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of extending her own upon its ruins, over becomes a bad cause, even as to its gethe whole habitable face of the globe, by neral results, because the many become the empire of the seas. The speeches of sufferers for the benefit of the few. Lord Sheffield, Aukland, &c. and the

W. annual budget speeches, proclaim triumphantly the encreasing and fourishing To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. state of our trade, no doubt, as a vindio cation of the war, and as a reason for its

SIR, continuance. Sheffield asserted in a ANY of your pages have tended to speech, about five years ago, that the car. iving trade had encreased from two mil. dition and sufferings of the Animal Worid, lions at the commencement of the war, thereby inculcating the sacred duties of to five millions, in a period of less than justice and mercy. On this subject you

have been laudably ready to give fair Thus has commerce not only subsidized and full scope to whatever illustrated or Agriculture to her purposes, but likewise enforced it. To maintain the cause of the demon War, to the former of which humanity, is liighly pleasing to every good she was once tributary, and to the latter man; and more honour is derived from it, abe was reckoned a deadly foe, whose than from inquiries which tend only extinction she threatened by enlightened to amuse the mind, or gratify curiosity. ideas, the mutual interchange of good The anecdote communicated by your ofices, and general philanthropy. correspondent, " Zoophilus,"

in the Thus are the ostensible objects of the Monthly Magazine for September, on war unmasked, and the real one appears the effects of gratitude in a wild bull, to be to extend and force the commerce deeply impressed and interested me, of England by the point of the bayonet, Gratitude can be the result only of kindand the thunder of her wooden walls, over ness, either intended or received. And a continent deluged with blood, and an although I recollect too many instances ocean stained with crimes !

where the result of kindness has been It is almost superfluous to enlarge ingratitude amongst human beings, it upon the bad effects of a system repro- very rarely follows any marks of mercy, bated alike by sound policy, justice, hu- or even of due consideration, shewn to. manity, and religion. Even in the most ward animals. The example which just, necessary, and merely defensive, “ Zooplilus” has adduced of the wild wars, which may have been undertaken bull, is certainty a very powerful illus. for the achievement and preservation of tration of this fact; but it would not be our liberties, and the security of our com- difficult to extract from the authentic merce, the cruelties and horrors which stories of Natural Ilistory, various other bave been mutually inflicted and uccasi- instances of gratitude arising from sense oned by armies, and the miseries endured of obligation, and even in the way of by families and individuals, are indescri- returning generosity for generosity, and bable. If' then so much evil is the result compassion for compassion. In regard of even just and necessary wars, what to other animals of the fiercest nature, must be expected from a war entered as the lion, the elephant, the tyger, &c. into from the base and filthy motive of I lately met with some curious partilucre, and from the sanguinary ambition culars in the notes to an elegant poem of a shameful cupidity to extend our lately published by Mr. Pratt, to which commerce over the face of the habitable I am anxious to refer your readers; and, globe? Is, according to religion, philo- by the bye, I cannot resist stating the sophy, and sound policy, the means be pleasure which I have derived from read. not sanctified and justified by the end; if ing that production.

It is entitled, war be condemned as a sin by the divine, The Lower World, not referring to as immoral by the philosopher, and as the infernal regions, but lower, in a the worst mode of settling the disputes of moral and rational sense, and consists of nations, by the politician, it woqld of a strong appeal to mankind in favour of course be the height of absurdity to sup- the brute creation. The life of the pose that the means can sanctify and benevolent author has been devoted to justify the end. If a good cause be dis. constant labour, on this and other kin. graced by improper means used in its dred subjects; and if he had not written defence, how much more is it disgraced his Sympathy, and Humanity, this proand injured by employing these means duction alone would entitle' him to a in promoting it, to the manifest injury of place amoug the poets of Britain. In surrounding nations. Thea indeed it short, Sheridan, Pratt, Wolcot, Hayley,

and Cumberland, are surviving members spondents in general to co-operate with of the old school of literature and poetry; me.

W. S. Smith, and it is grievous to see the triumplis of Richmond, à pigmy race, while the works of the geo Dec. 4, 1810. buine bards of the country are neglected, and even insulted by that trade in venal To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, criticism, which sterling genius scorns to SIR, court, or purchase.

VIIIS being the season to enumerate I feel a strong desire to occupy an oce casional page of your excellent miscel- the meteorological observations of the iany, in adding my mite to the cause of last year, I shall, as has been customary. genuine benevolence, from the body of in your Magazine, give in a tabular view evidence which I have from time to time the average heat of each month for the been collecting from my own observa. last and preceding years, and an account tions, or from written documents; and of the quantity of rain in each month or I hope you will encourage your corre- the year 1810.

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Notwithstanding the great variations According to the vanes in this neighin several of the months for the two bourhood, the westerly and north-wesyears, the average temperature for the terly. winds have been much the most whole years differs but very little, only frequent. We observed in our last an. about three quarters of a degree. The nual account, that our observations were quantity of rain is much less than that at variance with those made at the apartwhich fell during the year 1809; but be ments of the Royal Society, in Somersettween the 18th of October to about the house; for, according to the account same day in December, there fell nearly given there, the winds from the south. fourteen inches in depth, a circumstance west are usually predominant: by the exceedingly unusual at that season of the Observations at Highgate, 1810.

No. of dayu year.


20 During the year 1810, the brilliant


6 days, and those on which it'raipal, were


74 pretty nearly equal; the proportions will

East stand thus:

North-west Brilliant days


49 Rainy


38 'Those on which there was snow or hail

South east

61 Days denominated fair 50

365 Cloudy or foggy days .

365 January was remarkable for its daik

days; fogs were by no means prevalent; i MONTHLY MAQ, No. 209.



29 88

No. of days.

148 142




but in the month of February, they were than 80°. In August even, the mornings inore frequent; and one day it was so and evenings were complained of as cold dark, that almost all business was, for a and chilly; and so much rain fell about considerable time, suspended. March this season, as to aların the public at was remarkable for the heaviest fall of large, as well as the farmers, lest they snow during the whole winter, which was should have no means of housing a very succeeded by a vast quantity of rain. abundant barvest. The rains however May was a mild and very pleasant month. ceased in good time, and by their long, June was cold, the wind chiefly in the continuance a plentiful second crop of Borth-east: we usually have in the bay crowned the hopes of those whose spring of the year from five to seven or farms are chiefly meadow-land. In Sepeight weeks in which the easterly winds tember the weather was cold and wet for prevail. This month was so dry that a the season; but October was a beautiful scarcity was apprehended, and even pre- month, as it usually is in this part of the dicted by a writer of popular talents; but island. November and December were, who was fortunately mistaken in his as we have observed, noticed for their views. Owing to the vast drought at this large quantities of rain. The weather period of the year, the crop of hay was was mild to the end of the year; but to. short, and its price has kept up, to the wards the close, violent winds did much present time, to nearly ten pounds a load. mischief in various parts of the country: In no part of the suinmer bad we what and on the night of Christmas-day, there may be denominated sultry weather,

was a deal of lightning for several hours; The hottest day was on the 25th of June, in some quarters during the whole night, and on that the mercury was not higher Highgate, Jan. 3, 1811.

For the Monthly Magazine,

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An. Mean. 17,37 Aunl. Mean. 29,856 | 28,73 161 214 | 151

Total TotallTotalliotail General Remarks on the Weather, fc. of snow, when all the surrounding moun.

observed at Carlisle, during the Year tains were perfectly white. 1810.

Durch was a very wet and gloomy ANUARY was remarkably mild till months, the qualitity of rain, 3,8 inches, were rather stormy; afterwards, moderate in the corresponding month during the frost with light showers of snow. The last five years: the weather was cold, weather was, on the whole, unusually fine and tie mountains were generally coe for the season.

vered with snow. Feliruary. The former half of this April was dry, but, on the whole, month was fair, mild, and exceeding seasonable and pleasant; the weather, pleasant; the remainder was variable, during the last week of the month, was and often very stormy, with heavy falls very warn), with a serene and cloudless


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sky. The first swallows this season were were hot and the nights cold, with heavy seen on the oth; they were numerous on dews. The birundines disappeared the the 18th.

beginning of this month; the preceding May. The mean temperature of this year they continued with us till the 220 month, 48° 4', is extremely low for the of Octotier. season. The weather was uniformly cold October continued fair, brilliant, and and dry, with brisk parching easterly exceedingly fine, till the 18th, during winds, which proved very unfavourable which period the mid-day heat was un. to vegetation. The mountains were fre- commonly powerful. From the 18th til! quently covered with spow.

the 23d, the weather was very wet and June. The extreme drought which stormy; the remainder was variable, prevailed during this, and the two prece- when we had some strong frost in the ding months, was severely felt here as well nights. At the conclusion of this month as in every other part of the kingdom, many of the highest mountains in this The weather this month was generally neighbourhood were capped with snow; bright, the days hot, and the nights cold and, with regard to the weather, winter and frosty. The quantity of rain, 1,6 may be said to have commenced its inches, fell chiefly on the 28th and 29th. reign.

July. The moist and showery weather Norember. In the former part of experienced this month was productive this month we had some considerable of the most beneficial effects to the grain falls of snow, particularly on the ed and crops. The highest degree of tempera. 6h; that which fell on the latter day did ture, 71°, is unusually low for the season, not disappear from the fields before the yet ihe average for the whole month is 10th. The weather continued variable, nearly equal to that of the same period with intervals of frost and mild rain; of former years.

towards the latter end of the month it August. The weather this month was sometimes bright and pleasant, was, on the whole, very favourable for The wind, with some trifling exceptions, the season. On the 3d and 4th we had was moderate, and on eight days we exsome vivid lightning and loud peals of perienced a dead calın : the mountains thunder; also on the 31st, a dreadful were generally covered with snow. Note storm of thunder and lightning, which withstanding the very fine autumn, we commenced in the evening and continued never remember a corn harvest continu. nearly all night; during the former part ing for so long a period as the present; of the storm, rain, mixed with hail, fell in it commenced in this district the begin. torrents.

ning of August, and was scarcely comSeptember. On the 1st of this month pleted at the end of this month; in the we were visited by another violent storm higher districts of this county some fields of thunder, lightning, and rain. Two at this time were not reaped. women were struck down by the lightning, December. The unseasonable mild and stunned for several hours, but for- weather experienced during the greater Lunately recovered; four cattle were part of this month, was, as usual, atkilled by the electric fluid in this neigh- tended with violent winds and much rain, bourhood. A monument in Stanwix The only frost worth recording, was on church-yard was struck by the lightning the 9th, 10th, and 11th. On the night and much shattered; two massy stones of the 20th, we had some extremely vivid cramped together, of which the pedestal lightning and distant thunder ; on the was composed, were separated to up- following day the wind blew a violent wards of a foot distance. The torrents hurricane from the S.S.E. from which of rain and bail which fell at the time time till the 26th, the weather continued delaged the streets of this city to such a very stormy, with lightning in the nights; degree, that many of the ground floors the last three days of the month were were covered with water. During the calm and pleasant, and incliged to frost. night of the 2d, the sky was illuminated The two extremes of the barometer for with incessant gleams of lightning, when the whole year happened this month, at the time it was quite serene and cloud. within the short period of five days, less. The heat of this and the preceding namely 28.67 on the 25th, and 30:70 on day was uncommonly oppressive. The the 30th. The mountains were freweather afterwards continued fair, calın, quently covered with snow. and brilliant, and extremely fine through

William PITT, out the whole of the month. The days Carlisle, January 2, 1811.


To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. vity and acuteness of the tones were sa s!R,

much affected by the variable force of the I

FEEL pleasure in complying with the blow, as to be clearly apparent to every

request, in your last Number, of the musical ear; and accounts for that ineRev. Mr. Smyth, “ That I would state quality of voising noticed by Mr. Smyth. what I know with respect to an instru. I must observe that there was no difficulty ment invented by Mr. Clagget, viz. his whatever in the application of dampers ; forks struck by hainmers, as on the square but it was unnecessary to attend to these piano-forte;" because I conceive practie particulars, while the essential requisites cal experience cannot be too frequently of the invention reinained unaccomcollated with theoretical speculation, in plished. order that their reciprocal advantages Upon the whole, it attained but a small may be usefully employed in perfecting degree of relative perfection with the sientific and mechanical discoveries. aieuton; and although Mr. Clagget ge

On this particular invention, however, nerally adhered, with a ruinous tenacity, I fear I shall be able to add but little to to his inventions, yet he was induced to che information Mr. Smyth already pose give up this from a reluctant conviction

of its impracticability. This is all the An instrument that wou!d continue information I am able to give, in answer always in tune is undoubtedly an impor- to Mr. Smyth's enquiry. It is extremely tant desideratúm in the musical world; superficial; but, perhaps, it may reach the but the various and expensive experi- extent of his curiosity. E. LydiaTT. ments of Mr. Clagget, leave but little London, Jan. 14, 1811. hope, in my mind, of the speedy accomplishment of an object so desirable.

The invention enquired alter, Mr. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. Clagget intended to name the Ever-tuned

SIR, piano-forte, and it was designed to re- VE amusement, if not the profit, semble that instrument in appearance ; But instead of strings, a series of metallic ing and management of the silk-worn in forks were arranged in octaves to the England, has induced me, through the same compass and pitch; and the tones medium of your much-circulated miscel. were intended to be produced by striking lany, to make known the best substitutes them with hammers, for which purpose for mulberry-leaves. the usual movement attached to the keys In the year 1747, and following years, was employed. It was found, however, some curious particulars were published that the force with which they could be respecting the breeding of silk-worms; I struck, was inadequate to produce the have read nothing which does not give desired effect. Toʻobviate this difficulty, the preference to mulberry-leaves, as the weight of the hammers was consider their food; but should that foliage fail, ably increased, and their extremities ren. Nature has still furnished a supply by the dered less elastic, by which means the buds of the elm, lettuce-leaves, and even tone came out, but it was preceded by the leaves of poplar, oak, apple-tree, one discordant and insufferably distinct, crab-tree, cherry, and plum-tree, bramoccasioned by the necessary momentum ble, dandelion, young nettles, &c. taof the blow. This objection has been king care to gather all your forage dry Bitherto found insuperable; as every ate and clean. tempt, to overcome it has proportionably Thus the important obstacle of your lessened the audibility of the trưe tone of correspondent, “ Pamphila," may possia the fork.

bly be wholly removed, as she admits that Experience seems to indicate that, to our climate is favorable to the breeding, produce a full tone from these metallic but despairs of bringing them to any persubstances, the vibratory cause must be fection, as far as relates to a sufficiency

continued one, as in the aieuton. of food, or the manufacture of their silk.

If, indeed, percussion could be em. It seems that a gentleman, who was parployed at all, its momentum on every ticularly curious in experiments on these note must be proportioned to its rela- worms, wound the silk with great facility *tive quantity of inatter; which would on a card, after dipping the bottoms into render the fingering unpleasantly dif- warm water, mixed with a little spiriçs ficult. And I know, although contrary of wine: the chrysalis, placed erect op to some established theories of musical 'the smallest end, in clean paper pans, sound, that, in this instrument, the grae afterwards assumed its new slate, as well


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