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- being prolonged, was the cause why St. James's life came so quickly to an end.”

H.You mean that St. James's martyrdom was hastened by the discontent of the restless Jews, on their finding that St. Paul, by his appeal to Cæsar, had taken himself out of their reach."

B. Yes; and I take pleasure in imagining what the two great Apostles must have felt, at such a time, towards one another--I mean St. Paul and St. James.”

H. One fancies how St. Paul must sometimes have wished himself in St. James's situation; and St. James, how he must have rejoiced in being substituted for St. Paul, to bear that fiercest wrath of his countrymen.”

B. “ I have read somewhere, that perhaps the Epistle to the Hebrews was partly occasioned by St. James's death; especially that verse in it—. Remember them that bear the rule over you, which have spoken unto you the Word of God; whose faith follow, considering the end of their conversation.** As if he should say, "Remember, and strive to copy, your departed Bishop.'

H. And that Epistle, too, is all against going on with the Mosaic sacrifices, and forcing people to keep the Mosaic ceremonies ; to which evil course, do you not think, many weak Christians might be driven by the persecution of St. James.”

B. “ Within a few verses of that which I just now mentioned, there is a caution against imagining that the heart could be established by the Judaical rules about meats, clean and unclean ; whereas its only true strength would be in partaking of the Christian Altar, whereof they have no right to eat who serve the tabernacle.' ” + H. Who was Bishop of Jerusalem in St. James's stead?”

Symeon, also one of those who were called brethren of our Lord, and therefore, it seems, St. James's own brother; who was martyred many years after, in extreme old age.

H. “ How glad he must have been when that letter came from St. Paul !”

B. And how it must have strengthened his hands against the Judaizers ! But not so very many months after, he would have the grief of hearing that St. Paul himself had been taken away.”

Pray do not go on to that. I must be gone ; and I have already more to meditate upon than I can well take with me.”

* Hebrews xiii. 7. + Hebrews xii. 9, 10.

B. "

H. 66


WHAT IS THE USE OF OUR CATHEDRALS ? HUNDREDS of people have asked this question themselves, or have heard or read of others asking it in private or in public: and, as this is a day when men estimate the value of things very much by their utility, it will be well to see what sort of answer can be given to it. Not, indeed, that much higher ground cannot be taken in defending those magnificent piles which the faith and love of past ages reared to the glory of God; but that we believe we shall best enkindle the zeal of English Churchmen for their maintenance, if we can shew that Cathedrals have their uses-do serve to increase and strengthen practical religion, while in other ways they promote God's glory. We are far from saying that they might not, ought not, to do this in a much greater degree; but let us hope and be patient : Church work is proverbially slow work, but it is not the less sure on that account: something has been, more will be, done if you wait awhile. The following story will show one use at least of Cathedrals: it is we believe but one of hundreds which might be related for the comfort of some who often despond, as if their own glowing visions of what Cathedrals might do could never be realized,--for the satisfaction of many whose daily complaining would soon cease if they would but try to follow the examples which they will find recorded in


things which He has bestowed upon IN THE POOR MAN'S CHURCH. our beautiful world—at least in any

sense of personal interest or possesTHE STRANGER.

sion. They may indeed look upon ...... the mighty sky-born Stream :

shining heaps of gold and silverIts living waters from above All marr'd and broken seem,

upon gems and pearls from the far No union and no love.

East, but it is only to look upon We that with eye too daring seek

them with a painful, perhaps with To scan their course, all giddy turn:- a fretful or grudging feeling, that Not so the floweret meek,

these can never be theirs. But it Harebell or nodding fern :

is not thus in the Church ; nothing They fro:n the rocky wall's steep side is, or at least, nothing ought to be Lean without fear, and drink the

exclusive there : the “

many memspray ; The torrents foaming pride

bers” of the “One Body'' have a But keeps them green and gay. common share, a common right, in And Christ hath lowly hearts, that rest

her ministers, her services (so gently Amid fallen Salem's rush and strife : and soothingly named the Common The pure, peace-loving breast

Prayer"), and in the visible glories Even here can find her rest.

of her thousand shrines. And woe Lyra Innocentium. The Waterfall.betide her whenever she shall for

feit her proudest title, “The Poor It has been well and wisely re

Man's Church !" Of all places, marked, that one strong reason why perhaps, these thoughts come upthe Houses of God should be ren- permost in one's mind in a Cathedered, as far as may be, perfect in dral Church, where the building outward costliness and beauty, is itself is more magnificent, the serbecause it is only in this way that vices should be more majestic, the poor can share in those precious (whilst, at the same time, attend


on both is more absolutely the glance will be hurried downfree) than in most other churches. ward, and almost fastened there by

We suppose almost every body the carven oak, and fairy embroiis aware, that a “Cathedral Church

dery, and variegated marbles shed is really the Mother Church of a in rich abundance on its very paveDiocese, having the Bishop of that ment, and, above all, by the subDiocese for its chief pastor, with dued, hallowed light which pours its Dean and several Clergy to divide upon that pavement through each amongst them its daily services; deep-stained lattice, in rich tints of for these churches are open, not scarlets, and emeralds, and lilacs. only on Sundays, but twice every

From various unfortunate causes, day, so that in the places in which which need not here be mentioned, they are, the House of God is not the Eastern portion, or Choir, as it shut from Sunday to Sunday against is called, is now commonly set apart the mourner, who would there open for divine service, being mostly his griefs, nor to the happier ones, separated from the Nave, or larger who would there find a key-note of Western portion, by a close screen praise in the rich chants of the of wood or stone (overtopped by the Psalms or the majestic Te Deum. Grand Organ, towering towards the

Yet, as our Cathedral Churches, roof), thus effectually shutting in or “Minsters," are for the most the congregation, but, unhappily, part situated in old, rather than in encouraging too often in the Nave populous cities, we will hazard a without a set of irreverent loiterers, few remarks on some of their more who, if there were only an open and striking peculiarities, for the sake light screen which did not separate of such readers as may not have them from sights and sounds, might visited any one of them.

be awed into reverence, perhaps Picture to yourselves, then, a drawn to devotion. solemn grey pile, covering the space

It was

one glorious summer of at least four modern churches, evening, as I was passing through with perhaps as many massive

the Nave to attend prayers in one towers, standing out in a sort of of our Cathedrals, that I noticed a shadowy solitude only interrupted very poor, but very happy looking by the cawing of the rooks that

young woman, with two little have built their nests in the tall old black-eyed girls at her side, who trees that stand all round it, and was peering at the old monuments looking down like a silent witness with all the unmistakeable wonderon the crimes of the generations, ment of a stranger. Now I am past and present, who have lived, sorry to say that I did not at that and sinned, and died under its un- time give the poor credit for that changing shadow.

good taste in Church matters which Then, if you enter by the old they really possess. Not but that I porch, it is hard to say whether know that many of the peculiar your first impressions will be those features of a Cathedral service,-of greatness, or of beauty-proba- the breathless hush, interrupted only bly a mixture of both, for pillared by the mighty peal from the organ, aisle, and lofty arch, and stately like the voice of a great thunder,-column will carry the eye upward the company of priests, singing men till it is lost in the mazes of the and singing children, wearing the wondrous roof, its branches and white robe, and joining in the flood bosses, like a forest of stonework, of harmony, which is set

as it were knotted with briar-roses; and yet I to the great key-note, “ Day by day


we magnify Thee”;—the crumbling I think it related to the beauty of monuments of those who have gone the church, for I remember she before us with the Sign of Faith, said, with a little rosy blush at and rest in the sleep of Peace; the being noticed, that she had seen triumphant forms of glorified Saints, quite as pretty churches in London, that gleam upon us from each lofty and then the young mother curtsied pane, and cast their bright mantles and looked pleased too (just as peoin rainbow tints over us, as if in ple do when they are in a strange token to bid us follow them, as they place, where they have no one to followed Christ ;-all this, I was speak a kind word to them), and aware, must affect the dullest ima

said they had come from London a gination, and, for the time at least, few days ago. Of course, I conwarm the coldest heart. But I did cluded that they had popped in to not at that time think that the poor see the Minster, as everybody does, were quick to take up the lesson because it is one of the “lions" of which all this is intended to teach, the place, and so I never expected

-- the lesson that we have all well- to see them again, least of all there. nigh forgot,--that we are, at this However, in a day or two, as I very moment, all of us, living or came out of the Choir, I espied the departed, rich and poor, old and comely countenance of my new young, “knit together in One Com- friend; she was sitting all alone on munion and Fellowship,”--that we a long bench close beside the screen

" One Fold under One Shepherd, in the Nave, where, by listening Jesus Christ our Lord.”

close, you can manage to follow the Oh, we need not teach the poor service pretty well. She looked the difference that there is between quite happy and at home, and by our earthly lot and theirs ! They the little well-worn Prayer-book feel that too well already, and some- she held in her hand, I guessed she times our unkindness or selfishness had been going along with us in our makes the sense of it enter like iron

prayers : indeed, when I asked her, into their very soul : rather let us --not till then,--she said she had teach them, having first learnt it been doing so, adding, with much ourselves, that in the sight of our simplicity, that she did the same One Father, which is in Heaven, "most days.” in the eyes of our One Mother, the " But do come inside next time," Church on earth, we not only shall I said, “there is plenty of room, one day be, are even now, and you know we ought all to pray equals, -only like servants, or like together." children at school, we have different “Yes, Ma'am, and so we ought, tasks, different services to perform, and you may depend upon it I shall for that One Master and Father. too, when I have had time to get This is no poetic dream, it is simple cleaned up a bit;"--a simple, but reality ; for what saith Holy Scrip- striking way of expressing her noture:-“As the Body is one, and tion of the outward reverence we hath many members, and all the all of us owe to holy places and members, being many, are one body, things. so also is Christ."

And she was as good as her word, But to resume. Some dim idea, for every evening afterwards, fair that if the poor did not feel in this weather or wet, she and her little way, it was not their fault, led me Prayer-book made their appearance to address a chance remark to one in the Choir, although her clothes of the pretty children I spoke of. were so patched and threadbare


that I am sure it must have been granite tower, with the evergreen painful to her thus to expose them ivy climbing on its basement, and to the observation of others; but its battlements cutting the deep then, as she one day said to me, in blue sky; the old dial shewed the her own child-like way,—“You see approach of sun-down, and the Ma'am, my husband don't like to summer breeze sighed among the come to Church, till he can get | limes, and the sheep were lying better clothes to come in; but I'm down to rest under the sacred shasure, if I was to wait for that time, dow; everything around us and I should never get there at all.” above us spake of loveliness and Who shall tell what the one gained peace. But it was another, a still -the other lost-by their opposite holier feeling that thrilled through conduct in this respect ?

my frame, at that moment, as my In fact, I soon found that poor humble companion laid her hand on Martha was never likely to attain my arm,

and said in a low solemn in this world, to more than the tone, “Yes, it is all the same here barest necessaries of food and rai- as there, for we are all the children ment; for, besides that her family of One Father.” already consisted of four hungry “ One communion and followlittle ones, she was subject to this ship.” That fact has dwelt with additional drawback, that her hus- me ever since, like music playing band (an iron-worker) was fre- in my ears. Some may be like the quently out of work, whilst for the the lofty turrets that cut the sky, employment he did obtain, he and others like the lowly ivy plant that his family were obliged to lead an draws its scanty nourishment from unsettled, vagrant sort of life, in the clefts of the lowest stone of following the course of the various yonder tower; yet still, all one, railway works. It was for this, she for “now are we many members, told me, and a tear stood in her blue yet but One Body." eye as she told it, that she had had to It was soon after this that I paid leave her home in the Poplar Dis- a visit to Martha's present abode, trict, London, where her little ones which consisted only of a couple of had been baptized, and her young

upper rooms one of those unest-born was buried : and then she healthy lodging-houses for the poor, told me, with the full heart of a too common in our large towns, into stranger, that she had no one to each of which from twelve to notice or to speak to her in all the twenty families sometimes great city she had come to. “And packed, without pure air, and also I sometimes feel very desolate, most without the pleasant light of indeed, I never feel at home here, the sun. The one which Martha except” (and oh, how my heart lived in was not quite so bad as thrilled to hear that most blessed, this, and yet it was bad enough, for that most just exception,)“ except to get to it, you had first to thread when I come to this old Church. a narrow lane, and afterwards a It reminds me of home. It is the noisome court, both of them crowded same prayers, the same words, with human beings as wretchedeverything just the same like as it looking as filth and eflluvia could was at our Parish Church at home. make them; and then, at last, we It was there I used to go every day had to climb up several flights of when I was at home.”

rickety wooden stairs, with scarce a I think I shall never forget that ray of light to help us to feel our evening; we stood beside the grey way. Really, thought I, “cleanli.


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