses of Prayer, for daily services, would of course be introduced. S. Ninian, who converted the Southern Picts, is already quoted as having built the first of stone. At whatever period the practice became prevalent, it is probable that the remains of Roman brick and stone work would have furnished an idea to the Anglo-Saxon architects. We accordingly find in the earliest specimens of Saxon work an evident resemblance to Roman. This is seen (1) in the Rounded Arch; (2) in what is called Long-and-short work, so named from the arrangement of the dressed stone at the quoins of buildings, or door-jambs, in vertical and horizontal positions alternately; (3) in Herring-bone masonry, i. e., a series of rag or rubble, set aslant in rough walling; and (4) in the massive projecting imposts, or capitals.
Another idea seems to have been suggested by the wooden churches previously existing. There is an evident imitation of carpentry in the baluster form of the shaft, which often divides the tower windows; and in the stone ribs which score on, as it is called, reticulate the surface of the masonry. Again, in the triangular-headed windows, meeting like rafters in a vertex. This form is very frequently repeated in illuminated manuscripts of the period.
All these features are indicative of Saxon as distinguished from Norman architecture, Others are (1) deeply-splayed windows, externally as well as internally, Norman windows being splayed only on the inside; and (2) the height of the towers, without buttresses or stair-case ; Norman towers being low and massive.
These then are the principal characteristics of Ante-Norman Architecture. But the distinction between pure Saxon and Norman Romanesque (a name given to both styles from their rounded form, derived from Roman architecture, as distinguished from the pointed Gothic), will be more apparent, when we come,
in a future number, to consider the details of the latter developement.
THE PAINTER'S GALLERY.
THE VOLUNTARY SLAVE.
16 And ( how
THE EMIGRANTS TO BRAZIL.
these engagements have the sanction The vessel arrived, at length, at both of law and custom, the authoRio de Janeiro, and all were in a rities see that they are executed to great state of anxiety to go on the letter, and your son will belong, shore.
for the time agreed upon, to the “There is the Imperial Palace,” person to whom I shall transfer my said the Captain to the emigrants, rights; he will employ him as he pointing to a large building not far likes, and take him where he likes." from the Port. “There you will be " Miserable trafficker in human told in what part of the country flesh !” cried Herman, his whole you may settle. As for this youth,” frame quivering with emotion and added he, pointing to Conrad, who indignation. Then turning to his stood motionless, not daring to raise son and bursting into tears, his eyes, “his time belongs to me, thou, Conrad,” said he, and I am going at once to sell him.” couldst thou think of causing me
“How! What do I hear! To sell such a sorrow?". my son!” cried Herman, in a trans- “Oh, father!”, said the poor port of anger and indignation, as he youth, throwing himself into his threw himself between Conrad and arms,“ how could I have acted the Captain, “is there neither law otherwise? We had lost our all, nor justice in this country?” this voyage was our only hope, you
“ It is just, because there are had not enough money to pay our both here,” replied the Captain, passage; we were ruined, I wished with a grim smile,“ that I shall to save my family, and I accepted insist upon my rights. Hold ! do the bargain which the Captain proyou know your son's handwriting? posed to me.”. Here is the engagement by which “Alas, my boy! my noble boy!” he has sold himself to me, not cried the unhappy father, and his exactly as a negro is sold, ---for life, sobs choked his utterance. His but still for a pretty considerable brother and his sisters lifted up number of years. He will be, to all their voices and wept. intents and purposes, the slave of “ Come, come! have done with whoever will give me the sum of all this blubbering !” said the Capmoney I shall ask for his time and tain impatiently, “You, Conrad, go his labour, and if his master is not below; and as for the rest of you, satisfied with him, let him beware be off, directly! the sooner you are of the whip!"
gone the better.” As he spoke he held out to them, “One more word Captain,” said without letting it go, the engage- Herman, “here are 50 crowns, ment signed by Conrad. “Are you they are all I possess, take them such simpletons as to believe," con- and keep me in his stead, for I have tinued he, “that I should have still strength to work.” brought five people from Amster- “ You old fool,” replied the Capdam to Brazil for 200 crowns ! 400 tain, " think you that I would exwas the least I could have taken, change a stout young man, for a and your son has completed the feeble old fellow like you, whom sum by the engagement he has no one would buy? Do you take contracted with me; in this country me for an idiot?"
THE FIRST DAY IN BRAZIL.
Captain,” implored the father, , the rest of his family proceeded to “ if you have the heart of a man, the palace. As they arrived there if you believe in the rewards and after all the other emigrants they punishments which God reserves in were attended to last. Business a future state for those”
was conducted there in the follow“A truce to all this nonsense !” ing manner :-first, the Governor's exclaimed the Captain, interrupting Secretary called out some name on him, “ the like of you often treat the list; the Governor then drew me to similar trash, and were I to from an urn, a slip of paper on listen to them, I should soon be- which was written the name of the come a beggar as you are! Conrad, district and the lot of ground asgo below instantly, or I will have signed to the emigrant; another you put in irons ; and all of you, if secretary immediately inscribed you do not quit my ship forthwith, them in a register; the emigrant I shall order the sailors to flog you was then dismissed with an intioff.”
mation that he was to return in a Saying these words, he pushed week to receive the document Conrad from the deck, and the rest which authorized him to take posof the family reluctantly left the session of the land allotted to him. ship, casting back many a tearful All was transacted in a most orderly glance, and calling out, “ Conrad, and expeditious manner, but the dearest Conrad, adieu !
donation was unaccompanied with pray for you, we will try to deliver a single word of kindness. Heryou! Adieu! adieu!”
man's turn came at last. The Governor put his hand into the urn,
and drew out a written scroll, The Captain after having made which he read aloud in Portuguese some enquiries in the Town, pro- and which a German Secretary posed to the Head Gardener of the translated. It ran thus, “Granted Emperor (who,
at the period of our to Heinrich Herman, a farmer from tale was Don Pedro, father of the the kingdom of Wurtembourg, one present sovereign) to sell Conrad to
square mile in the Diamond Dishim. This man went on board trict, on the banks of the River with the Captain, paid down the Jiguitinhouha.” The Governor money for the unfortunate youth, then rose and dismissed the asand took him away with him. sembly. Negro slaves are sold in the market “Sir," said Herman to the Gerplace at Rio, but white men who
man Secretary, “I am happy to make a similar engagement to that find a countryman in you, pray be of Conrad, are sold on board the so kind as to tell me if fortune has vessel they arrive in, by their favoured me.” owner. They are treated exactly “Yes, my friend,” replied the like the negroes, the only difference Secretary, “with skill and industry being, that the slavery of these is you are very likely to succeed, but perpetual, while that of the white I must warn you of one thing, beman is only temporary, although ware of buying diamonds from the sometimes of long duration. Con
negroes who work in the mines of rad had engaged himself for twenty the * Mandanga, for it is forbidden years. The infamous Captain had
under pain of death." taken advantage of his inexperience and his generosity to exact from * The Mandanga is the most considerhim this condition.
able mine in Brazil for diamonds, the
strict laws concerning them have since To return to Herman, who with been repealed.
“Oh, Sir,” cried Herman, “God pitied and admired Conrad who forbid that I should ever commit so had devoted himself to slavery for great a sin as to become the accom- the sake of his old father, and he plice of a thief! Such conduct had earnestly desired to assist his would moreover be great ingrati- family but had hitherto been untude towards the government which able. Providence, however, had has befriended me in my distress. so ordered that he should light May I, however, take the liberty of upon them just at the very moment asking you something further about when his aid was most useful to our future abode ?"
them. As soon as he saw them, he “I am so tired.” replied the ran up to Herman, shook him corSecretary, “that I must really leave dially by the hand, and offered to you to go and take some rest. All take him to an inn where he would I can tell you is, that if you have be well treated, and not forced to any money, you had better lay it spend more money than he chose. out on agricultural implements and Herman accepted the offer with the materials for building a house, gratitude, and the sailor conducted or you will find yourself badly off, him to a humble looking inn near for they will give you nothing but the Port, and recommended him the bare soil. In order to attract warmly to the landlady who was foreigners here, they promise to an acquaintance of his. On the furnish them with cattle, imple- | road he had informed Herman that ments of husbandry, and seed, &c., Conrad had been bought by the but these promises are never ful- Head Gardener of the Emperor, filled, and many of the miserable and promised
accompany him the wretches who arrive here quite following day to the Imperial Garpenniless, die of misery and star- dens, that he might see his son. vation. Adieu, my friends, this is all the advice I can give you.”
After leaving the Palace, Herman The sailor kept his word, and went to seek a lodging for his fa- arrived early the next morning. mily, where they might live with Conrad's brother and sisters wished economy during the week they had to accompany their father, but the to pass at Rio de Janeiro. Being sailor observed, that if so many unacquainted with the language, went together they would certainly he was much embarrassed what to be repulsed, Herman, therefore, do. He and his children wandered went with him alone. When they about this great city without find- arrived at the Garden gates, the ing any inn humble enough to suit sailor, who could speak Portuguese, their
purpose. It was midday, asked the Porter's permission to they were fainting with heat and enter. thirst, the streets were deserted, for “ Have you an order for admisin these burning regions, none who sion?” said the Porter, eyeing can avoid it venture out under the them with great contempt. rays of the noonday sun. In this “No,” replied the sailor, “but extremity God sent Herman a my friend wished, before he left the friend. During the voyage, he had Town, to bid a last farewell to his found most of the sailors as hard son, the young man who was hearted as their aptain ; one of bought yesterday by the Head Garthem, however, under a rude and
dener.” homely exterior concealed a gene- “Oh,” replied the man, “he rous and feeling heart. He had ought to have bid him farewell
THE GOOD SAILOR.
ARRIVAL ON THE BANKS OF THE
before he left him, it is impossible
to them to stop.
The muleteer now; we can't interrupt our la- called to his mules to halt, and the bourers for such nonsense." And sailor, with the help of Herman and thereupon, he reclosed the iron William, adjusted the sack on one grating, and recommenced smoking of their backs, saying, “I have His cigar.
brought you this as a small reThis repulse was a bitter disap- membrance of me, it contains some pointment to Herman, and with a things which may be useful to you dejected heart he retraced his steps on the journey. May God be with to the inn. His companion, who you, for you are good and honest would fain have assisted him, had folk, and you cannot fail of being nothing to give him but his sym- happy.” So saying, he held out pathy
his hand to them, embraced them When the week appointed by the all one after another, and left them Governor had elapsed, Herman re- precipitately, to avoid the thanks turned to the Palace to receive the with which the whole party overAct confirming the grant of land whelmed him. that had been made him. As the German Secretary placed the document in his hands, he congratulated him, and repeated the warning not to buy diamonds either of the The journey our emigrants had slaves of the Mandanga, or of those to accomplish was a long and tediwho connived at the thefts com- ous one, occupying full six weeks. mitted by those slaves.
At the end of the first day's journey “ You may be quite sure, Sir,” they opened the sack of their kind said Herman, “that I shall follow friend, the sailor, and found it to
contain some coffee, sugar, rice, After having paid the Innkeeper, fifteen oranges tied up in a coloured Herman laid out the money that handkerchief, and even a small remained to him, in farming imple- packet of dollars, which as they ments, tools for building, a few had spent their last farthing of provisions for the journey, and seed money proved of the greatest serfor sowing his land with, such as vice to them. Indian corn, rice, &c. He loaded As no adventures worth recording all upon some mules, with which happened to them on the road, we the Goverment provided him to will pass over the rest of the jourconvey his family and property to ney, and convey our readers at once the place of their destination. As to the market place of the little soon as they were all mounted the town of Tejucco, where they must muleteer cracked his whip and the imagine our travellers just arrived, cavalcade set off. The father and very sunburnt and very weary, and his children were all in tears, they wondering whether they had at spoke not to each other, but all length reached the end of their were thinking of the unfortunate tedious pilgrimage. Conrad, whom they were thus
"I have orders to deposit you obliged to abandon to his fate. here,” said the muleteer to Herman,
They had hardly proceeded go to the Governor, who lives in twenty yards, when they perceived the fine house yonder, show him the good sailor hurrying after them, your papers, and he will point out and panting under the burden of a to you where your allotment of large sack.
He was screaming land lies.” As he said these words