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a free field for the multitudes in The roofs of the houses and every the rear.

Sometimes the colonists inch of ground covered by a thick succeed in scaring them into the mass of crawling vermin, crackling, air again, and if a lake or the sea hissing, and buzzing. Every aper(Black Sea) be at hand, it is a ture of the house may be carefully great point to drive them, if possi- closed, yet they come down the ble, into the water, into which chimney by thousands, and beat they fall in such enormous masses against the windows like hail. that their bodies form at last little During the locust years, many floating islands. Upon these their of these swarms settled upon Odesmore fortunate companions establish sa, covering the streets and public themselves, to the height of twenty places; dropping by hundreds into or thirty inches. If a strong wind

the kettles and saucepans in the blow from the shore, these pyramids kitchens; invading atonce the drawof locusts are of course driven out ing-room and the granary, and to sea, and no more is heard of crawling along the public walks by them; but if the weather is toler- millions. The sudden darkness ably calm, they work their way occasioned by a swarm of them, on back to the shore, where they soon a fine day, is quite as great as dry their wings, and prepare them- would be occasioned by a succession selves for fresh depredations. The of black rainy clouds. Not a ray millions, meanwhile, that have found of sunshine can pierce through; a watery grave, give a blackened and, on a hot summer's day, the hue to the foam of the breakers, shadow cast on the ground is so and lie scattered along the coast in dense, as to diffuse an agreeable long lines, that look like huge coolness all around.

When they masses of seaweed thrown up by alight on a tree, it will seem ready the waves. The cunning of the to break under the sudden load, locusts on these occasions is sur- and so much ground is covered by prising; for, when driven out to their armies, that it is calculated sea by a strong wind, they will that these swarms must consist of often get back to the shore by not a thousand million. When at length attempting to fly in the wind's they depart, they leave behind them teeth, but beating to windward a scene of desolation, such as no with a succession of tacks, in regu- other calamity could produce. lar seamanlike style. The locusts appear to be perfectly

Abridged from Kohl's Russia. aware, that in the village gardens they shall find many things to suit their palate, and seldom fail to step a little out of their way, when they see a village to the right or left of their line of march. The terror

“ I would not be so presumptuous of those attacked by one of these as to say positively that I am able swarms may be readily imagined. to bear so great a trial ; but accordFancy a heavy fall of snow, each ing to my sincere thoughts of myflake being a little black voracious self, I could, through God's assistinsect; and these, as they fall,

ance, lay down my life, upon the covering the ground to the depth

condition that all those who dissent of two or three inches, while the

from the Church of England were air still continues obscured by the

united in her communion.”Bishop myriads that remain fluttering about.





THE MIDDLE CLASSES AND THE POOR? This question was asked in a former number, and we then said that one way of answering it, we proposed from time to time to notice some of the various institutions, which either the authorities of the Church, or various private individuals, have established for the middling and poorer of the Church's members." In fulfilment of our promise we now insert the following account of a very valuable modern institution, with which we think our readers will be glad to be acquainted. It meets a want which has been often deeply felt by persons, especially Clergy, in London, and by others in the country, who were deeply anxious about their friends, whom poverty or other causes compelled to sojourn awhile, friendless and uncared for perhaps, in this great Metropolis. Unhappily, a growing system of imposture made it absolutely necessary to administer with greater strictness the laws which affect the poor in this country: and thus, as it too often happens, the innocent suffer through the guilty. For under the present poor-law system, necessary as we fear it is for the most part to guard against imposition, and however humanely it may be and often is adminstered, the cases provided for by the House of Charity either could not meet with due attention, or might even receive moral or spiritual injury. Here then the CHURCH, as the only true guardian of men's moral and spiritual welfare, must step in to the rescue, either by setting on foot with her full authority institutions for their benefit, conducted upon her own principles, or else by affording such sanction and encouragement as can be given to the more private efforts of her members. We are glad to say that the Bishop of London does thus sanction in his Diocese


9, ROSE STREET, SoHo SQUARE. IN 1846, it pleased God to put into serving persons, who were specially the heart of a professional man recommended as fit and proper cases living in London, to direct his for the benefits of the Charity. thoughts to the condition of that In the prospectus of the Institularge class of persons who, depend- tion, two important principles were ent upon their health, or that of laid downsome dear relative, for their daily First-That it should be a dissubsistence, are not seldom visited tinctly religious House. with sudden and pinching distress ; Secondly That memberships and who, but for timely relief, should not necessarily depend upon must sink into irretrievable pauper- a contribution of money : personal ism. An energetic appeal to his co-operation being accepted as an numerous friends and acquaintance earnest of friendliness to the objects resulted, after frequent" delibera- of the Charity. tions, in the establishment of the With reference to the religious House of Charity (it was the orig- charater of the House, it was reinal intention to call it St. Barna- solved that it should be placed bas); and its general object and under the guidance of a resident scope was, the reception and tem- Warden, who should combine with porary relief of distressed and de

that office the spiritual duties of


Chaplain. The privileges which , Christ, verily I say unto you, he the Church, by her Services, offers shall not lose his reward.” “Inasto all her children, if duly appreci- much as ye have done it unto one ated and diligently carried out, of the least of these My brethren, were to be the spiritual comfort ye have done it unto Me.” “Visit and support of all who sought shel- the fatherless and widows in their ter from the storm of the world's affliction;" and many other practiadversity; and, as a co-operating cal texts, of equal and vital import. aid to the Warden and Chaplain, But to proceed. In 1847 the it was thought that among the House of Charity opened, under associates of the Charity, many a staff, consisting of à Chapmight be found who, whether pro- lain, and a Steward, whose wife fessional men or others possessed filled the office of matron. Both of more leisure, would, as Visitors had been trained to the conduct of of the House, join in the good a large Institution, by the experiwork, under fixed regulations. ence of a Union Workhouse. At

The old Parish Workhouse of starting, there appeared to be no St. Ann's, Soho, subsequently fitted objection to this arrangement. The for a commercial school, and not practical knowledge and quick inill adapted for the purpose contem- sight into character which the Stewplated, was taken and furnished; ard and his wife brought to the and the house was opened for the House, proved of the greatest use, reception of inmates soon after St. inasmuch as the Members of CounBarnabas' day. The general object cil were inexperienced in the deaimed at, in the first instance, was tection of trickery and fraud. The to hold out the hand of Christian sight of rags, and the hearing of a love to the deserving destitute and plausible story, became too often the afflicted, both of the metropolis and keys of admittance, where no admitof country parishes, needing, for in- tance ought to have been given; and stance, the treatmentof London Hos- the investigations of the Mendicity pitals; and to administer to their Society show the necessity of caunecessities, otherwise than by the tion. Still, as any approach to the usual legal and parochial rate pro- work-house system was entirely at cess. The fact that, up to that com- variance with the principle which paratively recent date there had been the Council had most at heart, and actually no such Institution formed on which the Charity was based, for the reception of the classes indi- it was gratifying to find, after a cated in the prospectus, may surely trial of a few months, they were read a lesson to Churchmen, on the in a position to give a new and duty of looking deeper into our short

more satisfactory character to the comings; and ought to induce us Institution. A resident Warden to strive more heartily, to meet the and Chaplain (the offices were now growing wants of our and the united) with a Matron, superseded Church's poor and outcast brethren the first arrangement; and a liberal and children; or else, how can we system of dieting was now establook forward to that great day, lished, instead of the work-house when we shall all have to give an principle of a scale.

The cases account of our obedience to the now fell more and more within the Divine rules—“Feed my sheep— scope and meaning of the classififeed my lambs.” “Whosoever shall cation mentioned in the early prosgive you a cup of water to drink in pectus; and previous investigation, My name, because ye belong to of a private nature, by those who

wished to recommend cases, preceded more systematically their appearance before the Council for admission.

The Warden's efforts to raise the spiritual tone of the House, began to tell. A lumber room within the building, not inappropriate in shape, was adapted and arranged as a domestic Chapel. The only other point of importance in the new arrangements, was the appointment of a resident Sister, to live constantly with the female inmates.

Emigration took its place in the work of the House ; and many families, and individuals of both sexes obtained passages to America, the Australian Colonies, and the Cape of Good Hope. The personal service of the Associates pledged to assist the House, effected much in forwarding its interests ; but here again experience was at fault; for it requires much insight into the practical working of “visiting," to be able to lay down a correct code of rules for regulating the intercourse between Associates and the inmates of a House of Charity, so as to avoid positive harm to the recipients, by engendering a false reliance on external aid, rather than on their own energy.

The progress of the Institution was slow, but sure, until, at the Annual Meeting, in 1850, the time seemed to have arrived, in the opinion of the Council, when they ought to make an effort to provide for two classes of cases not originally contemplated, namely,

(1) The incurably sick, discharged from Hospitals with little or no hope of recovery, and needing nothing more than gentle treatment and spiritual offices.

(2) The aged or infirm persons, who can by themselves or their friends contribute to their support.

These last two classes complete

the whole scheme and scope of the House of Charity, which appears to embrace in its nine* classes, most cases which can require the sympathy and aid of those who devote their time and attention to the wants and sorrows of their poorer brethren.

To go into a history of the cases relieved, by way of illustrating the practical utility of the House, in the great cause of Christian charity, would lead us too far from the point we have in view ; which has been rather to shew the nature and history of this interesting Institution, so invaluable as it has proved to be to the parochial Clergy, District Visitors, to the Chaplains and Medical Officers of Hospitals, and to other Societies. Surely we cannot think this beyond the truth, when we consider that no case will be rejected, if there be present or prospective accommodation within the walls of the House; provided that a satisfactory recommendation be presented, and the real merits of the case be ascertained. May we hope, then, that this Charity will prove no solitary instance, but a parent of similar Institutions, which God may put it into the heart of liberal Churchmen to found, not only in other parts of the metropolis, but in the chief towns of the kingdom.

* The other seven classes of cases are thus described in the original circular of the Institution :

1. In-patients discharged from Hospitals, and ont-patients unable to do full work, wanting food, quiet, and rest, and unable to obtain either without assistance. 2. Persons dependent on those who, by accident or sudden disease, have been taken into Hospitals. 3. Persons suddenly, and by no fault of their own, thrown out of work, as in the case of fire, or the bankruptcy or death of an employer. 4. Persons who come to London in search of friends, or of employment, and are not successful in their objeet. 5. Persons, females, whose health requires a short respite from laborious work, though they cannot afford the loss of wages which it would involve. 6. Persons having no friends in London, and waiting either for the means or the opportunity to emigrate. 7. Persons for whom an asyium is desired, in which they can be received on probation, before they receive further assistance towards recovering a position which they have lost by misconduct.

One word more, as to the House's sideration, and ask the alms of income. If this Institution is doing their people, through the Church's its work of relief, as has been Offertory, not only as a means, but pointed out, does it, or does it not, also as the means dictated by her deserve support? Can alms be for moving the loving sympathies better bestowed, than in saving of her children-how easily might from pauperism the classes speci- such Institutions as the House of fied? and if so, where can we look Charity, the Clewer House of Merfor them more appropriately than to cy, the Devonport Orphans' House, the Church, through its Offertory? and numerous other recent Church How unseemly, does it look, that Associations, look for enlargement any Charity of this character should of their borders, and a gradual be entirely dependent upon the development of their effectiveness; support of an ever-varying sub- if only duly and faithfully supported scription list! If the Clergy would by the prayers and the alms of the but take this point into their con- Church.

C. W, S.



Church Architecture. No. 4. The Anglo-Saxon Style. It was long doubted among antiquaries whether any remains at all of Church architecture of a date earlier than the Norman Conquest (A. D. 1066) existed in this country. The fact is now generally admitted. Certainly, in the earliest churches remaining in all parts of the kingdom, of which the date is not exactly known, there are sufficient marks of difference in structure and materials, to distinguish them into two classes. The earlier specimens, therefore, have been attributed to a period before the Conquest. And this opinion is pretty fairly established by a comparison of such supposed remains with the Architectural Illuminations of Anglo-Saxon manuscripts.

“ There was a time,” says the Venerable Bede, “ when there was not a stone church in all the land, but the custom was to build them all of wood ; and therefore when Bishop Ninyas built a church of stone, it was such a rarity and unusual thing among the Britons, that they called the place Candida Casa, Whitern, or White-Church, upon it.” The same author tells us, that “Finan, the second Bishop of Lindisfarne, or Holy Island, (since called the Bishopric of Durham,) built a church in the island fit for a cathedral see, which yet was not of stone, but only timber sawed, and covered with reed ; and so it continued till Eadbert, the seventh Bishop, took away the reed, and covered it all over, both roof and sides, with lead.”

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