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FEBRUARY 1, 1811.
[1 of Vol. 31,
As long as those who write are ambitious of making converts, and of giving their Opiniong : Maximum of
Infuence and Celebrity, the mo& cuteblively circljited Mit Vany will repay with the Ercatcü Lied ile
as, (the fashionable ciiy-name for shop-boys whence come the inhabitants of and apprentices) are domesticated there, oll the new houses built in the suburbs of the population of the city reinains nearly London?
the same, and is probably not ailected Nothing can be more rational than to the nuinber of a thousand souls by such an enquiry; at least one thousand the affectation and extravagancics of houses "per annuiH having been finished this class of citizens. , in the suburbs of London during the last The sober and more respectable city forty years--yet every new house is taken families have their country-houses át and occupied before it is finished, or its distances varying between tõur and ten tvalls dry! This rate of increase being miles from St. Paul's. These are pro. ten times greater than it was between bably ten thousand in number; but as the death of Elizabeth and the accession their houses are not an integral part of of the Hanoverian tanuly, the causes the metropolis, they form, of course, no may be deserving of investigation, not part of the population of the forty thouonly as inatter of curiosity, but with re- sand new houses built within forty years ference to their connection with the soi- in the suburbs. Even these ten thouence of political economy.
sand families diminish but slightly the As the new houses are generally of resident population of the metropolis, respectable size, and may be taken at because they generally dwell in their the full number of eight souls to a house, town houses in the winter season; and, in the population of the metropolis is as- summer, these are occupied by junior certained, from the occupation of the partners, clerks, or shopmen. new buildings, to have increased in the I refer to seven causes chiefly, the agpresent age upwards of three hundred gregation of the houses and population thousand souls. So rapid an increase of of the suburbs of the metropolis. inhabitants is not therefore to be ac- 1. London is not only the ancient me. counted for on ordinary principles; and it tropolis of England and Wales, but it is obviously involves a variety of consi- now the new metropolis of the added derations.
kingdoms of Scotland and Ireland; and It is not unusual to account for the moreover, of our increased colonies in all occupation of the new streets, by advert- parts of the world. In the reign of Elia ing to a change of manners ainong the zabeth, it was the metropolis of about citizens and the trading classes. It is seven millions of people, but it is now the said, and with truth, that the houses of metropolis of an aggregation of twenty trade do not satisfy the citizens of our millions. It is not therefore to be won. days, and that, to avoid the smell and dered, without referring to other causes, bustle of the shop, the dwelling-house that London has increased to treble its must be at a distance. Doubtless, from size since that time, and that the popu: this cause, many capital houses at the lation within ten miles of St. Pauli, west end of London are occupied by bill should be four times greater. All the manusacturers called bankers, by banko colonists consider London as their home; directors, by upstart monopolists, and it is the focus of their correspondence successful speculators in various branches and interests; their fortunes are remitted of trade. These, however, are not nu. to it; and here they find pleasanter merous, probably they do not exceed five means of spending the in iban among their hundred families; and, as their houses of native wildi, whetier in Scotland, trade are generally occupied by junior Ireland, Yorkshire, or other districts, MONTHLY Mac. No, 209.
These persons, with their families, form, tenements, either on annuities, on the beyond a doubi, a considerable portion bounty of government, or by their labour of the new population of the suburbs of in various departments of the arts. London; probably they occupy at least 6. The sixth class of independent five thousand of the largest new houses : residents in the suburbs, are an increased I shall remark, by the hye, tbat they number of persons who have made foralso form a considerable portion of the tunes of various amounts in trade. idle inhabitants of Bath, Cheltenham, These occupy at least two thousand of Clifton, Brighton, and other fashionable the new houses, of all sizes. watering-places.
7. The enormous increase of the army 2. The increase of our government and navy, and the consequent increase establishments, the treasury, the cus- of officers living on half-pay, and on pentoms, the excise, army, navy, and tax. sions, leads to the occupation of at least offices; and of our great trading coin. 'two thousand houses in the immediate panies, the Bank, the India- house, and vicinity of London, not only for the others of bill-brokers, bankers, and prie advantages of society, but for the convate establishments, furnishes at least venience of receiving their abnuities, and three thousand competent occupiers of iinproving their interests with adminis, the new houses. None of these esta- tration. blishments, or occupations, provide Hence, from these seven causes, we board and lodging for their clerks and have no difficulty in accounting for the their families; hence all houses from occupation of part of the recent forty forty pounds to one hundred pounds per thousand new houses, by the families of annum, in new and pleasant streets, are
5000 Colonists, and persons who have made eagerly taken by this class, and they are
their fortunes in the East or West constantly on the increase in their several
3000 Clerks in public offices, in banking3. Persons who live upon annuities
houses, &c. derived from the increased public funds, 3000 Annuitants of the funds and stock and from the numerous stock companies
companies. creaced in the metropolis within the last
3000 Artists of luxury. twenty or thirty years, are a large class 2000 Emigrants of all nations.
2000 Retired traders. of new metropolitan housekeepers.
2000 Officers of the army and navy. They feel a local interest and attachment; they are, besides, in general,
20,000 Families. natives, or old residents of London; and they prefer receiving their interest in Having thus accounted for the aug. person to confiding it to any agent mented population of twenty thousand 'These occupy at least three thousand houses, it is easy to conceive that as of the new-built houses, at rents at from inany more are greedily taken by tradesfifty to two hundred pounds per annum. men and others, who purpose to obtain
4. The general increase of the metro- a living out of those by trade and labour polis, by adding to the mass of luxury, of various kinds. There will be bakers, has increased the number of artizans, butchers, fruiterers, grocers, publico and persons employed on objects of lux- houses, barbers, taylors, shoe-makers, kry, such as painters, engravers, jewe hatters, carpenters, smiths, bricklayers, ellers, embroiderers, authors, designers, schoolmasters, lawyers, apothecaries, architects, and others of like description; physicians, and all the varieties which and these require three thousand compose the industrious and enterprising small babitations anong the new build. part of a community, supporting them. ings in the retired streets around the me selves out of the wants of the twenty tropolis.
thousand independent families, and also 5. Another distinct large class of re- on the inutual wants of each other. sidents, in the inmediate environs of To what extent this increase of a me London, are French, Dutch, Spanish, tropolis can be advantageously carried, German, Italian, and other emigrants it is impossible to anticipate. Ancient who, during the late wars and revolutions, Rome was said to be sixiy mmiles round; have fied to England, as a place of se- and London. is not yet more than twenty. curity, and who, by the alien laws, are To equal ancient Rome, it must include attached to the metropolis. I estimate Stratford to the east, and Brentford on those to amount to about two thousand the wes!; Hampstead and Highgate on families; and they live in the sınaller the north; and Clapham and Camber.
well on the south; between which places able that the town should be more comand London, there now are open spaces pact; but it is desirable in regard to larger than London itself.
health, that it should spread itself to the I confess I have my doubts about the neighbouring villages. It is however alleged size of ancient Rome; and I sus. worthy of consideration, whether the in. pect there never existed so large and po. terior of the town does not draw inore pulous a city as London, or as London attention, and there can be no doubt but will be, within seven years, when the new good streets near the centre of business, streets and squares are erected which would be preferred like Finsbury Square have lately been planned on every side of and Chatham Place, to similar streets in the town. Twenty thousand houses are remote parts of the town. A grand mall, already projected in various situations; on the plan of the Adelphi, might be and, judging from the demand for new built on the south side of the Thames, houses, and the uniform success which from London to Westininster-bridge; has attended building-speculations for Smithfield might be converted into an several years past, I entertain no doubt elegant square, and some elegant streets that they will be completed and occupied built in its neighbourhood, on the present within the period abovc-named. If we scites of disease and misery. A grand retaio our foreign colonies, and the con- cross street, from Blackfriar's-bridge to tinent of Europe continues to be dis. Pentonville, with good collateral streets, turbed by revolutions and military con- is much wanted. In short, most of the quest, as it has beeu for the last twenty old streets in the centre of the town, years, I have no doubt but in another are as worthy of building-speculation as twenty or thirty years, the fields and scites in the suburbs. Cross streets are roads between London and the above every where wanted; and half a dizen mentioned villages, will be filled with squares northward of the city, would houses, and the population increased answer as well as Finsbury Square : St. from three quarters of a million to a Martin's-le-Grand should be pulled down, million and a half. This is the necessary and Aldersgate-street carried straight, consequence of increased empire, of in and of equal width, to meet Newgatesular security, of civil and religious lie street, at the area which terminates berty, and of public confidence. Cheapside. Bartl:olomew Close might
It is idle to talk of limiting the extent be converted into another elegant square ; or size of the town by law, unless you and Charterhouse-square would be a decould prevent colonists, aliens, and an- sirable residence, if connected with the nuitants, from coming to dwell among town by Aldersgate-street; as would St. us. Whether the increased population John's-square, it united by a good street should be provided for by improvements with Smithfield-square. It is impolitic and in the interual parts of the lown, or senseless to carry the town to Highgate, whether by indefinite enlargement, is Hampstead, and Clapham, when so bad however a question worthy of consider- a use is made of its internal parts; where alion. Already the town is found to be whole districts consist alınost of waste of inconvenient size for social and ground, or are occupied by beggary and trading purposes; the foreign or country wretchedness. trader, who has many calls to make, finds I bave often marvelled at the want of his time and labour wasted in going froin concert and general plan with which the one end of so large a town to the other, extensive suburbs are raised, after read. There has long ceased to be any common ing the lamentations of writers in regard interest between the remote parts of so to the neglect of all plan, in rebuilding the immense a city: the inhabitant of Mary, city after the great fire. We see street on le-bone is a foreigner in Wapping; and street rising every where, without any so is the inhabitant of Spital Fields, in general design; every, undertaker build. Westminster. There are thousands who ing after his own fancy, and to suit the Jiave arrived at old age in one half of patch of ground of which he is the masLondon, who never visited the other ter. Perhaps it is now too late for parbalf; and other thousands who never saw liament to prescribe the plan of future a ship, though London is the first port in erections; or rather, in this free country the world. Of course, these are beings of magnificence must yield to convenience, very different habits and characters; and and a fancied public good, to private they possess even a varied pronunciation interest. and peculiar idioms. For convenience of In, conclusion, I shall observe, rade and association, it would be desir- that great cities contain in their very
greatness, the seeds of premature and It is thus with religion.—Every eminent sapid decay. London will increase, as teacher chooses a difierent point of view. long as certain causes operate which she The Popish delineator of Christianity witcannot controul, and after those cease to lingly withdraws from his devotees the operate for a season, her population will discussion of doctrine, and aims at in. require to be renewed by new supplies pressing the sentiments of the church by of wealth; these failing, the houses will the arts of eloquence and music-of paini. become too numerous for the inhabi- ing and sculpture. The Bucerist relies tants, and certain districts will be occu- more on an industry addressed to the pied by beggary and vice, or become mind than to the senses; on the perpedepopulated. This disease will spread tual repetition of vernacular liturgies: his like an atrophy in the human body, and appeal is to à public of less taste, but of ruin will follow ruin, till the entire city more literature. The Calvinist argues is disgusting to the remnant of the inha- and terrifies: his scripture is the law of bitants; they flee one after another to a God-his God a pitiless !awgiver; and he more thriving spot; and at length the corroborates by terrestrial excommunicawhole becomes a heap of ruins! Such tions the terrors of bis threatened futurihave been the causes of the decay of all ty: he allies himself with fear, the most overgrown cities.
Nineveh, Babylon, prolilic parent of superstitions. The UniAntioch, and Thebes, are become heaps tarian trusts to the shortness of his creed, of rains, tolerable only to reptiles and for its eventual adoption. So many more wild beasts. Rome, Delbi, and Alex. articles of religion are caught in the cateandria, are partaking the same inevita. chisnis than are retained in the progress ble fate; and London must some time, of enquiry, that a wish often supervenes from similar causes, succumb under the in mid-life to be fettered with the fewest destiny of every thing human.
possible dogmas, and to sit under the Dec. 19, 1810. Common Sense, teacher who exacts least of a positive
creed. Why may not instructors of each For the Monthly Magazine. description find an appropriate public, THE ENQUIRER.- Vo. XXVII. disseminate in that public a purer moral
Is uniformity of Religious Opinion de zeal, and a warmer activity of benefisirable in the State ?
cence; and thus ripen a greater crop of
national virtue, tha could have been These institutions are the products of enthusiasm ; they are the instruments of ivis: grown by any one of these four classes of dom, BURKE.
teachers singly? On the supposition of
an exclusive, or uniform, public religion, to take a view of Saint Paui's Churchi
, want adapted guides, the one would place himself in front, and The more closely human life is observed, bring out its majestic vestibule; a second the more it will be perceived, that all the would include in his sketch the semicir- different sects of Christianity have their cular portal on the side ; a third would several merits and excellencies--heir sea choose his station behind, on the roofs of veral defects and inconveniences: but to the houses, that nothing below might with- suppose that there can be danger from draw attention from the stately dume; a any one of them, to the good order of fourt he would place himself at the ruins of society, and to the eventual Kappiness of the Albion-mill, that the colossality of the mankind, is to blaspheme the founder of cathedral night be rendered obvious from the religion. Sects arise by selecting pe. a comparison with surrounding objects : culiar passages of Scripture for habitual and others would select for delineation, a attention: the emphatic texts of one sotransverse or a longitudinal section of the ciety are insignificant phrases in the next inside. These imitations, though differ- conventicle. Hence it naturally happens ing widely from each other, might all be that some sects carry one virtue, others faithful alike, and executed with equal another, to the highest practicable excelskill.
Wliy should any patent or privi- lence; and it is well that men should ad. lege, be given to the engraver of the se- dict themselves to those religious parties cond, or third, of these drawings, to vend which enforce the line of conduct most exclusively his view of Saint Paul's? Let adapted to their constitutional disposition: them all be etched, and exposed to sale; Thus they are more easily known. The the antiquary may prefer the one, the di- philosophic sects of antiquity classed man. lettante anosher, the architect a third, kind conveniently : every one was award representation,
wbat conversation and habits, and morals,
the denominations would