Imágenes de páginas


of her incendiary madness; ruined past saw in the Royal Museum at Portici; all hope her allies, and drawn ten times and again, in another inscription, which trebled danger and difficulties upon her. Julius Cæsar Capaccio produces. self. If she does not soon purchase That of the Royal Museum runs, peace, even at that unavoidably, humilia

M. Memmio M. F. Rufo Patri ting price as to its ternas, to which her

Municipes. own infatuation bas reduced her, those miseries must be speedily her own which

And is sanctioned, should more proof she felt no remorse in bringing upon

and authorities be demanded, by a brass other nations, against the warning voice plate, which at once evinces the municia

of her great deceased patriot, in this pal privileges of this city to the inost, - long and disastrous war; even tbe giant scrupulous investigator.

T. Claudio. Drusi. F. woes of seeing our country its bloody theatre. To bend at last beneath the

Cæsari. Augusti.

Germanico. omnipotence of events, and beneath the

Pont:, Max: Trib: Pot: 8. chastizement of heaven, must as cer.' tainly be national as it is individual wis

Imp: 16. Cos. 2.

Patri. Patriæ. Cens. dom. But what shall we do with our

Ex Testimenti Messii L.F.M.A. pride!--Sacrifice ic as we did when we

Senacæ. sought reconcilement with our invaded

Militis Cob: 10 Urbana et colonies, and be rewarded by long years

Dedicationi ejus legavit of peace, and its blooming and blessed comforts.


Singulis HS. IIII n.

From some inscribed pieces of stone A REPORT

it appears, that, as Cives Romani, the

inhabitants of Herculaneum were enrolled HERCULANEUM MANUSCRIPTS, in some tribe at Rome itself, particularly

the Menenian, Addressed, by Permission, to his Royal

L. Annio L. F. Men.
Highness the Prince Regent,

2 Vir. Itin : Quin . By the Rev. Joun HAYTER, A.M.

Vir Epularum.
Chaplain in Ordinary to the Prince,

It may not be improper to suggest, And bis superintendent of tbose Manuscripts. that all the inscriptions, which I have,

produced, or may produce, have been The curiosity of every lover of antiqui- digged from Herculaneum, and, except ties and classical literature, will neces that of Julius Cæsar Capaccio, have been sarily be piqued and interested by the perused and examined by me. subject of this valuable work,, in many

EARTHQUAKES. respects, one of the most striking of its There an earthquake, Anno kind ibat has appeared for many years, Christi 63, sixteen years previous to that Our readers cannot fail to be gratified eruption of Vesuvius, which destroyed with the following extracts from it. Herculaneum, Anno Christi 79. Seneca

declares, that in this earthquake HercuThe political state of Herculaneum, lanensis oppidi pars ruit, dubièque stant whether it were a settlement of Phoeni. etiam, quæ relicta sunt. Nonis Febru-' cians, or of other Asiatics, cannot be arii fuit terræ motus. traced with any exactness, or conclusive In an enclosure behind the great thea-, deduction, from facts and circumstances, tre a heap of tiles, respectively numat any epocha earlier, than that of the bered, together with the trunk of a marRoman dominion. It can only be argued ble statue, and the fragments of several presumptively from Strabo, that it might columns, was excavated under the volhave been of the twelve cities, which canic materials. Another earthquake, formed the dynasty of the Tuscans in indeed, immediately preceded, or rather, Campania. The opposition it made to attended, that eruption. Some houses the victorious legions of Rome, the mu- were thrown to the ground by the severe nicipal rights which it enjoyed after its concussion. Their ruins are partly spread subjugation, clearly indicate some pros. upon the original soil, partly upon the perity, and some importance in the esti- pumice stones discharged from the mounmation of the conqueror.

tain. Pliny, in his account addressed Herculaneum is twice called Munici, to Tacitus, says, “ Præcesserat per mul-, pium, that is, in an inscription, which I tos dies treror terræ minus formidilosus,








qui Campaniæ non solum castella, verum the laborers were still procuring more etiam oppida vexare solitus: illâ vero manuscripts from two different, but nocte ità invaluit, ut non inoveri omnia, sinall, rooms in the same house. The sed everti crederentur." In this letter, wood of the shelves, upon which they as well as in the 10th of the same book, had been placed in small boxes, was, to the same friend, Pliny has proved together with the wood of the boses bimself to have “ Omnia verè prosecu- themselves, strongly charred, or reduced tum," although, with great modesty, he to ashes. The manuscripts themselves, remark, “ Aliud est Epistolam, aliud so providentially saved by the intervene Historiam scribere."

tion of Mazzochi, and gradually and careConformably to his faithful description, fully excavated by the workmen, were the excavated stratüm is not lava, as has Hot less than eighteen hundred, some in, been often said, but “ Pumices nigrique a less, some in-a more, perfect state. et ambusti, et "fracti'igne lapides," to It is curious, that these manuscripts, the depth of nearly seventy feet in many which are always called by the Italians places. All the wood in Herculaneum "Papiri,” because the substance of each was reduced to coals, and every thing volume or roll was formed from the combustible was not only injured by the plant Papyrus, owe their preservation to extreme heat, but, as was the case with the heat of those materials, which had the manuscripts, was violently compres- buried them; without this, their vegetable sed, and contracted by the ponderous texture must have been destroyed by pue pressure of the volcanic materials. In trefaction. But, although the greatest one of his best poetical efforts Statius part of their bulk had thus resisted the justly says,

effects of time, yet that bulk itself had -Pater exemtum terris ad sidera been much injured. In many instances

it was much impaired, sometimes obli. Sustulit, et latè miseras dejecit in urbes. terated, or disfigured, or perforated, or

mutilated, or broken, wbolly, or in part, Charles III. with his natural liberality by that very heat, or by compression uniand public spirit, gave his immediate

der the heavy, volcanic materials, or orders for excavation. But, unfortu- by the forcible introduction of very light Mately, to the discredit of the sovereign dust, and some small stones, into its himself , and to the injury of his great rior folds of each volume, which, in every

substance, especially in the more extedesigns, a Spaniard (I forget his name) was appointed director of the whole. instance, have suffered soine or all of This Spaniard united arrogance and ob- those various injuries. The interior stinacy with the darkest want of know. folds, where the Greek and Latin chaledge, and, therefore, bis whole racters (as the manuscripts are written

superintendency was a course of practical lec- in both tlose languages) are not totally tures upon those qualities." Hence it is.

annihilated by volcanic injuries, exhibit for the literary world a complete ëpucsov,

a high degree of preservation, and even that all the manuscripts, now preserved,

a superficial lustre, both in their subwere not sacrificed in common with some

stance, and in the remaining characters. others, which the director, and the The ancient ink had, luckily, a considerequally ignorant, but clearly guiltless, this we had been informed by Pliny the

able quantity of gum, but no acid; of laborers, mistook for pieces of charcoal, Elder, who is invaluable, as in so many or burned tinber, and which, in consequence, were removed, and applied by other respects, so for his extreme accuthem, to the usual domestic

in purposes.

racy every point, apon which his indeIn the course of their removal, however, fatigable researches could not he misled some detached fragments happily fell by others, or insuperably obstructed, or froin one, or two, of these devoted volumes, and displayed upon their surface

* This house is supposed, upon some very distinguishable characters. Of this foundation, too have been the residence of circumstance the laborers honestly in the great Piso family. Cicero, speaking formed the Spaniard, who, as the cha- of that residence, observes, that he couri racters were Greek, could not read them : circumstance has been practically confirmed

sce it from his villa, near Puteoli. This he was obliged, therefore, to consult that upon the spot where that villa staod, in die eminent scholar, the Canon Mazzochi, recting the view towards that part of the about them. To the great joy of Mazzochi, volcanic mass, which is perpendicularly ribo iinmediately repaired to the" Scavi" over the site of that residence,




baffled. By royal command, at the supr.

AaEeZ6M Nạ gestion of Mazzochi, the manuscripts

In Number 1027. were lodged in the Museum at Portici,

KaPNOC Kovy, and mumbered; but, owing to the folly


B of the Spaniard, were not classed in two divisions, so as to denote the quantity

AP® XXX HH AAA H.CEA found in each of the two respective rooms.

In Nuinber 1000.

To advance the developement and in-

CUZHTHOSNT WAY terpretation of these volumes, Charles

ΔιαιΤαΝ III. instituted a society; it consisted of

In Number 1479. members, the most celebrated in that

E: .1... UP country for their literary attainments,

11, P. Ciac the Marquis Tannucci, Mazzochi, the Prelate Baiardi, and some few others.

TWN «PXaiana When Piaggi, the inventor of the process,

In Number 1414. which I have more circumstantially de

ΦιλοΔΗΜού scribed in iny former letter, had, toge

TAPI...... Aritau ther with his scholar, Vincenzo Merli, unrolled a page, or any tolerable series

cm . soH of characters, in any fragment, they submitted, in either case, whatever they

MR. HAYter's LABORS. had gained, to Mazzochi, who applied Before the commencement of my lahimself most successfully to the elucida- bors in 1802, there had been opened, tion of it. The first manuscript they during more than forty years,only eighteen opened had the title of the work, and manuscripts. Of what materials their the name of the author, at the end, that substance was formed, I have already is, upon the most interior part of the mentioned. The process or mode of roll. The work, as the title imported, opening them, has been described in my was upon music, the name of the au- first letter. The points, at which the thor Philodemus.

papyraceous" sheets were fastened toPerhaps it may not be thought totally gether by a cement or gum, are often uninteresting, should I lay before your visible. I should conceive, that the Royal Highness a view of some specimens longest roll, composed of these cemented of titles, and names, and other final in- sheets, could not have exceeded, in any scriptions from those “ Papiri,” which instance, forty feet, and no sheet could were opened under my direction. have been longer than three feet, - or

At the end of the manuscript, No. thereabouts; the breadth of the sheet, 1042, which Camillo Paderni began to as it must naturally suggest itself, inust unrol 230 January, 1802, and finished constitute the length of each roll, which, 22d March in the same year, there are, taking all the manuscripts one with ano

ther, is a varying measure from someIỆP: QUCC.

whatless than a palm to something, but

very little, more than a foot. In writing, In Number 1423.

the ancients placed the length of the roll ΦιλοΔΗΜου

horizontally, and the breadth was perTEP. PHTOPAKTIC

pendicularly divided into columns, as

they are called, or pages, with a varying ΤΟΝ ειC Δυο Το ΠΡΟΤΕΡΟΝ

interval between each, soinetimes of In Number 208.

more, sometimes of less, than an inch. KWAWT av

When the whole mass was folded into ΠΡoC ΤΩΝ ΠΛ α 1. και

a volume, or roll, they began to fold it NoCA.C.

at the end. Hence, as I have observed In Number 336.

before, the name of the writer and title NoAuCT P&T W TePs

of the work have hitherto, except in two «ΛοΓου ΚαΤαΦΡΟΝΗ

instances, been found in the innermost CE-C OIA Papou C.N TIPOC TouC darwC

part of the manuscript. Very inconsi Kata PaCuNoMeNoUC

derable pieces of the stick with “ umbiTWN EN TOC loa AOC

lici," or rollers, round which the folds

were made, and of its heads, have been These dots are inserted by me to shew, found in very rare instances; but in each that there is a chusa.

instance they are either pulverized, of

reduced ways

εΠικου Ρου



non tam


siege, the

queen, &c.


reduced to a black and friable coal. masses of these manuscripts,that I yielded, The colour of the volumes is extremely ' contrary to my own sentiments, to their different one from the other, in shades representations. These sentiments were of a tawny, a deep or dark brown, and founded upon hourly observation of the black, to that of the darkest charcoal. variously affected substance of several

Of the latter are those of Philodemus, manuscripts. That observation was dialready unrolled; and all the Greek ma- rected to the nature of their sobstance, nuscripts, indeed, are of a blacker shade and to the nature of those materials, than the Latin, which are of the first. which had brought them to their present The inference from this respective state state; but, as it was my duty not even to of colour in the different manuscripts, appear to neglect any means by which, rust naturally be, that they were found it was so generally supposed, the underin two different rooms; one of these taking night he forwarded, I thought, rooms must have been less affected than the other, by the heat of the volcanic Turpe fuit vinci,qnam contendisse decoron, matter. But the less any manuscript has been affected by that heat, the more

Monday, November 29th, 1805. difficulty has been always encountered “The «


;"* No. 817, which jn opening it, for the reason which I have had been consigned to Don Camilla Paassigned in my first letter. It is remark- derni, was finished. There was no dame, able, that all the Latin manuscripts, or title, at the end. It was the fragment which I have attempted to unrol, have of a Latin poem. Many entire verses in heen of a tawny or brown colour; and, series were found. The poein appears therefore, one of them (which is the trag- to be historical. It speaks of Alexandria, ment of a Latin poem betore-mentioned) Egypt, Cæsar, the Battle of Actium, a was opened with great ditħçulty. Another produced only unconnected scraps “ The same day, another “ Papiro," of broken pages or columns, in a state No. 831, was chosen, and consigned to the more to be lamented, as, from some. the same Don Camillo Paderni." common words, as well as Roman proper names, it might be concluded to be

If I might be permitted, I would here something historical. . Of others, it was

exemplity to your Royal Highness this found totally impracticable to separate most troublesome part of my employ. the substance, even in the smallest por. tions. All these, consequently, must The first piece of the eleventh book of have been lodged in one of the two rooms, Epicurus, which, to repeated view and differeut from that in which those of

minute observation, exhibited the apof Philodemus and the Greek writers pearance of a tolerably entire and indiwere kept.

vidual columi), was copied, as such. As The only mode of selecting a manu- in every other instance, where any part script from the Royal Museum for deve- of a manuscript had been copied, so ia lopement, was very simple, but not al- this, I first collated the copy with the ways effectual; yet, at the same time, dark original, letter for letter. Then ! whenever the small brush, which they began, with all possible attention, mised, wetted and applied, in this case, to the however, with extreme distrust, both of outside surface of a manuscript, caused myself, and of the thing itself, to attempt the exterior fold to raise itself singly in a detached state from the next under it, lumns of every manuscript, the most

the interpretation.' In the different cothat inanuscript, most completely justic perfectly unrolled, there have been alfied the experiment, however simple, by a more entire separation of each fold in * The copper-plate far-simile copy of the volume, especially from the middle this “ Papiro" is now at Oxford. What an part, even to the end, and by a more immense price, indeed, the Pere Montfau. entire preservation of leiters, both in con, whose grand aim in his Itinerant re. form and in colour.

searches, was to find in some book a spe. So many persons of erudition, and good have set upon this fragmedi! In fact, the

cimen of ancient Latin orthography, would sense, Russians, Germans,, Swedes, Chevalier Seraui, then Secretary of State Greeks, Spaniards, French, Italians, and for “ Case Reali," when I communicated even English, said so much of chymical

to him the discovery of this Latin frag experiments, as likely to contribute to

ment, exclaimed, with much rapture, that the greater and more productive facility this discovery was worthi alt my pains, and of un folding the most conglutinated all the expence of our governmens.




ways found wanting many letters, often column, an example is afforded in the
a word, or, more rarely, a whole sentence, following extract from myjournal:
or whole sentences, respectively. For "Wednesday, 6th February, 1805.
the just interpretation, it was impossible, “ The “ Papiro," No. 2€, which had
it would at least have been unjustifiable, been consigned to Don Antonio Lentari,
to have proceeded otherwise, than I in- was finished, and at the end were the
variably used to do in the case of each“La- characters,
cuna.” Its dimensions I exactly ascertain-

". Ad Ho . MOC
ed by an accurate, often retraced, mensu-

ration. This rigid mensuration was then

applied by me in the same manner, and
agreeably to the form, under which that
same manuscript presented every given eight books of Epicurus is attic; that

The dialect of the fragments of the
character, to as many characters as, con-
jecturally, and consistently with the

of Polystratus and Colotes, is so to a
supposed sense of the context, I wished certain degree only. The dialect of the
to replace in that " Lacuna.” When I what attic; the language of that trea-

upon Anger, I think, is some-
was entirely satisfied, that these mensu-
rations were accurate, and that the con-

tise, in general, is superior to all the
jectural letters, thus supplied, expressed
the very sense of the author, or, at least; subjects of all the manuscripts at Oxford

If one except the Latin poem, the
some not inapplicable sense, the copyist
was ordered by ine to make a partial fac-

are biographical, or physical, or philolo-
simile of that " Lacuna,” and of the letter gical, or moral, or theological. In difa
which immediately came before it, and,

ferent places of different works, there also, of the letter which immediately

are short poetical quotations from lost came after it, and then make in the poets. One quotation from the Odyssey “ Lacuna” itself a fac-simile transcript of is incalculably precious, because we find, each character, which had been supplied,

in this quotation, the same language, ex-
in strict conformity to the usual dis pression for expression, as in the present

editions. The whole of the present text,
tances between the respective letters in
the same manuscript. When this whole therefore, of the poet, boasts an authen
process admitted, “modulo, ac pede,"

ticity of a very remote period, certainly
and in aptest correspondence, my sub- not less than sixteen hundred and thürty-
stituted, or supplied, characters, I wrote

two years, if an illative argument of this them, in my own interpreted copy of that

nature may be regarded as of weight in manuscript with red ink, in order to dis- this case, which, as purely accidental, tinguish them from the actually existing

is unqnestionably freer from cavil than
characters of the original. After having with great truth, that all these manu--

most other cases. It may be added,
gone through this process in the quoted
instance of the first piece of the above-

scripts, which
inentioned eleventh book of Epicurus,

nec ignes,
after having repeated several times this Nec poterat ferrum, nec edar abolere vetustas,
process, in consequence of the alteration even if the consideration of their high
which, the surface, by the detachment antiquity be excluded, even if no value
and loss of several of its particles, re- be affixed to them, as the most legitimate
peatedly exhibited, I found, that, after criterions of orthography in the two
this repeated process, and the laboured, learned languages, these manuscripts, I
tormenting, and most unsatisfactory, must say, are still inestimable, because
supplemental conjectures of a month, the compositions, preserved in them, had
both in the Museuin and at home, as been supposed to have been irrecover-
well for the vacant letters, as for the ably lost.
sense, my whole interpretation was ne-
cessarily wrong. This piece, which was At the commencement of the year
supposed to form one column, was at 1806, it was well known that his Sicilian
Jast discovered to consist of two halves, majesty intended to leave Naples, and
one of which really belonged to the sic that the queen and the royal family,
tuation which it occupied, the other, to would also be obliged soon afterwards in
a preceding column. Of the violent leave it, I thought it my duty to solicit
transposition of characters by the same the official interposition of his majesty's
Hransposition of particles, in the same minister for the removal of the manu.



[ocr errors][ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
« AnteriorContinuar »