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ness is next to godliness," as I at potatoes no bigger than a walnut last landed in Martha's best room, Do not hence suppose, kind reader, which bore evident tokens of having that I was guilty of the indelicacy been newly washed and sanded; of peeping into her cupboards and whilst each separate piece of furni- saucepans during her absence, (for ture, (there were but few indeed,) | I should have said that I had met had also been dusted and set in her at a shop on my way, and, with order. I went and stood before the her wonted frankness, she asked me open casement, dislodging for this to go on and rest myself till she purpose a rather testy black pussy- returned,) but, left alone, I could cat, which retired on my approach, not help seeing what was left exmewing loud complaints at being posed. I was not long alone howdisturbed in her monopoly. There ever, for the landlady thought fit was no fresh country air, nothing to "step in,” and volunteer her rural or pleasant to look out upon, opinion of her stranger tenant, such as one usually associates with nearly in these words: “She is a the cottages of the English poor. quiet, good little woman, Ma'am; And yet I could not help thinking she never quarrels, nor makes a that what there was was rightly row, and scarce ever goes out, ex: bestowed on her, for between the cept to Church, where she goes, I alley and the black, sooty forges, believe, almost every day.” was a small paddock about as big as When Martha came in, she gave a middle-sized room, in which two me a little sketch of her early life. or three sheep were feeding; it is She said she was born in Man

chester, and had been brought up as comfortable, and not at all like the a Sunday and week-day scholar at snow-white lambs of the pastures, one of the Old National Schools and their food was but cabbage there, and I found she marked her leaves and such like.

attachment to these early associaplaced just there, they served to tions in a very practical way, bring to one's mind thoughts of namely, by sending her own little that Flock redeemed, with Precious girls to the nearest National School Blood, and of the “green pastures in whatever place they might hapand still waters” its sheep will one

pen to be.

“ For, Ma'am," she day lie down beside, when He the said, “the Old-fashioned ways is Great Shepherd, shall have led them the best ways, the Old Church, and safely through the wilderness. I the Old Schools.” And there can am sure that Martha herself was be no doubt that she was right, she no stranger to such thoughts. One had Holy Scripture on her side, for very marked feature in her cha- thus it is written : racter was her unvarying contented- “Stand ye in the Old Ways, and walk in ness with her hard lot in this life;

them." she never complained of anything I think she was greatly delighted but always looked on the bright side, that day because I took her a wax so that one might have fancied there baby for the children, and some was no dark one to look upon; but | pinafores of pink or buff cotton, I suppose she had learnt that fa- or something of that sort.

And vourite lesson of our Prayer-book, this puts me in mind of another

a joyful and pleasant thing it is to trait in her character, that although be thankful.” That day, for in- we both admitted the closest spiristance, I perceived that her dinner tual relationship between us, though, was to consist of a dish of wee to use her own strong language, we

And yet,

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felt ourselves to be “the children of ) is all joy; poor and unlettered One Father,” she was never in the though she be, and her name unleast presuming in any way; she honoured, almost unknown, in the was grateful, indeed, for any little Church of her fathers; forkindness I shewed her : thus, she

“ Blessed is the man whom Thou “used not her liberty for a cloak of choosest, and causest to approach maliciousness."

unto Thee; he shall dwell in Thy But such pleasant intercourse Courts, and shall be satisfied with seldom lasts long in this world; the pleasures of Thy House, even and one evening, not very long of Thy Holy Temple.” after, I found Martha waiting to

ECCLESIASTICUS. speak to me, under the lime trees; it was to say good-bye, for the ironwork had suddenly failed, and her husband must embark with his family the next day for Liverpool,

PRAYER. in search of employment there. She told me that she meant to rise “Of prayer, there are two use3.

It serveth as a means to procure very early the next day so as to wash her only gown in time to

those things which God hath proattend Morning Service, that she

mised to grant when we ask; and might have the Church's Prayers it seryeth as a means to express our for those who “ travel by water;

lawful desires also towards that, and then she should go on board which, whether we shall have or immediately afterwards, and we

no, we know not till we see the should see each other no more.

event.Hooker. So we parted, where it was fit that we should part, for it was there we had met and talked together, close beside our holy and our

NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. beautiful House. Most likely we shall meet no more in this world; but, walking in the paths of holy

Received.-W. S.-; C. F.D—, a workobedience and trustful love, I hope

ing man; C. F. H-; W. R. B-; H.

L-; Irene; P. (-; L. C-, Bristol ; I shall one day see her again, in E. J. W—; C. D-; Nemo; Mansfield ; our Father's House in Heaven, Rev. S. F-; Pro. D. where the Church Militant, with its changes, and its chances, and its Replies.-W.S--; too late to be of use. sufferings, will be swallowed up in -C. F. D-, a working man ; unhappily, the perfected victory and joys of the

the passages of Holy Scripture you quote,

are but too applicable in the case referred Church Triumphant. Even now, I to; but we must not forget another-sometimes seem to see her with us, “ Thou shalt not speak evil of the ruler when some victorious Psalm or of thy people."-Pro. D.; will you tell us

where to write to you privately? Your glorious Anthem rises on high, and

subject is a very delicate one, and we then softly hushes itself away. might wish to communicate with you.-Even now, I see her kneeling, Nemo, of course, does not expect us to where the pearly light used to shed

answer such a letter as his, but as we do

not wish to be rude, we will say thus upon her its transfigured beams, in

much-that we are confident nothing has spots of violet and rose-colour, as if yet appeared in our pages contrary, to that vile raiment were already Holy Scripture, or the teaching of the changing into the bright robes of permit it, sure as we

are that the teaching immortality. To think of her thus of the English Church is really Scriptural. 1

OUR EXHIBITION FOR 1851.

ARCHITECTURAL DEPARTMENT.

Church Architecture. No. 3. The various styles of Architecture found in English Churches.-- The Ground Plan of a Church, that is, its division into Chancel, Nave, Aisles, &c., is, we said, that which most of all distinguishes it from other buildings, and declares it at once to be a Church. Whatever style of architecture, or whatever materials were employed—wood, brick, or stone would comparatively make but little difference, so long as the building were divided out into the above and the other usual parts; it could not then be mistaken for anything but a Church, however mean and ugly it might be; but build it up, for instance, without a chancel, (as we are sorry to say too many of our modern Churches have been built) and however stately or costly, it would be difficult to pronounce, at first sight, that it was not a School, a Lecture-room, a Hall of Commerce, or a Meeting-house. Therefore, the Ground Plan is the first point to be attended to.

At the same time, the Style of architecture in which a Church is built—that is, the shape of the arches and pillars, the pitch of the roof, the tracery of the windows, the mouldings and other ornaments—makes an immense difference, of course, in its beauty, grandeur, and religious effect. The lofty pitch and pointed character of all the various styles of Gothic architecture, mounting, as it were, towards Heaven, fit them at once for employment in a Christian House of Worship, in preference to the straight lines, flat roofs, square-headed doors and windows, and, generally, the cold, stiff (however beautiful) formality of Pagan and classical architecture—such as we find in the ruins of ancient Roman and Grecian temples; and this explains one of the most important principles in the architecture of our old Churches ; viz. its singular fitness to express outwarılly, the uprising heavenward tendency of the Church's teaching and temper.

The styles of Gothic architecture have been commonly divided into five distinct periods; and are called, according to the age in which they succeeded one another, and prevailed in turn, 1. Saxon; 2. Norman; 3. First Pointed, called also Early English; 4. Middle Pointed, called also Decorated; 5. Third

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Pointed, called also Perpendicular. In one or other of these styles, all our old Churches are found to have been built; and the style of each will at once determine the age in which it was built ; for different styles prevailed at different ages, and one is easily distinguished from another, by certain striking differences in the shape of the arches and mouldings, which it is not difficult to discover and remember. But of these we shall speak more particularly in future numbers.

At present, it will be sufficient to remember that there are five distinct styles, and that each in turn prevailed about a century, and then gradually was succeeded by another; and that the period during which the greater number of our old parish Churches and Cathedrals were built, extends from the 11th to the 16th Century.

Since the period of the Reformation, until within the last few years, scarcely any style of Church Architecture has prevailed. Rather, what remained of ancient beauty has been suffered to crumble with decay, or was ruthlessly mutilated by mischief or fanaticism, or covered up out of sight by the whitewash of tasteless, economizing Churchwardens, or the deal and lath-and-plaster niggardliness of parsimonious vestries. Of the few new structures which have been erected during that period, the models have been mostly taken from classical examples—the temples of the ancient Pagan world. But a better spirit, in this respect, let us hopefully thank God, has come over us at last. We are every day making progress in the revival of Church Architecture; and that too, of the purest and highest Christian character developed by the Church in this country, in past ages.

For convenience sake, the dates of the several periods may be thus stated in round numbers :

The Saron—any time before the Conquest, say to the middle of the 11th Century.

The Norman-from the middle of the 11th to the middle of the 12th Century.

The First-Pointed, otherwise called Early English)-from the middle of the 12th to the middle of the 13th Century.

The Middle-Pointed (or Decorated)—from the middle of the 13th to the middle of the 14th Century.

The Third-Pointed (or Perpendicular)—to the middle of the 15th Century, in its greatest perfection ; gradually deteriorating in the 16th Century, when it became what is called Debased.

Or the periods may be calculated by the different reigns of Kings, thus :

The Saxon---before the Conquest.

The Norman--from the reign of William the Conqueror to that of Henry II. the first of the Plantagenets.

The First-Pointedfrom this period to that of Edward I. The Middle-Pointed-ending with the third Monarch of the

same name.

The Third Pointeddeclining gradually until the reign of Henry VII., when it took the character called Tudor, and afterwards sank into the Debased style of the reign of Queen Elizabeth.

It would be exceedingly interesting to trace carefully, in the history of the different periods, the apparent causes, religious and political, of the developement and deterioration of the several styles. But this is beside our present purpose.

CHINESE MAXIMS. From the Chinese Department in the Crystal Palace. “Let every man sweep the snow from his own door, and not busy himself about the frost on his neighbour's tiles.

“Great wealth comes by destiny: moderate wealth by industry. " The ripest fruit will not fall into your mouth. “ The pleasure of doing good is the only one that does not wear out. “ Dig a well before you are thirsty.

“Water does not remain in the mountains, nor vengeance in a great mind."

FENELON, ARCHBISHOP OF cow which was the object of so

much affliction, and, like the good CAMBRAY.

Shepherd, he himself drove it back “In one of his visits Fenelon

before him, in a dark night, to the met a peasant, still young, but

young man's cottage. This, says plunged in the deepest affliction.

the Cardinal de Maury, is perhaps He had recently lost a cow, the

the finest trait in Fenelon's life. only support of his indigent family. Woe to those who read it without Fenelon attempted to comfort him,

being affected !” and by giving him money to buy another, alleviated his sorrow; still

“ He that will be saved must be he had lost his cow, and the tear saved in the way which God hath continued to fall. Pursuing his appointed, and not in any way of journey, Fenelon found the very his own.”Jones of Nayland.

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