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by the wishes of humanity, and the inspiring wisdom of moderation. Former victories only produced fresh calls for further sacrifices.

The same prudential line of conduct was apa parent in his financial statements *. He disdained to trifle with the feelings of the people, by imposing on them a fallacious account of the condition of our finances; by the glare of comparative estimates, or the promise of an over. flowing revenue. On the contrary, he ayowed that the finances were not to be examined with out seriousness; but, that by steadiness, fortitude, and prudence, all our difficulties might be surmounted. This was the language of integrity; it reconciled us to the irksomeness of our situation; it animated us with resolution to meet every contingency; it encouraged us to hope for a redemption of our delapidated fortúne; and, having honesty for its basis, it commanded our confidence.

But, though our internal weakness required the most grave, constant, and assiduous attention, (particularly from men recently invested with power under very unpropitious circum

June 29,

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stances) we find that our foreign transactions, considering the complexity of their nature, were conducted with unusual spirit and activity. On the 11th of July, the convention with Russia was announced in London, and thereby an end put to that unhappy dispute with the Northern Povers, on a question that must ever be maintained with jealous vigilance by this country. By that couvention, we established and secured three points essential to our safety , that free bote toms do not makefreegoods; that neutralbottoms shall not carry ethe goods of the enemy; and that we have the right of search. Thus was our maritime empire completely established and such was the sense of the legislature upon the subject, that both houses of Parliament i voted the address without a divisioni: It is, however, remarkable that in private, you changed your mind, not less than four times, before ryou had determined on what part you should take in pub lico. As I ascribed your conduct; at that time, to the most pure and disinterested patriotism, I,

urally entertained an higher opinion of your wisdom, from this very circumstance *

* Were I at liberty to state, in this place, a fact respecting the conduct of Sweden, in relation to the Northern Confedera

We had scarcely recovered from the sensa* tions which such a glorious termination of that quarrel was calculated to excite, when an extra. ordinary gazette * announced the splendid: vic torly gained by Sir James Saumarez, over the combined fleet of France and Spain. Was this also “the victory of the late ministers, which threw open the gate that led their successors to peace.”. Continue, as long as it suits your temper and your views, to pervert faets, to condemn measures, and to abuse men, but, in the name of heaven, if you are regardless of your own reputation, refrain from denying the most palpable, truths. The battle off Algesiras was Mr. Addington's battle, and its glorious result the effect of his energetic councils I.

The last great event in the order of time, which completed the history of Mr. Addington's

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cy, and which I received from the best authority abroad, I be fieve I could give an evidence in favor of the present ministers, which would not be relished by their opponents, di:

August 3.

+ See The Plain Answer of a More Accurate Observer, p.49.

* This expression is a parody on an eloquent phrase in the Plain Answer.


administration in war, was the recovery of Egypt, the merit of which I have already ascribed to him. I shall now establish my proposition by a plain narrative of Facts, which shall be placed in a light so clear and satisfactory, that I will venture to affirm, not one officer in the British army who has been in active service, will deny my inference.

Whenever a government proposes to send a military force to attack any province, there are several considerations which should be seriously weighed before they determine on the measure. First, the force of the enemy, and his means of resistance; the state of popular opinion in the country possessed by him and his local advantages: secondly, the necessary quantity of force to defeat him, not merely in one battle, but to secure advantage obtained : thirdly, the length of time which such an undertaking may require, in order to ascertain the numbers of the force requisite for the end to be accomplishaed: fourthly, the influence of the climate, with its diseases ; for it is well known, that the havoc caused by the sword is infinitely less, than the destruction that rages in the camps of a pestilential climate. I might add that statesmen would do well to consult the map of a country, before they sign the order for its invasion.

According to these principles, it will instantly appear, that the fortunate result of the expedition to Egypt, belongs exclusively to the present administration. The British army destined to that quarter was, in the first instance, most injudiciously reduced, in consequence of the orders sent from England, whereby a portion of the force under Sir James Pulteney, proceeded to the defence of Portugal.*

The same ignorance of military topography which disgraced the Dutch expedition, characterized the Egyptian. A large body of horse was selected for a campaign in a country intersected by canals, and where scarcely any cavalry was nécessary; but in a country where a considerable force of horse had been collected, (and from the intercepted correspondence, it was known were in a high state of discipline) not a single horse, but dismounted dragoons were sent. In every action, our troops deplored

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* I am aware that the corps under Sir James Pulteney were for limited, service, which circumstance increases the responsibility of those who were the authors of the Egyptian expedition.

+ In the General Orders published by the Duke of York, the chief eulogy of the Eyptian army consists in their defeating

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